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Full text of "Wirt, Roane and Calhoun Counties"

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WEST VIRGINIA 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 




Wirt, Roane and Calhoun 
Counties 



BY 

RAY V. HENNEN, Assistant Geologist. 



I. C. WHITE, State Geologist 



117 



THB ACME PUBLISHINO COMPANY 

PRINTCnS AND BINOeRS 

MOROANTOWN 

ISII 




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f,pR2oW73 




GEOLOGICAL SURVEY COMMISSION. 

WILLIAM E. GLASSCOCK President 

GOVERNOR OF WEST VIRGINIA. 

E. L. LONG Vice President 

TREASURER OP WEST VIRGINIA. 

ARCHIBALD MOORE Secretary 

PRESIDENT, STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE. 

D. B. PURINTON Treasurer 

PRESIDENT WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY. 

JAMES H. STEWART Executive Officer 

DIRECTOR STATE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



SCIENTIFIC STAFF. 

I. C. WHITE State Geologist 

'SUPERINTENDENT OP THE SURVEY. 

RAY V. HENNEN Assistant Geologist 

C. E. KREBS Assistant Geologist 

D. B. REGER Assistant 

D. D. TEETS, JR Assistant 

B. H. HITE Chief Chemist 

J. B. KRAK Assistant Chemist 

EARL M. HENNEN Chief Clerk 

J. L. WILLIAMS Stenographer 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 

To His Excellency, Hon. William E. Glasscock, Governor of 
West Virginia, and President, West Virginia Geological 
Survey Commission: 

Sir : I have the honor to transmit herewith the Detailed 
County Report and accompanying geologic, topographic and 
soil maps, on the counties of Calhoun, Roane and Wirt pre- 
pared by Assistant Ray V, Hennen. Like all of Mr. Hennen's 
work this Report exhibits careful and thorough investigation 
as well as skill in marshaling his facts and detailed observa- 
tions so as to render them easily understood and readily avail- 
able to the average reader, the farmer, the mechanic and those 
who may be unacquainted with the technical language of 
geology. 

The under-ground wealth of this area consists largely of 
petroleum and natural gas deposits, since aside from sand- 
stone, brick clays and shales, the only other mineral occurring 
in commercial quantity within this district is coal, and it is 
both limited in quantity and poor in quality, since by far the 
larger portion of these three counties is within the zone of the 
barren coal area of the State. True, there appear to be some 
small areas of deep lying coal in Calhoun and Roane, probably 
belonging to the Kanawha Series, but neither the thickness nor 
quality of these deeply buried coal beds can be determined ac- 
curately by the oil well drill, and hence their quantity can be 
only approximated. The greatest and most enduring source of 
natural wealth for this district lies in the soils which have been 
studied, described and mapped by the soil experts of the United 
States Department of Agriculture. These descriptions and 



LETTER OP TRANSMITTAL. VIL 

soil maps accompany this Report and should prove of great 
value to the agricultural interests. 

The splendid, virgin forests which only a few years ago 
covered this entire area are now matters of history, since ex- 
cepting a few thousands of acres of virgin timber along the 
south-eastern border of Calhoun county, only farmers' wood 
lots remain. Much of the land is too rough and steep ever to 
be arable, and the best use to which it is adapted is reforesta- 
tion. The State should encourage the agricultural interests 
along that line by so changing its taxation policy as to give 
practical exemption to such lands in process of reforestation, 
since otherwise much of the good soils higher up on the broad 
ridges will be destroyed by the gradual encroachment of erosion 
from below on the steep, unprotected slopes. The underlying 
rocks out of which all our best soils have been deriv6d by slow 
disintegration through thousands of years, are very soft and 
easily attacked by the erosive action of water cutting gullies 
deeper and deeper until vast areas of deforested lands will 
become desolate wastes, and the precious soils, the accumula- 
tion of centuries, will rapidly disappear with every heavy rain 
unless the forces of destruction be arrested by reforestation, 
and the proper covering of the soil with grasses and other 
forage plants. Since agriculture and horticulture should al- 
ways remain "West Virginia's greatest industries, the State 
cannot too soon take the necessary steps to preserve its soils 
from destructive erosion. 

The Structural map accompanying this Report is worthy 
of especial attention, since in connection with the one covering 
the counties of Pleasants, "Wood and Ritchie, prepared by Mr. 
Hennen and Mr. Krebs, it reveals the character of the great 
Burning Springs, or Volcano Anticlinal from the Ohio river 
to where it gradually dies down and flattens out On the north- 
west slope of the Arches Fork fold. Mr. Hennen formerly 



Viil. LETTER OP TRANSMITTAL. 

supposed that the Burning Springs anticlinal turned south-west- 
ward, and passed down through the Roane county oil field, but 
after this further and more detailed study of the structure with 
map in hand, he concludes that the Burning Springs arch dies 
away entirely, and that the Arches Fork uplift which he 
traced across Wetzel, Doddridge, Ritchie, and Calhoun is the 
one which passes on into Roane county through the Walton 
oil pool, as shown on the structural maps of the areas in 
question. 

These structural maps have been made by Mr. Hennen 
with much care and should prove of very great value and ser- 
vice to the petroleum, gas, and coal interests. 
Very respectfully, 

I. C. WHITE, State Geologist. 

Morgantown, W. Va., July 1, 1911. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGR. 

Members of Geological Survey Commission Ill 

Members of Scientific Staff V 

Letter of Transmittal VI 

Table of Contents IX 

Author 's Preface XVII 

PART I. HISTORY AND PHYSIOGRAPHY OF 
THE WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Chapter I. — Historical and Industrial Development . . . . 1-28 

Location 1 

History of Transportation 1-4 

"Waterways 1-2 

Little Kanawha River 1-2 

Steam Railroads 2- 3- 

Ravenswood, Spencer & Glenville Railroad 2 

The Little Kanawha Railroad 2 

Prospective Railroads 3 

Turnpikes 3-4 

Parkersburg & Staunton Turnpike 3 

Glenville, Ripley & Ohio Turnpike 3 

Ravenswood & Spencer Turnpike 4 

General Description 4-28 

Wirt County 4-9 

Towns and Industries 6-9 

Roane County 9-24 

Towns and Industries 11-24 

Second Hospital for the Insane, Tables, etc 12-22 

Calhoun County 24-28 

Towns and Industries 26-28 

Chapter II. — Physiography of the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun 

Area 29-42 



X. CONTENTS. 

Physiographic Changes 29-33 

Description of the Drainage Basins 33-41 

Topography of the Land 41-42 

River Terraces 41-42 

PART II. GEOLOGY OF THE WIRT- ROANE- 
. CALHOUN AREA. 

Chapter III. — General Geology of the Wirt-Roane- Cal- 
houn Area 43-123 

Introduction 43- 44 

Table of Geological Formations 44-45 

General Sections 45-123 

Wirt County Sections 45- 63 

Roane County Sections 63-97 

Calhoun County Sections 97-123 

Chapter IV.— The Dunkard Series^ 124-170 

General Geologic Sections 126-132 

Wirt County Sections 132-138 

Roane County Sections 138-140 

Calhoun County Sections 140-142 

Description of Formations 142-170 

Chapter V.—The Monongahela Serief^ 171-223 

General Geologic Sections 172-178 

Wirt County Sections 178-180 

Roane County Sections 180-184 

Calhoun County Sections 184-190 

Description of Formations 191-223 

Chapter ¥1. — The Conemaugh Series 224-264 

General Account and Sections 224-231 

Description of Formations 231-264 

Chapter VII.— Geologic Structure 265-275 

Introduction 265 

Method of Representing Structure 265-268 



CONTENTS. XI. 

Detailed Geologic Structure 268-274 

Burning Springs Anticline • 269-270 

Wick Anticline. 270 

Middlebourne Syncline 270 

Arches Fork Anticline 271-272 

Richardson Basin 272 

Robinson Syncline 272-273 

Chestnut Ridge Anticline 273 

Flat Fork Anticline 273-274 

Spencer Syncline 274 

Wood-Ritchie-Pleasants Structure Map... 274-275 

PART III. MINERAL RESOURCES OF THE WIRT- 
ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Chapter VIII. — Petroleum and Natural Gas 276-467 

Early History 276-278 

Oil and Gas Horizons 278-279 

Approximate Distance from Pittsburg Coal to Top 

of Oil and Gas Sands 280 

Description of Sands 280-292 

Minshall Sand 280-281 

Murphy Sand 281 

First Cow Run Sand 281-285 

Dunkard Sands 285-286 

Burning Springs Sand 286-287 

Gas Sand 287 

Second Cow Run Sand 287-290 

Salt Sand 290 

Maxton Sand 290 

Big Injun Sand 291 

Berea Grit Sand -: 291-292 

Oil and Gas Development, etc 292-466 

Early History 292 

Wirt County W^ell Records 292-325 

Table of, Summarized 296-299 

Newark District 300-301 

Clay District 302-306 



111. CONTENTS. 

Burning Springs District 306-318 

Spring Creek District 318-322 

Reedy District 322-323 

Elizabeth District 323-324 

Tucker District 324-325 

. Roane County Well Records 325-417 

Table of, Summarized 328-335 

Reedy District 336-339 

Spencer District 339-359 

Curtis District. 359-365 

Sraithfield District 365-374 

Geary District 375-390 

Walton District 390-408 

Harper District 408-417 

Calhoun County Well Records 417-466 

Table of, Summarized 420-425 

Center District 426-438 

Sheridan District 438-443 

Lee District 443-457 

Sherman District 458-463 

Washington District 463-466 

Effect of Geologic Structure in Oil and Gas Dis- 
tribution 466 

Prospective Oil and Gas Territory 467 

Chapter IX. — Coal Resources of the Wirt-Roane-Cal- 
houn Area 468-497 

Coals of the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun Area 468-469 

Diagram Showing Relative Position 470 

Dunkard Series 471-477 

Washington Coal 471-477 

Quantity of Available 476 

Monongahela Series 477-482 

Pittsburg Coal 477-482 

Quantity of Available 481-482 

Conemaugh Series 482-483 

Bakerstown Coal 482-483 

Quantity of Available 483 



CONTENTS. xm. 

Brush Creek Coal 488 

Quantity of Available 483 

Allegheny Series 483-489 

Table of Wells Showing Depth and Thickness of 487 

Lower Freeport Coal 488 

Quantity of Available 488 

Lower Kittanning Coal 488-489 

Quantity of Available 489 

Pottsville Series 489-493 

Table of Wells Showing Depth and Thickness of 490 

Stockton Coal 490-492 

Quantity of Available 492 

No. 2 Gas Coal 492-493 

Quantity of Available 493 

Summary of Available Coal in the Three Counties . . 493-494 
Table Showing Chemical Composition of the Coals in 

the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun Area 495-497 

Chapter X. — Clays^ Road Materials and Building Stone 498-506 

Clays and Clay Industry 498-499 

Road Materials 499-501 

Building Stone 502-506 

Chapter XI. — Soil Survey of the Spencer Area, (Wirt- 
Roane and Calhoun Counties) hy W. J. Lati- 
mer and F. N. Meeker 507-542 

Description of the Area 507-511 

Climate 511-513 

Agriculture 513-518 

Soils 519-540 

Meigs Clay Loam 522-524 

Brooke Clay Loam 524-526 

Upshur Clay 526-529 

Dekalb Silt Loam 529-531 

Dekalb Sandy Loam ; 531-532 

Rough Stony Land 532-533 

Tyler Sandy Loam 533-534 

Tyler Silt Loam 535-537 



XIV. CONTENTS. 

Moshannon Silt Loam 5:37-5:38 

Huntington Silt Loam ');38-540 

Summary .140-542 

Appendix. — Levels Above Mean Tide in the Wirt- 
Roane-Calhoun Area ')43-554 

Index 555-573 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Maps in Atlas. 

Topographical Map of the Wirt-Roane-( in Area. 

Map Showing Economic Geology and Structure Contours 
of Washington Coal. 

Soil Map of the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun Area. 

Plates. 

No. PAGE. 

I. — Cave at the Base of the Manningtpn Sandstone, the 
Scene of the First Settlement at Spencer, Roane 
County Frontispiece. 

II. — View of Elizabeth, Wirt County, from Hill Southeast 

of the Town 12 

III: — Second Hospital for the Insane, Spencer, Roane 

County 24 

IV (a). — Barges on the Little Kanawha River, Wirt County 40 

IV (b). — Steamboat on the Little Kanawha River, Wirt 

Cqunty, running between Owensport and Creston 40 

V. — Toadstool Rock m situ on Summit of Hill Opposite the 
Mouth of Round Knob Run of Poca, Roane County. 
Formed by Disintegration from Tapper Marietta Sand- 
stone 152 

VI (a). — View of the Mannington Sandstone Passing into 
the Air on the East "Wall" of the Burning Springs 
Anticline 168 

VI (b). — Bottom Land along the Little Kanawha River, 

Wirt County 168 

VII.— "Devil's Tea Table" Rock Cliff, 60 Feet High, Wirt 
County, 2J/2 Miles North of Creston, Formed from the 
Outcrop of the Mannington Sandstone 176 

VIIJ. — View Showing Outcrop of the Arnoldsburg Sand- 
stone at its Type Locality, 34 Mile Northeast of Ar- 
noldsburg, Calhoun County 188 



XVI. IIjLUSTRATIONS. 

No. PAGE. 

IX.— Sewickley Sandstone on the "East Wall" of the 
Burning Springs Arch, Near the Head of Two Run, 
Wirt County 208 

X. — ^View Showing the Outcrop of Both the Sewickley 
(Rock Creek) and Lower Pittsburg Sandstones on 
Green Creek, ^ Mile Southeast of Kettle P. 0., Roane 
County : .... 232 

XI. — View Showing the Rapid Rise of what appears to be the 
Connellsville Sandstone on the "East Wall" of the 
Burning Springs Anticline, Located One Mile and a 
Third Southeast from Burning Springs P. 268 

XII.— View Showing the First Oil Well (W 57) Drilled in 

the Burning Springs Field, Wirt County 292 

XIII. — View of Creston, Wirt County, Located on the 
South Bank of the Little Kanawha River, at the Mouth 
of West Fork 400 

XIV (a).— Oil Wells Along the Little Kanawha River, Cal- 
houn County 432 

XIV (b). — View Showing the Court House at Grantsville, 

Calhoun County 432 

XV. — View Showing the Brick Plant at Spencer, Roane 

County 500 

Figures. 

1. Map Showing County Reports Published and Under 
Preparation, also New Topographic Quadrangles . . . XVIII 

2. Miap Showing Location of the Wirit-^Roane-Calhoun 
Area XVIII 

3. Diagram Showing the Relative Position of the Coals in 

the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun Area 470 

4. Showing Approximate Area of Available Lower Free- 
port Coal in the Three Counties 485 

5. Showing Approximate Area of Available Lower Kittan- 
ning Coal in the Three Counties 486 

6. Showing Approximate Area of Available Stockton? 
and No. 2 Gas ? Coals in the Three Counties 491 



AUTHOR'S PREFACE. 

In this report on Wirt, Roane and Calhoun counties the 
writer has endeavored to emphasize the most prominent feat- 
ures of their geology and state the facts in a manner not only 
easily understood by the residents of the area and State, but 
by geologists in general, without losing sight of scientific ac- 
curacy. 

The object of such a report is to assemble the present 
knowledge, including a large amount of hitherto unpublished 
data collected by the writer and assistants in the field, not 
only of the general geology, but of the economic resources of 
the area in the way of minerals, and to present it in a con- 
venient form for those who are interested in their study and 
development. 

The report gives (1) a brief history of the counties and 
their industrial development; (2) a study of their surface 
features or their physical geography; (3) four chapters on 
the general and detailed geology of the area; (4) a chapter 
on their geologic structure, with a contour majJ of the Wash- 
ington coal bed; (5) the oil and gas fields of the three coun- 
ties, with suggestions for their future development; (6) the 
coal resources and the chemical composition, calorific value 
and fuel ratio of the coal; (7) the clays, road material and 
building stone; (8) a chapter on the soils of the three coun- 
ties; ''9) an appendix showing a large number of tidal eleva- 
tions mostly within the area. 

One of the most valuable features of the report is the de- 
termination and representation of geologic structure. The 
tidal elevation of the "Washington coal horizon has been de- 
termined all over the area, and a contour map constructed to 
show how it lies. These contours, 25 feet in elevation apart, 
are shown on the general and economic geology may accom- 
panying the report in a separate cover. By referring to this 
map, the approximate position of the Washington coal horizon 
can be told at a glance, and the shape and location of the 







































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author's preface. xix. 

anticlines and synclines, and the direction of the dip and 
strike of the rocks at any point, a knowledge of which is of 
the greatest importance not only in the development of the 
oil and gas pools within the area, but also for the future min- 
ing of the several coal beds where the latter are of commercial 
thickness and purity. 

The chapters on the general and detailed geology, 
although somewhat technical in their nature, give a large fund 
of knowledge about the formations of the Dunkard, Monon- 
gahela and Conemaugh series in this portion of the State 
where such data were quite meager in many respects. They 
also correct several errors of correlation in former State 
Geological reports. In these chapters, the writer has given 
the general and accepted classification of the rock strata which 
permits comparison with the formations in other counties in 
West Virginia, and in other States. 

The chapter on oil and gas gives a short account of the 
early drilling operations for these minerals and their develop- 
ment to the present time, along with the logs of a large num- 
ber of wells not heretofore published, thus preserving from 
loss a great fund of information concerning the depth and 
thickness not only of the several oil and gas horizons, but also 
of the several coal beds. In this chapter the writer has en- 
deavored to straighten out the tangle as to the true correla- 
tion of the First and Second Cow Run oil sands of the oil well 
drillers. 

The chapter on coals gives the character, thickness, chemical 
composition, calorific value and fuel ratio of the several coal 
beds, along with an estimate by the writer of the approximate 
available tonnage and probable area of each apparently mer- 
chantable coal seam in the three counties with a final summary 
of the total available tonnage of coal in the Wirt-Roane-Cal- 
houn area. 

Interesting data are also given in the chapter oij clays, 
road materials and building stone ; and lastly, but not least, 
the chapter on soils cannot fail to interest the progressive 
farmers within the area. The latter was prepared by W. J. 
Latimer and F. N. Meeker, of the Bureau of Soils of the De- 



XX. author's preface. 

partment of Agriculture, Washington, D. C, both well trained 
men with practical experience in soil study. 

Three maps of the entire area accompany this report in 
a separate cover, one of which shows by the use of colors and 
contour lines the character of the surface^ the roads, streams, 
railroads, etc. ; another by the same means illustrates both the 
general and economic geology by showing the outcrop of the 
different series and the horizon of two coal beds; viz., Waynes- 
burg and Pittsburg, the oil and gas wells, dry holes, structure 
contours of the Washington coal, and the approximate north- 
western boundary line where the Pittsburg coal bed of com- 
mercial thickness and purity disappears ; the third, or soil 
map, shows by the use of colors and symbols the character, 
classification and distribution of the soils. 

The writer and his assistants, Messrs. D. B. Reger and 
Robert D. Hennen, devoted part of the field season of 1909 
in gathering data for this volume. The author also spent a 
small part of the field season of 1910 on the same work. Much 
valuable aid and assistance was rendered by farmers and other 
residents of the area, as well as by the officials of the several 
companies engaged in the development of the oil and gas fields. 
In the text due credit and acknowledgment have been given 
for all such data obtained. 

The chemical analyses were made in the Survey labora- 
tory by Mr. J. B. Krak, Assistant Chemist, under the direction 
of Prof. B. H. Hite, Chief Chemist. 

The writer wishes to express his ol)ligation to Dr. I. C. 
White, State Geologist, whose writings and suggestions have 
added greatly to the value of this report. 

RAY V. HENNEN. 

Morgantown, W. Va., April 8, 1911. 



PART I. 

The History and Physiography 

of the Wirt-Roane-Cal- 

houn Area. 



CHAPTER I. 



THE HISTORICAL AND INDUSTRIAL 
DEVELOPMENT. 



LOCATION. 



The portion of West Virginia described in this report, 
includes the area lying 15 to 20 miles due west of the geo- 
graphical center of the State. It lies between the parallels 
of 38° 30' and 39" 15' North latitude, and the meridians 80° 
45' and 81° 45' West longitude from Greenwich. The three 
counties include an area of 997.3 square miles as follows: 
Wirt, 230.9; Roane, 486.2; and Calhoun, 280.2 square miles. 

HISTORY OF TRANSPORTATION. 
Waterways. 

Kanawha River. — The Little Kanawha river and its tri- 
butaries in this area have long been used in transporting the 
timber in log form from these three counties down to the 
large saw mills near Parkersburg, W. Va. This river was 
also used in transporting the early petroleum production of 
the Burning Springs field in the 6o's down to the markets at 
Parkersburg, Marietta, and other points. A system of locks 



2 PHYSIOGRAPHY OP WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

and dams has been completed by the United States Govern- 
ment for 40 miles up the Little Kanawha. Mr. Wm. M. Hall, 
United States Asst. Engineer of Parkersburg, has kindly 
furnished the Survey the following data: 

"The number of locks and dams on the Little Kanawha river at 
present is five. 

"Lock No. 5 is 4014 miles up the river from Parkersburg. 

"Lock No. 1 was completed in 1874 

"Lock No. 2 was completed in 1874 

"Lock No. 3 was completed in 1874 

"Lock No. 4 was completed in 1874 

"Lock No. 5 was completed in 1891 

"Elevation of the low water at the Wood and Wirt county line 
is 589.3 feet. This is the elevation of pool No. 2. Elevation of low 
water at the Wirt and Calhoun county line is 629.6 feet, established 
by Little Kanawha River Survey, 1909. Elevation of low water at the 
Calhoun and Gilmer county line is 683.2 feet, established by Little 
Kanawha River Survey, 1909. The above elevations have for their 
reference mean low water at Sandy Hook, N. J., the same reference as 
used by the Ohio River Survey." 

Steam Railroads. 

Ravenswood, Spencer & Glenville Railroad. — This rail- 
road was constructed in 1891, and extends from Ravenswood 
on the Ohio river southeastward across Jackson county, a 
distance of 67 miles, to the town of Spencer, Roane county. 
It is the main outlet for this region, and passed under the 
control of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Co. at the time 
of the purchase by the latter of the Ohio River Railroad in 
1901. This road has a heavy freight traffic on account of the 
recent opening up of new oil and gas fields in Roane and 
Calhoun counties. 

The Little Kanawha Railroad. — The Little Kanawha 
Railroad extends_up the Little Kanawha river from its mouth 
to Palestine in central Wirt county. Mr. A. H. Blair, Sec. 
and Treas. of the Company, kindly furnished the Survey the 
following data : 

"The Charter was issued May 1, 1896, to build a railroad from 
Parkersburg to Burnsville, W. Va., a distance of 112 miles. Construc- 
tion was begun in June, 1897, and the road opened to Palestine, W. Va., 
in March, 1898. This road Is now operated by the Baltimore and Ohio 
Railroad Company." 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. d 

I respective Railroads. — The Little Kanawha Railroad 
survey of the Wabash system extended entirely across Wirt 
and Calhoun counties, and 6 or 7 years ago considerable 
grading was done for the road bed at several points along 
the Little Kanawha river between Palestine a.nd Grantsville. 
For financial reasons construction suddenly ceased in 1903 
and has not since been revived. 

There has been considerable talk of building a railroad 
through Wirt and Roane counties from Parkersburg to 
Charleston via Elizabeth, Spencer, Walton, down Twomile 
creek of Kanawha river and up the latter to Charleston. 
Nothing in the way of construction, however, has yet been 
done. 

Turnpikes. 

All the turnpikes and public highways of the three coun- 
ties are simply dirt roads that become almost impassable 
under heavy haulage during the winter season. However, 
there are a few main highways crossing the area that bear 
the name turnpike. 

Parkersburg & Staunton Turnpike. — This highway was 
constructed in 1843 and extends from Parkersburg, W. Va., 
to Staunton, Virginia. It crosses the northern point of Wirt 
county, extending up the north side of Hughes river to Cis- 
ko, thence southeast along the South fork of the same stream 
via Macfarlan and Smithville, Ritchie county. 

Glenville, Ripley & Ohio Turnpike. — 'This dirt road was 
built by the State of Virginia about 1854 and 1855, according 
to Hon. Edward Corder of Spencer, W. Va., and extends 
from Arnolds Station on the stone turnpike (17 miles west 
of Weston, W. Va.) to the Ohio river, and enters Calhoun 
county at Stumptown ; thence running to Arnoldsburg, en- 
tering Roane county at Tristan P. O. near the mouth of 
Laurel fork of Henrys fork ; thence to Spencer along the 
main street of the town ; thence westward, leaving the area 
under discussion at Buffalo City P. O. in the edge of Jackson 
county. It was always a dirt road, and toll service was dis- 
continued on same several years ago. 



4 PHYSIOGRAPHY OP WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Ravenswood & Spencer Turnpike. — This dirt road was 
constructed by the State of Virginia just previous to the 
Civil war, according to Mr. Corder, and up to the time of 
building the Ravenswood, Spencer and Glenville R. R., it 
was the main outlet to the Ohio river for Roane and Calhoun 
counties. It extends from Spencer to Ravenswood, W. Va., 
via Kyger, Reedy and Seamans, leaving Roane county at 
Liverpool station. 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION. 

WIRT COUNTY. 

Wirt county is situated on the Little Kanawha river, 
and is bounded on the north by Wood and Ritchie counties ; 
on the east by Ritchie and Calhoun ; on the south by Cal- 
houn and Roane; and on the west by Jackson and Wood 
counties. 

Its area given by districts as computed by the writer 
from the new accurate topographic maps of the U. S. Geol. 
Survey is as follows: 

Districts. Sq. Miles. 

Newark 14.4 

Clay 31.8 

Burning Springs 48.4 

Spring Creek 29.6 

Reedy 40,8 

Elizabeth 31.2 

Tucker 34-7 

Total 230 . 9 

Wirt varies in elevation from 589.3 feet above tide where 
the Little Kanawha river leaves the county to 1325 feet above 
tide at the summit of a high knob located 2.3 miles northeast 
from Burning Springs village, or a range in elevation of 735 
feet. The population^ in 1900 was 10,284, of which 10,220 



1 Bulletin 233, U. S. Geol. Survey, page 161. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

were white, 64 colored (negro) and 19 foreign born. The 
census returns of 1910 give the population of Wirt county as 
9047. The approximate mean magnetic declination in 1904 
was 2 degrees and 15 minutes West, and its mean annual rain- 
fall was 40 to 50 inches, and its mean annual temperature was 

50° to 55°. 

Wirt county began its existence in 1848. Hon. V. A. 
Lewis^ has the following to say concerning its organization 
and early history : 

"Wirt county was created by an Act of Assembly, passed January 
19, 1848, and named in honor of the distinguished William Wirt. It 
has an area of 290^ square miles. 

"The First Circuit Court convened on the 4th day of April, 1848, 
at the house of Alfred Beauchamp, Judge David McComas presiding. 
Alfred G. Stringer was elected Clerk, with John G. Stringer, H. Kyger, 
D. Wilkinson and Clermont E. Thaw as his bondsmen. John G. String- 
er was appointed State's Attorney, Edward Tracewell was made Tip- 
staff, William E. Lockhart was appointed Commissioner in Chancery, 
and Daniel Wilkinson and Wm. P. Rathbone, Commissioners to take 
Depositions. John P. Snodgrass, James M. Stephenson, John G. String- 
er, Peter G. Van Winkle, Jacob B. Blair, Arthur I. Boreman, John J. 
Jackson, Clermont E. Thaw, John B. Hays, and John O. Lockhart, at- 
torneys, appeared and were granted license to practice in this county. 
Thus was instituted the first Wirt county Bar, and it is doubtful if any 
bar of the State ever presented a greater array of talent. Snodgrass 
was afterward a member of Congress; Stephenson represented Wood 
county in the General Assembly of Virginia; Van Winkle was one of the 
first United States Senators from West Virginia; Blair was afterward 
a member of Congress, Minister to Costa Rica during President John- 
son's administration, and later a judge of the United States Court for 
the district of Wyoming Territory; Boreman became Judge of the 19th 
Judicial Circuit, served two terms as Governor of West Virginia, and 
represented the same in the United States Senate; Jackson was after- 
ward State's Attorney for Wood county, represented the same in the 
General Assembly, and president of the Second National Bank of Park- 
ersburg from 18G5 until his death. He was father of Governor Jacob 
B. Jackson, of J. J. Jackson, Judge of the United States District Court 
of West Virginia, and of J. M. Jackson, Judge of the 5th Judicial Cir- 
cuit of West Virginia." 

"Pioneers. — Among the pioneers who first reared cabin homes 
within the present limits of the county were William Beauchamp, who 
settled where the town of Elizabeth now stands, in the year 1796; Ben- 
jamin Roberts, Thos. Prebble and Jonathan Shepherd from the South 
Branch of the Potomac, the latter bringing with him his three sons, 
William, Samuel and Henry. Then came Samuel Coe and Wm. Walls, 
who settled on Reedy creek; William Petty, John Petty, and John Wil- 
son from Harrison county; John Bennett, who settled on Tucker's 
creek, and Jacob, Frederic, and Andrew Bumgardner, Richard Reeder, 
Chas. Rockhold, Elijah Rockhold and Jeremiah Wiseman." 

2 History of West Va., page 697. 

3 This figure is nearly 60 sq. mi. too much. — R. V. H. 



6 PHYSIOGRAPHY OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

That portion of Wirt county located north of the Little 
Kanawha river is mostly rough and hilly and not well adapted 
to agriculture, but here was the scene of the first developed oil 
pool in the State in the early 6o's and it still produces con- 
siderable oil. The portion of .the county south and west of the 
Little Kanawha river is quite a rich agricultural area. The 
principal products of the county are corn, wheat, oats, rye, 
buckwheat, hay, potatoes, garden vegetables, apples, peaches, 
melons, dairy products, beef cattle, sheep, poultry, petroleum, 
natural gas and lumber. The quality and character of the 
soil and its products, as well as the mineral wealth in the line 
of coal, oil and gas, will be taken up in a separate chapter of 
this report. 

The State Auditor, Hon. J. S. Darst, gives the following 
valuations in Wirt county for the year 1909: 

Assessed Valuation State Tax. 

Real Estate $2,078,615.00 $1,258.37 

Personal Property 1,040,985.00 644.70 

Totals $3,119,600.00 $1,903.07 

There is no State tax assessed for school purposes. Each 
district makes its own assessment for maintenance of schools, 
both teachers' and building fund. The total assessed valuation 
of all kinds of property for 1909 in Wirt is only about one- 
third that for Roane county, and slightly less than for Calhoun. 
There are a few small towns scattered over the county, 
and it is also well supplied with churches and schools. The 
most important towns are Elizabeth, Burning Springs, Cres- 
ton and Newark. A short description of these towns wiU now 
be given. 

Elizabeth. 

Elizabeth, the county seat of Wirt and the largest town 
in the county, is located on the south bank of the Little 
Kanawha river, and, as above stated, the first settlement was 
made here by William Beauchamp in 1796. Hon. V. A. Lewis* 
has the following to say concerning its early history : 



4 History of West Va., page 699. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 7 

"If the traveler who visits the town will take a stroll into the 
cemetery nearby, he will observe a rude gray, sandstone slab, now 
like the body of him whose resting place it marks, rapidly crumbling to 
dust. From it he will learn that William Beauchamp was born In 1743, 
and died in 1808. Beneath it reposes all that is mortal of the flrst 
pioneer of Wirt county. In 1799, he was joined by David Beauchamp 
and Charles Rockhold, and a year later Ezekiel McFarland came and 
erected his cabin nearby. The Beauchamps built a grist mill in 1803, 
and from that time until 1817, the place was known as Beauchamps 
Mills, but in that year the name was changed to Eizabeth in honor of 
the wife of David Beauchamp, • whose maiden name was Elizabeth 
Woodyard." 

The town was incorporated in 1870. Elizabeth was once 
a great lumber milling center. The town is located on an old. 
river terrace of the Little Kanawha and formerly the wide 
bottoms were covered with many millions of feet of lumber. 
About the close of the Civil War, McCoy and Cummins built 
a big mill which employed 400 men. 

The brewers of Brooklyn, N. Y., built a monstrous 
"bung" plant of four mills. This was destroyed by fire in 1892 
with a loss of $80,000.00 and never rebuilt. It was one of the 
largest plants of its kind in the United States. 

In 1900 the town had a population of 657, but in 1910 the 
census gives it as 674. 

Burning Springs. 

The town of Burning Springs is located on the north bank 
of the Little Kanawha river at the mouth of Burning Springs 
run, 6 miles southeast from Elizabeth. It received its name 
from a famous "burning spring" located there, this phenome- 
non being caused by the escape of a small quantity of natural 
gas from the spring of water. The spring was so named by 
Jesse and Elias Hughes, famous hunters, who, in company 
with another man were the first known white people to see 
the Little Kanawha river and visit this region. 

Like some of the towns of Wetzel and Tyler counties of 
W. Va., it sprang up in a day, as it were, from an oil boom in 
i860. Hon. V. A. Lewis^ gives the followi-^g interesting ac- 
count of its early history : 

"Burning Springs, on the north bank o€ the Kanawha, has a his- 
tory which reads like a romance. Its recital calls to mind the early 

5 History of West Va., pp. 699-700. 



b PHYSIOGRAPHY OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

days of San Francisco, the metropolis of California. Here was the El- 
dorado of 1860 and 1861. In the former year, news of the discovery of 
one of the greatest petroleum-producing regions then known on the 
globe went out to the world from this place. In August of that year 
there was not a score of souls in the vicinity, and six months later, the 
morning Fort Sumter was fired upon, there were no less than 6000 per- 
sons here. It was a swarming mass of humanity representing almost 
every nation on earth. Capitalists and adventurers from every part 
of the continent rushed hither as did many thousand others to Cali- 
fornia eleven years before. United States Senators, members of Con- 
gress — one of whom was Jas. A. Garfield, — governors of States, and 
many others high in official position, came In pursuit of what proved 
to be another 'South Sea Bubble.' Fortunes were made and lost in a 
day, a town rose as if by magic, and In the Spring of 1861, the Chicago 
Hotel — every part of which was rendered brilliant by mains filled with 
natural gas — had arisen upon what was six months before a thicket of 
underbrush. A single well furnished a sufficient quantity of gas to il- 
luminate the cities of America. It was used for light, for fuel, and for 
generating steam, but at last it failed. It was a dark stormy night in 
the winter of 1867 that every light and every fire in the town was 
suddenly extinguished. The supply in the great natural reservoir had 
become exhausted, and many families suffered from the extreme cold 
before a supply of fuel could be obtained from another source. 

"Hundreds of thousands of barrels of oil were shipped from this 
place within the years 1860 to 1870. On the 9th day of May, 1863, a 
detachment of Confederate troops commanded by General Jones, visited 
the place and kindled the largest fire ever started in West Virginia. 
One Hundred thousand* barrels of oil were simultaneously ignited, and 
the light was plainly visible at Parkersburg — distant forty-two miles." 

The burned and abandoned wells became "water-logged" 
and never wholly recovered their former production, although 
this field still produces oil and drilling operations still con- 
tinue on a small Scale. 

In 1900 the population was given as 542, but at present 
the population is estimated at 250 by the local postmaster, 
Mr. L. D. Wheaton. 

Creston. 

The town of Creston is located in the extreme southeast- 
ern edge of Wirt county, on the south bank of the Little Ka- 
nawha river at the mouth of West Fork river. A gasolene 
launch carries passengers and freight from Owensport, the 
present southern terminus of the Little Kanawha Railroad, 
to Creston, but does not go any farther up the river. The 
local postmaster, J. P. Campbell, estimates the present popu- 
lation of the town at 300 to 350. In 1900 it was given as 154. 



6 Some authorities say 300,000 bbls. were destroyed that day. — 
R. V. H. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 9 

Carbon Black Factory. — The Sunset Carbon Factory, 
owned by G. L. Cabot, of Boston, Mass., is located here. The 
carbon is collected from overhead revolving circular plates 
on which is deposited the unconsumed carbon of partially 
burned natural gas. The product is used in the manufacture 
of the best grades of printers ink, etc. 

Palestine. 

Palestine, the fourth town in importance in Wirt county, 
is located on the south bank of the Little Kanawha river, i 
mile Selow the mouth of Reedy creek. It is situated on an old 
river terrace higher than that at Elizabeth. In 1900 its popu- 
lation was 190. 

Newark. 

Newark is a small town located on the north bank of the 
Little Kanawha, one mile and a half above the mouth of 
Hughes river. It contains about 25 houses and had, a popu- 
lation of 80 in 1900. 

ROANE COUNTY. 

Roane county adjoins Wirt on the north, and is bounded 
on the east by Calhoun and Clay, on the south by Clay and 
Kanawha counties, and on the west by Kanawha and Jackson 
counties. 

Its area, given by magisterial districts as computed by 
the writer from the new accurate maps of the U. S. Geol. 
Survey, is as follows : 

Districts. Sq. Miles. 

Spencer 102 . i 

Reedy 48 . o 

Curtis 38 . 8 

Smithfield 76.7 

Geary 83 . 6 

Walton 72 . 3 

Harper 64 . 7 

Total 486.2 



10 PHYSIOGRAPHY OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Roane county varies in elevation from 615 feet above tide 
at the intersection of Pocatalico river with Roane-Kanawha 
line to over 1500 feet above tide at the summit of a high knob 
in the extreme southern portion of the county., one mile and 
a half west of Pigeon P. O., or a range in elevation of 975 
feet. 

Hon. Edward Corder furnished the writer the following 
data concerning the formation and early history of Roane 
County : 

"The Act creating the county of Roane was passed April 11, 1856, 
by the General Assembly of Va. It was entitled an Act to create 
the county of Roane out of the territory of the counties of Gilmer, 
Jackson and Kanawha. The county was named for Judge Spencer 
Roane of the Court of Appeals of Va. The Act creating the county 
provided that the voters of the new county should select at an election 
to be held In the month of May, 1856, the county seat. Provision was 
made for voting for two places; viz., Looney's Farm (now Looneyville), 
and New California (now Spencer), the latter receiving the majority 
of votes cast was made the county seat. The first court was held at 
the residence of M. B. Armstrong in the town of New California. John 
W. Cain was elected President of the Court; Albert G. Ingram, Tip- 
staff; B. Strauder Young, Clerk of the County Court, and J. M. Mc- 
Whorter, elected Recorder; Andrew Waugh, elected Prosecuting At- 
torney. Wm. R. Goff and Ira DePue, Beniah Depue, Sr., and Thos. 
Boggs were appointed a committee to build a court house. One acre 
of ground was purchased of Alex. "West for court purposes. The con- 
tract for the erection of a court house and jail was awarded to A. G. 
Ingram and John W. Cain at the price of $9,487.00 and the brick struct- 
ure was erected and completed for Court purposes in 1858. This house 
was destroyed by Are on Oct. 21, 1887, and the present structure erected 
in 1888 at a cost in round numbers of $25,000.00 by Col. T. S. Spates 
of Clarksburg, W. Va. The name of the county seat was changed in 
1858 from New California to Spencer in further honor of Judge Roane, 
and in that same year the town was duly incorporated. The first per- 
manent settlement in Roane county was made by Samuel Tanner in 
- 1812. A large portion of the later settlers came from the eastern or 
older counties of the Old Dominion. The early settlers were mostly 
woodsmen and hunters." 

In 1900. the county had a population of 19,852, of which 
19,820 were white, 32 colored (negro), and 52 foreign born. 
The census returns for 1910 report the population of Roane 
county as 21543. The mean magnetic declination^ in 1900 was 
I degree and 30 minutes West, the mean annual rainfall, 40 
to 50 inches, and the mean annual temperature 50° to 55°- 

The county is fairly adapted to grazing and other agricult- 



7 Bulletin 233, p. 126, U. S. Geol. Survey. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 11 

ural pursuits. Its principal products are corn, wheat, oats, 
rye, hay, potatoes, garden vegetables, apples, peaches, beef 
cattle, sheep, poultry, lumber, petroleum and natural gas. Its 
oil and gas fields are now undergoing a rapid development. 

The quality and character of the soil and its products, 
as well as the mineral wealth, will be taken up in subsequent 
chapters of this report. 

The State Auditor gives the following values for property 
for Roane county for the year 1909: 

Assessed Valuation. State Tax. 

Real Estate $6,33i.339-oo $3>8oi.73 

Personal Property 3,238,650.00 1,943.18 

Totals $9,569,989.00 $5,744.91 

The total assessed valuation of both the real estate and 
personal property of Roane is almost one-half more than that 
for both Wirt and Calhoun counties together. No State tax 
is assessed for school purposes. Each district makes its own 
assessment for maintenance of schools. 

Roane county has about 15 towns scattered over its area, 
among which are Spencer, Reedy, Walton, Newton, Gandee- 
ville. Linden, Kyger, Seamans, Speed, Looneyville, Harmony, 
Ambler, Zona, Uler, and Osbornes Mills. 

Spencer. 

The earliest settled town in Roane county was Spencer. 
According to Mr. Corder, sometime in the Spring of 1812, 
Samuel Tanner, his wife and one child, and Jonathan Wolf 
and 'wife, leaving the county of Randolph, W. Va., with their 
few belongings on pack horses, ostensibly for the purpose of 
joining a settlement on the Ohio river, in what is now Jackson 
County, W. Va., made by Wm. Lowther Parsons, found tem- 
porary lodgment within a rock cave in what is now the town 
of Spencer. Here they concluded to stay, making the first 
permanent settlement of the county. According to Lewis, 
the town was known as Tanner's Cross Roads from 1816 to 



12 PHYSIOGRAPHY OF WIRT-ROANE- CALHOUN AREA. 

1839, when its name was changed to New California. As 
mentioned above, this name was further changed to Spencer 
in honor of Judge Spencer Roane on March 15, 1858, the date 
of its incorporation. 

In 1900 the population of Spencer was 737, but at this 
time, according to Mr. Corder who made a personal enumer- 
ation, it is 3,511 including the suburbs, but the corporate lim- 
its include only about 1,000.^* 

The Second Hospital for the Insane is located at Spencer. 
According to Mr. Corder, an appropriation for $10,000.00 was 
made by the Legislature at its session of 1888 for the purpose 
of starting the erection of suitable buildings for a hospital for 
the insane at Spencer. The county donated to the State 177 
acres of land upon which to build this institution. Subse- 
quent appropriations have increased that amount to almost 
one million dollars. The institution was opened for patients 
in 1892. The present building is 1020 feet in length and is 
one of the finest structures in the State, the ground floor cov- 
ering a space of nearly two acres. 

The following tables^ give interesting data concerning the 
Second Hospital for Insane at Spencer for the two years end- 
ing Sept. 30, 1908: 



7* The census of 1910 gives Spencer a population of 1224 

8 Biennial Report of A. J. Lyons, Supt. (1906 and 1907), pp. 8 and 9. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



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WEST VraGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 23 

The Spencer Brick Company. — The Spencer Brick Com- 
pany has a small brick plant at Spencer. It manufactures brick 
for sidewalk paving and building purposes to supply the local 
domestic trade. For more particulars concerning this plant, 
see Chapter on Clays. 

Reedy. 

Reedy is the second town of importance in Roane county, 
and is located on the Ravenswood, Spencer & Glenville Branch 
of the B. & O. R. R. at the mouth of Middle fork of Reedy 
creek in the extreme northern edge of the county. According 
to Mr. Edward Corder, the town was named from the creek 
on which it is located, and was first settled in 1820 or 1821 by 
Joseph Board. The town was incorporated about 1900 A. D., 
in which year it had a population of 300. The census of 1910 
gives the population as 313. 



Walton. 

Walton is the third town of importance in Roane county. 
It is situated in the southeast portion of the county on Poca- 
talico river. According to Mr. Corder, it was first settled 
about 1817, and was named in honor of Sir Isaac Walton, 
author of works on the art of angling, for the reason that the 
point was a great place for fishing. The opening of a large 
oil field in the last 3 or 4 years, a short distance (i mile) 
southeast from the town, has caused Walton to have quite a 
"boom," typical of oil field towns. In 1900 it had a population 
of 184, but at the present time the local postmaster estimates 
it at 250. 

Newton. 

Newton is the fourth town of importance in Roane, and is 
located in the extreme southeastern portion of the county on 
Big Sandy creek. The local postmaster, B. M. Rogers, gives 
its present population as 138. In 1900 its population was 150. 



24 PHYSIOGRAPHY OP WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Gandeeville. 

Gandeeville is the fifth town in size in Roane. It is located 
7 miles southwest from Spencer. Its present population, as 
estimated by Mr. Bird, assistant to the local postmaster, is 91. 
In 1900 it was 102. 

The other towns of the county are mostly small cross-road 
villages and rural post-offices. 

CALHOUN COUNTY. 

CaJhoun county adjoins Wirt and Roane on the west and 
is bounded on the north by Wirt and Ritchie ; on the ieast by 
Gilmer and Braxton; and on the south by Braxton and Clay 
counties. 

Its area, given by districts, as computed by the writer 
from the new topographic maps of the U. S. Geol. Survey, is 
as follows: 

Districts. Sq. Miles. 

Center 38.4 

Sheridan 40.8 

Lee 76.4' 

Sherman 51.4 

Washington 73-2 

Total 280 . 2 

In 1900 Calhoun county had a population of 10,266, of 
which 10,183 were white, 83 colored (negro) and 26 foreign 
born. The census returns of 1910 give Calhoun county a 
population of 11,258. The mean magnetic declination® in 1900 
was I degree and 10 minutes West. The mean annual rainfall 
was 40 to 50 inches, and the mean annual temperature is 50* 
to 55°- 

The county has a range in elevation from 629.6' above 
tide, low water level at the intersection of the Little Kanawha 



9 Bulletin 233, page 33, U. S. Geol. Survey. 



--■■x.Bi^jr.-m'.- 




WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 25 

river with the Calhoun-Wirt county line to near 1560 feet 
above tide at the summit of Mule Knob, located 2 miles S. 
70* E. from Minnora, or a total range in elevation of 930 feet. 
Hon. V. A. Lewis gives the following interesting narra- 
tive concerning the formation and early history of this county : 

"Calhoun county, the area of which is 260" square miles, was 
created by Act of Assembly passed March 5, 1856. It provided that bo 
much of the lower part of Gilmer as lies within the following boundar- 
ies: 'Beginning at the West fork of the Little Kanawha where the Gil- 
mer and Wirt county line crosses the same; thence up the West fork 
to the mouth of Henry's fork; thence up the said Henry's fork to the 
mouth of Beech fork; thence with the dividing ridge between said 
Beech fork and Henry's fork to the Gilmer county line; thence to in- 
clude all the waters of said West fork within the county of Gilmer to 
the Gilmer, Ripley and Ohio turnpike to the head of Cromley's creek; 
thence with said turnpike to the mouth of Bear fork of Steer creek; 
thence a straight line to the head of Mussel Shoals of the Little Kanaw- 
ha river; thence by the shortest line to the top of the dividing ridge 
between the waters of Tanners fork and Laurel creek to the Ritchie 
county line and the Wirt and Gilmer county line to the place of begin- 
ning, shall be and the same is hereby established a new county, to 
be called Calhoun.' The county was named in honor of John C. Cal- 
houn, distinguished in American politics. 

The First County Court convened at the house of Joseph W. Bur- 
son, April 14, 1856. The following justices composed it: Hiram Per- 
rell, Daniel Duskey, H. R. Perrell, Joshua L. Knight, Absalom Knotts, 
George Lynch and William A. Brannon. James N. Norman qualified 
as first sheriflE of the county. He named Alpheus Norman and Philip 
Norman as his deputies, which appointments the court approved. By 
a viva voce vote, Geo. W. Silcott was elected to the office of clerk. After 
the transaction of other miscellaneous business, the court adjourned to 
meet in September next, at the house of Peregriene Hays, where Ar- 
noldsburg now stands. 

"The First Circuit Court held for the county convened on the 6th 
day of October, 1856, Judge Matthew Edmiston presiding. At this 
court the first grand jury was impaneled. ***** 

"The jury retired to consider itts presentments, and shorttly 
reported three true bills of indictment. Some other unimportant busi- 
ness being transacted, the court adjourned. ***** 

"The County Seat. — In no other county of the State has there 
been so much difficulty regarding the permanent location of the seat 
of justice as in this. The Act creating the county provided for its lo- 
cation either at Pine Bottom at the mouth of Yellow creek, or at Big 
Bend on the Little Kanawha, a vote of the people to decide between 
the two places. Further, it required the first court to be held at the 
house of Joseph W. Burson. This last requirement appears to have 
been about the only one which was regarded, for when the first court 
adjourned, it was to meet — not at Pine Bottom or Big Bend — but at 
the residence of Peregriene Hays, on the West fork. Accordingly, the 
second court convened at that place September 9, 1856, and here it 
was held until 1857. But in August of that year two courts were In 

10 Results calculated from accurate survey give 280.2 square miles. 
R. V. H. 



26 PHYSIOGRAPHY OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

session at the same time, one at Amoldsburg and another at the house 
of Collins Betz, on the Little Kanawha. For the purpose of effecting a 
reocnsillation between the opposing factions, it was decided that the 
courts should be held at the mouth of Yellow creek — now Brookville." 
A contract for the erection of a court house at that place was let to E. 
McCloskey, who for the sum of $675.00 erected a neat frame structure. 
But legal proceedings were now instituted, and on the 15th day of June, 
the court again convened at Arnoldsburg, and here it continued to be 
held until 18G9. It now seemed that the matter was settled. The erec- 
tion of a substantial brick building was begun at Arnoldsburg, but aft- 
er the basement story had been completed — all of cut stone, at a cost 
of $1500.00 — the question was once more agitated and another move 
made, this time to Grantsville. Here a frame court house was erected, 
but burned to the ground before it was occupied. Another arose upon 
its ruins and was occupied until 1880, when a brick building was 
erected at a cost of $8400.00. A lawyer who settled in the county at 
the time of its formation, but later removed to an adjoining county, 
said that he had been compelled to do so for he 'had been broken up 
trying to keep up with the county seat.' " 

The original settlers of Calhoun were largely hunters and 
for that reason the practice of scientific agriculture has not 
made much progress within its borders. Its principal products 
are corn, wheat, oats, hay, potatoes, garden vegetables, apples, 
dairy products, beef cattle, poultry, lumber, petroleum, natural 
gas and carbon black manufactured from natural gas. 

The State Auditor gives the following valuations for 
property in Calhoun county for the year 1909: 

Assessed Valuation. State Tax. 

Real Estate $2,115,237.00 $1,275.91 

Personal Property 1,534.609.00 926.26 

Totals $3,649,846.00 $2,202.17 

No State tax is assessed for school purposes. Each dis- 
trict makes its own assessment for maintenance of schools. 

Calhoun county has about one dozen towns scattered over 
its area, the most important of which are located along the 
Little Kanawha and \\^est Fork rivers. 

Grantsville. 

Grantsville, the county seat and largest town in Calhoun, 
is located on the north bank of the Little Kanawha river in 
the northern portion of the county. The first improvement 



11 This place is at present called Big Bend P. O. — R. V. H. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 27 

on the site was made by Eli Riddle. The town was laid out by 
Simon P. Stump and became the county seat in 1869. It was 
named in honor of General U. S. Grant of Civil War fame. In 
1900 its population was 225, and at the present time (Jan. 5^ 
1910) the local postmaster, J. A. C. Smith, estimates it at 

313- ''* 

Carbon Black Factories. — In this county Godfrey L. Cabot 
of Boston, Mass., has the largest carbon factory in the world, 
utilizing natural gas for the purpose. This factory is located 
on the north bank of the Little Kanawha, i mile northwest 
from Grantsville, and was begun in 1899 and finished in 1901. 
The product is wagoned to Creston where it is loaded on 
boats and shipped down the Little Kanawha river to railway 
connection at Owensport, the southern terminus of the Little 
Kanawha R. R. Mr. Cabot has another factory located at 
Creston in Wirt county. 

Arnoldsburg. 

Arnoldsburg, the second town of importance in Calhoun 
county, is located on the West Fork river, 9.3 miles south from 
Grantsville. It was named in honor of Chas. Arnold who 
patented the land on which it stands. According to Lewis, a 
post-oflice was established here in 1832, and the same year 
the first school was taught by Chas. Arnold. Peregriene Hays 
was the first merchant, beginning his business in 1833. In 
1900 the town had a population of 154, but the local postmast- 
er, W. E. Powell, estimated its population (Nov. 11, 1909) at 
65. 

Minnora. 

Minnora is located on the West Fork river, 5^ miles 
southeast from Arnoldsburg. In 1900 it had a population of 
190, but will hardly reach that number at the present time. 

Brooksville (Big Bend P. O.) 

Brooksville is located on the north bank of the Little 
Kanawha river at the mouth of Yellow creek. The post-office 
name is Big Bend. During the development of the Yellow 

11* The census of 1910 gives 282 for the population of Grantsville 



28 PHYSIOGRAPHY OP WIRT-EOANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

creek oil field, it was the most populous town in the county, 
but during the last 4 or 5 years it has dwindled rapidly from 
about 450 to 74, the last figure being given by the local post- 
master Jan. 5, 1910. In 1900 its population was 146. 

Other Towns. — There are several other towns of less im- 
portance in Calhoun, among which are Big Springs, Ayers and 
Rhoda on Yellow creek, the former having a population of 
157 in 1900; Whitepine on Laurel creek, which had a popula- 
tion of 169 in 1900; and Stinson, Orma, Altizer and Richard- 
son on the West Fork river, the latter having a population of 
68 in 1900, and at present the center of a large oil field. 

All other towns are small cross-road villages, generally 
distributing points for mail and supplies for the surrounding 
farmers. 



CHAPTER 11. 



• THE PHYSIOGRAPHY OF THE WIRT- 
ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



The general surface configuration, represented by the 
valleys and hills, appears never to change as viewed by an old 
resident of the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area, but to the contrary 
seems everlasting. However, these land forms pass through 
a cycle of life — youth, maturity and old age — ^similar to the 
life history of any organism. 

The inorganic world of rocks, hills and mountains chang- 
es, grows old, and conforms to the universal law of nature — 
adjustment to environment and surrounding conditions — as 
does the world of living organisrns. These changes at the 
present time are taking place rapidly, when time duration is 
considered in a geologic sense, though such changes are not 
appreciable to the untrained eye. 

The atmosphere with its 'evaporation, precipitation and 
electrical eflfects ; its variations in temperature, heat and cold ; 
running water, both surface and underground,— all combine 
to form the engraving tools that disintegrate the rock ma- 
terial and start it on its ceaseless march to the sea, its final 
resting place. 

The studies of geologists reveal the apparent fact that the 
Appalachian area was reduced to a peneplain in Cretaceous 
time, and re-elevated to be reduced to a second peneplain 
during the Tertiary period, again to be re-elevated at the close 
of the Tertiary period, and at the present time is being re- 
duced to a third peneplain. 

In the Marshall-Wetzel-Tyler report of the State Survey, 
the writer has there given a full description of the different 
life periods of the land forms, and the reader is referred to 
that volume for a discussion of the same. 



30 PHYSIOGRAPHY OP WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

The rivers and large streams pass through the same cycle 
of development as the land forms, and may be compared in 
the same way to the life history of organisms, passing from 
the period of infancy or youth, through adolescence, maturity 
to old age and death. , 

The erosive life of a river is not measured so much from 
the duration of its existence as by the work of erosion it has 
accomplished and what yet remains to be completed. 

In the early stage of the stream's formation the longi- 
tudinal slope of its channel, as it cuts its way downward, is 
steep. Erosion is necessarily rapid through the softer rocks, 
the harder and more resistant layers forming water falls and 
the stream now in its period of infancy or youth is passing to 
adolescence. It is now cutting its channel deeper and deeper 
and does very little lateral erosion. As the channel floor of 
the stream approaches closer the level of its mouth, the 
gradient is much reduced and as a consequence the current 
of the stream much slower, and the hard projecting ledges are 
brought to the general slope of the stream. Its load of sedi- 
ment formerly carried outward by the swifter stream is de- 
posited in flood-plains, the river now taking up the work of 
lateral erosion except in case of floods and over these flood- 
plains takes a meandering course, cutting in on one bank and 
depositing on the other. It is now carrying its maximum load 
of sediment and is performing its greatest work of erosion 
and is said to be in the maturity of its life. 

The period of old age is said to be reached by the river 
when it has graded its valley floor to sea level. The current 
then becomes sluggish and absent, the falling sediment ob- 
structing the channel, and the river is not able to perform the 
work of erosion any longer, settling down to a period of 
senility. 

All the periods of a river's life may be represented at the 
same time. The lower course reaches old age first while the 
upper course is pushing its way back into the divide in early 
maturity, while some of its tributaries are in the period of 
youth. Sometimes on the steeper slope of a divide the swifter 
and more rapid stream cuts through the divide, taps the head 
waters and robs a stream on the opposite side. This is called 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 31 

Stream-piracy. The remnants of the old stream, still pursuing 
their old courses, are spoken of as beheaded streams. A case 
in point is Beaver Dam creek where it formerly crossed Blue 
Ridge, 6 miles due south of Charlestown, W. Va.^ This stream 
was unable to deepen its channel across this hard rock ridge 
as rapidly as the Shenandoah branch of the Potomac lowered 
its bed, and as a result the first stream was beheaded by the 
Shenandoah river. This is only one of numerous instances of 
this kind. 

It sometimes happens that a stream in mature age is re- 
vivified with all the appearances of youth. For instance, take 
a peneplain that has been elevated to an upland, having its 
mature, meandering rivers. It naturally follows that the work 
of erosion is taken up first along these old channels. These 
rivers then take on the activity of renewed youth and cut 
their inherited gorges with their winding courses deeper. 
Thus we have a youthful stream with many features of inher-- 
ited maturity. 

Sometimes the course of a river and topographic history 
may be influenced by forces so unusual as to be termed a 
'geologic accident.' Such was the case during the Quater- 
nary period of the history of the North American continent, 
when the northern seas were covered with an ice sheet of 
great extent and thickness. This great wall of ice moved 
southward, forming dams across the courses of rivers result- 
ing in great ponds and lakes, causing them to overflow at some 
low point in their enclosing valley walls. Here further erosion 
would take place, and form a new channel which might be 
continued when the ice-barrier melted away. 

The southern terminus of this great northern glacier was 
75 to loo miles northwest from the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area, 
but the indirect effects of its flood and water extended over a 
large portion of the three counties. 

If we make an examination of the drainage system of this 
area, we find that all the larger streams of its middle and 
northern portion have a distinct northwest trend, while in the 
southern portion of Roane they bear to the southwest. None 
of the streams is at base level, but all have a rapid fall, with 



1 Professional Paper No. 60, p. 51, U. S. Geol. Survey. 



32 



PHYSIOGRAPHY OF WIRT-ROAISTE-CALHOUN AREA. 



meandering courses, tending to show that they possess their 
mature character by inheritance. Taking up these streams 
successively from north to south, Hughes river has a fall of 
1.4 ft. to the mile in the last 14 miles of its lower course, fron^ 
the junction of North and South forks of the same. The air 
line distance is only 6.6 miles. Little Kanawha river has a fall 
of 1.3 ft. to the mile in the 74 miles of its course, extending 
from where it enters Calhoun county to the mouth of Hughes 
river on the Wirt-Wood county line. The air line distance is 
26.7 miles. Reedy creek has a fall of 3.7 ft. to the mile in the 
last 17.5 miles of its lower course, from Reedy to the Little 
Kanawha river. The air line distance is 9.2 miles. Spring 
creek has a fall of 4.1 ft. to the mile in the last 22 miles of its 
course, from Spencer to Sanoma. The air line distance is 11.2 
miles. West Fork river has a fall of 3.3 ft. to the mile in the 
last 25.5 miles of its course, from Arnoldsburg to Creston. The 
air line distance is 13.3 miles. Steer creek has a fall of 3.2 ft. 
to the mile in the last 5 miles of its course, from Stumptown 
to the Little Kanawha river. The air line distance is 3.4 
miles. Pocatalico river has a fall of 4.3 ft. to the mile from 
Walton to the Roane-Kanawha county line (16.2 miles). The 
air line distance is 6.8 miles. Big Sandy creek has a fall of 5.5 
ft. to the mile from Newton to the Roane-Kanawha^ county 
line (16.5 miles). The air line distance is 8.1 miles. The fol- 
lowing table represents the above in a more graphic form : 



ST REAMS 






_ V «; w . 

2 3 8 .5 g £ 



o2Q 
0^ - • 



Hughes Riv., mouth to junction of 
North and South forks ,. . 

Little Kanawha Riv., portion in 
Wirt, Roane and Calhoun 

Reedy Crk., Reedy to L. Kanawha 
river 

Spring Cr., Spencer to Sanoma... 

West Fork Riv., Arnoldsburg to 
Creston 

Steer Crk., Stumptown to L. Ka- 
nawha river 

Poca. Riv., Walton to Kanawha 
county line 

Big Sandy Crk., Newton to Ka- 
nawha county line 



20. 

94. 

65. 
90. 

85. 

16. 

70. 

90. 



1.4 

1.3 

3.7 
4.1 

3.3 

3.2 

4.3 

5.5 



14. 

74. 

17.5 
22.0 

25.5 

5.0 

16.2 

16.5 



6.6 

26.7 

9.2 
11.2 

13.3 

3.4 

6.8 

8.1 



2.12 

2.77 

1.90 
1.96 

1.99 

1.44 

2.38 

2.03 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 33 

In the last column of the above table is shown the ratio 
of total distance (T. D.) to air line distance (A. L. D.) In each 
case it is self-evident that the nearer this ratio approaches 
unity, the greater the rate of fall. 

Previous to the glacial period, the Little Kanawha river 
and its tributaries probably cut their channels to near the 
base level of the old Marietta river, and then started to cut 
their present meandering channels. Later the greatly in- 
creased volume of water in the Ohio, now flowing southwest- 
ward cut its channel deeper much more rapidly than its tri- 
butarie'^; hence the latter were revivified with new life and 
energy. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAINAGE BASINS. 



Hughes River. 

Hughes river empties into the Little Kanawha river at 
the Wirt-Wood county line, 5 miles north of Elizabeth. In 
the lower part of its course it is very crooked, as a glance at 
the above table will readily show. Fourteen miles above its 
mouth it separates into two large branches of nearly equal 
size ; viz., North Fork and South Fork, both having their 
sources in western Doddridg.e county. 

Its principal tributaries from the north in Wirt county 
are Lyda and Gooseneck runs and Goose creek, the latter 
stream forming the boundary line between Wirt and Ritchie 
counties for some distance. Goose creek is quite a large 
stream, having its source in northern Ritchie county, and is 
about 30 miles long. 

The principal tributaries of Hughes river from the south 
in Wirt county are from west to east, Silver Rock, Little Is- 
land, Lick, Flint, Fall and Island runs. The latter forms the 
boundary line for most of its length between Wirt and Ritchie 
counties. Flint run flows northward near and roughly parallel 
to the "eastern wall" of the great Eureka-Burning Springs up- 
lift. The other tributaries are .short and unimportant. 
3 



84 PHYSIOGRAPHY OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Little Kanawha River. 

The largest river in the area is the Little Kanawha which 
almost bisects Wirt county in a northwest-southeast direction 
and crosses the northern portion of Calhoun county. The 
river has its source in the southern point of Upshur county 
and by the meanders of the stream is about i6o miles in 
length. Through both counties this river is bordered by an 
alluvial terrace which is very wide in Wirt, but narrow in 
Calhoun. As mentioned on page 2, the stream has been 
provided with a system of five locks and dams and is navigable 
for 50 miles above its mouth. During the field season of 1909, 
the U. S. Government Engineers extended their survey sev- 
eral miles farther up this river into Gilmer county, as well as 
up Hughes river, to obtain data relative to the cost of any 
future extensions of the lock and dam system. 

The Kanawha river, like the Ohio, has been greatly 
affected and altered by the indirect action of glaciers during 
the Glacial period. G. P. Grimsley- has the following to say 
concerning this river: 

"The old channel near its mouth formerly passed around the 
present city of Parkersburg and left the rock island shown on the map. 
An examination of the topographical map given in this report' shows 
by arrangement of the brown contour lines, the path of the old stream. 
This channel as well as the present channel of the river are filled with 
a deposit of gravel and silt so that the river is superimposed on its old 
rock floor. This alluvial fill at Parkersburg, according to the Camden 
Oil Co. well, is 85 feet deep, while opposite Kanawha station, according 
to the Butcher well record, it is 41 feet. 

"According to W. G. Tight*, the deflection of the northward courses 
of the streams took place during the First Glacial epoch, while the 
flood of waters from the melting ice in the Interglacial epoch caused 
the erosion of the valleys below the present levels. The filling of the 
channels with gravel and silt was caused by the fiood waters of the 
last glacial epoch. The present depth of channel in this gravel and 
silt fill has been reached since the Glacial Period." 

The record of Sunset No. 2 well (W 71) on the north 
bank of the Little Kanawha, ^ mile below Creston, shows 
45 feet of quicksand (gravel and silt) at the top of the hole, 
extending 15 to 25 feet below the present bed of the river. 



2 Pleasants, Wood and Ritchie Co. Report, p. 16, W. Va. Geol. Sur. 

B Ibid. 

4 U. S. G. S., Profess. Paper No. 13. 



WEST VIRaiNIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 35 

What appears to be an old abandoned channel of the 
Little Kanawha river occurs southwest of Newark, Wirt 
county. Lee creek, in the last mile and a half of its course, 
follows this old valley. There the highest portion of this old 
river bed is only about 650 feet above tide, or 40 feet above 
the present level of the river. 

Passing southeast up the river from the Wood-Wirt 
county line the following tributaries are found to flow into the 
Little Kanawha from the north side: Hughes river, Grieves 
run, Standingstone creek. Two Riffle, Highlog, Chestnut, Net- 
tle, Burning Springs, Two and Rock runs. Straight, Leading 
and Yellow creeks. Big Root, Leafbank and Bull River runs 
and Laurel creek. 

Hughes river has already been described. 

Standingstone creek empties into the Little Kanawha 3 
miles below Elizabeth at Standingstone Station. It is so 
named from a large boulder that tumbled down the steep hill 
sides from the parent ledge and now remains standing in the 
creek. The stream has its source at the Ritchie county line, 
II miles by the meanders of the creek above its mouth. It 
flows northwestward directly across the Burning Springs 
anticline and gives a fine exposure of both the eastern and 
western "walls" of the latter. It has a rapid fall and its valley 
walls are high and steep. 

Straight creek empties into the Little Kanawha one mile 
and a half below the Calhoun-Wirt county line. It has a nar- 
row "V" shaped valley with high steep walls and a rapid fall. 
In the lower part of its course the channel is very crooked 
and evidently possesses its mature character by inheritance. 
It looks probable that this stream once flowed through the 
low gap now occupied by Industry P. O., and that we may 
have here a case of stream-piracy, and the robbing stream is at 
present used as the channel in the lower course of Straight 
creek. 

Leading creek empties into the river 2^ miles above the 
Wirt-Calhoun county line. It drains the northern portion of 
Sheridan district, Calhoun county, and heads against the 
Ritchie county line. It has a narrow "V" shaped valley and a 



36 PHYSIOGRAPHY OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

rapid rate of fall. From its mouth to its head, measured b)- 
the meanders, it is lo miles in length. The air line distance is 
about 7 miles. 

Yellow creek empties into the Little Kanawha from the 
north at Brooksville (Big Bend P. O.) and has its head at the 
corner of Calhoun, Ritchie and Gilmer counties. On its waters 
is located the largest developed oil field in Calhoun county. 
Its valley walls are high and steep, enclosing a "V" shaped 
channel. Measured by its meanders. Yellow creek is lo miles 
in length from its mouth to its head. The air line distance 
is about 7 miles. 

From the south side, the Little Kanawha receives its 
most important tributaries in the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area. 
These are, from west to east. Tucker, Reedy, Spring, and 
Steer creeks, and West Fork river. Other tributaries of less 
importance are Katy, Annamoriah, Lemuels, Bells, Bee, Pine, 
Philip, Riffle and Lower runs, and Lee and Sycamore creeks. 
The total area of the drainage basin of the Little Kanawha 
river included within the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area is 733 
square miles, or 73^^ per cent, of the total area of the three 
counties. 

A short description will now be given of the five first 
mentioned tributaries from the south. 

Tucker Creek, 

Tucker creek empties into the Little Kanawha from the 
south, one-half mile below Elizabeth. It has its source at 
Limestone P. O. on the Wirt-Wood county line, and measured 
by its meanders it is 11 miles long. The air line distance 
from its source to its mouth is 8 miles. The area of its drain- 
age basin is 18 square miles. From Limestone P. O. to Mor- 
ristown. Tucker creek has a rapid fall, but from the latter 
point to its mouth, 7 miles, the total fall is 75 feet or slightly 
over 10 feet to the mile, showing that the stream in this por- 
tion of its course is in the period of adolescence. 



WIST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 37 

Reedy Creek. 

Reedy creek, the next large tributary, empties into the 
Little Kanawha from the south, one mile above Palestine. 
Measured by its meanders, from its mouth to its head, i mile 
southwest of Vandalia P. O., it is 32 miles long. At Reedy 
it separates into three large branches ; viz.. Right, Middle and 
Left forks, the latter being the longest of the three. Two 
miles above its mouth Reedy receives another affluent, also 
called Right fork. The total area of the drainage basin of 
Reedy is 132 square miles. From Reedy to the Little Kana- 
wha, Reedy creek has a total fall of 65 feet in 17^ miles, or 
at the rate of 3.7 feet to the mile. The air line distance is 9.2 
miles. It evidently possesses its mature character by in- 
heritance, since the rate of fall indicates that it is still cutting 
its channel deeper. 

Spring Creek. 

Spring creek, the next large tributary of the Little Ka- 
nawha river, empties into the latter 4.8 miles above Burning 
Springs village. The area of its drainage basin is 89 square 
miles. From its head near Walnut Grove P. O. to its mouth, 
measured by the meanders of the stream, it is 32 miles. The 
air line distance between the same points is 17 miles. From 
Spencer to Sanoma, the total fall is 90 feet in a distance of 22 
miles, or at the rate of 4.1 feet to the mile. It has thus a 
slightly greater rate of fall than Reedy. Although it has a 
very crooked channel, the rate of fall would indicate that it 
possesses this mature character by inheritance, since it is evi- 
dently still engaged in cutting its channel deeper. 

West Fork River. 

West Fork river is by far the largest tributary emptying 
into the Little Kanawha from the south. The area of its 
drainage basin, included within the three counties, is 232 
square miles. From its head, one mile southeast of Nebo P. 
O. in the edge of Clay county, to its mouth at Creston, the 



38 PHYSIOGRAPHY OP WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

distance, measured by the windings of the stream, is 45 miles. 
The air line distance is 25% miles. From Arnoldsburg to its 
head, it has a rapid fall. From Arnoldsburg to Creston, the • 
total fall is 85 feet in a distance of 25.5 miles, measured along 
the meanderings of the stream, or at the rate of 3.3 feet to the 
mile. The air line distance from Arnoldsburg to Creston is 
13.3 miles, giving a ratio of total distance to air line distance 
of 1.99. This mature character of the stream is inherited, and 
was no doubt rejuvenated by the same causes that influenced 
the life history of the Ohio and Little Kanawha rivers men- 
tioned on preceding pages of this report. 

The West Fork river has several large tributaries, the 
most important of which emptying into it from the east are, 
from north to south. Little creek, Little Rowles, Rowles, 
Barnes, Sinking Spring and Daniels runs, Millstone, Crummis 
and Left Fork, Walnut Fork, Walker and Stinson creeks. The 
largest of these is Left Fork, which empties into West Fork 
river at Orma P. O. 

The most important branches of West Fork from the 
west side, in a north to south direction, are Petes, Ann, Rock- 
camp, Barnes, Lee, and Triplett runs, Henry Fork, Jesse, 
Spring, Rush, Wolf, Meadow and Whiteoak runs. 

Henry Fork is much the largest branch of West Fork 
river. It empties into the latter at Rocksdale P. O. and has 
its head 23^ miles southeast from Tariff P. O., or 13% miles 
southeast from Rocksdale. Its most important tributaries 
from the east are Leatherbark and Beech Fork creeks ; and 
from the west are Laurel, Island, Clover, Rush. Hayes and 
Canoe runs. Henry Fork is also quite crooked in its lower 
course and owes this mature character to the same causes as 
those given for the West Fork and Little Kanawha rivers. 

Steer Creek. 

Steer creek empties into the Little Kanawha river from 
the south at Russett P. O. By far the greater portion of its 
drainage basin lies outside of the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area 
in Gilmer and Braxton counties. However, 5 miles of its low- 
er course is located in Calhoun county, entering the latter at 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 39 

Stumptown. Its most important tributaries in Calhoun enter 
from the south; viz., Sycamore creek, Rush, Raccoon, and 
Bear Fork runs. Along the road leading from Staten P. O. 
southeast over on to Rush run, 5^ mile southwest from the 
mouth of the latter, there appears to be an old abandoned 
channel of Steer creek. The latter seems once to have made 
a loop to the south, and later cut its present channel through 
the neck of the peninsula formed. The air line distance from 
the mouth of Steer creek to its head is about 18 miles. 

Pocatalico River. 

The Pocatalico river drains the southwestern portion of 
Roane county. The area of its drainage basin included with- 
in the latter area is 132 square miles. It has its source near 
Roxalana P. O. in Roane and empties into the Great Kanawha 
river at Raymond City, Kanawha county. The general direc- 
tion of its course is S. 6o°-7o° W. Its length, measured by 
its meanders from Raymond City to Roxalana, is about 75 
miles. The air line distance between the same points is 34 
miles. From Walton to its intersection with the Roane- 
Kanawha county line, its total fall is 70 feet in a distance of 
16.2 miles, or at the rate of 4.3 feet to the mile. In this por- 
tion of its course at least, it has a greater rate of fall than any 
of the large tributaries of the Little Kanawha described above. 

Within Roane county this stream receives the following 
tributaries from the north passing up the river: Whiteoak 
creek, Redoak run, Flat Fork, Big creek, Biglick and Round 
Knob runs. Rush creek. Laurel, Flat and Mud forks. Of 
these the first Flat Fork mentioned is much the largest 
stream. On its head waters is located one of the large de- 
veloped oil and gas pools of Roane county.. 

From the south side, Pocatalico river receives the follow- 
ing tributaries in Roane from west to east: Greene, Straight, 
Rock, McKown and Johnson creeks, and Cranesnest run. On 
the waters of these streams is located the largest developed 
oil field in Roane county, and all have a rapid fall and are in 
the early stages of their life history. 



40 PHYSIOGRAPHY OF WIRT-BOANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Big Sandy Creek. 

Big Sandy creek drains the southeastern portion of 
Roane county. The area of its drainage basin, included with- 
in the latter area, is loi square miles. It has its source at the 
Roane-Calhoun-Clay county corner, and empties into Elk 
river at Clendenin, Kanawha county. Its general direction is 
southwest, roughly parallel to that of Pocatalico river on the 
northwest. Measured by -the meanders of the creek, the dis- 
tance from Clendenin to its head is 31^ miles. The air line 
distance between the same points is 17 miles. From Newton 
to its intersection with the Roane-Kanawha county line, Big 
Sandy has a total fall of 90 feet in a distance of 16V2 miles, or 
at the rate of 5V2 feet to the mile. It has been v.^ell named 
the "Big Sandy", since the floor of its channel in Roane county 
is almost entirely in the great, coarse and pebbly Buffalo- 
Mahoning group of sandstones at the base of the Conemaugh 
series of rocks. On its waters is located one of the greatest 
gas fields in the State. 

Big Sandy creek receives the following tributaries from 
the north in Roane county in succession eastward : 

Lefthand creek, Garner, Wierlong. Lefthand, Two, Dog, 
and Hollywood runs. The largest of these north-side branch- 
es is Lefthand creek which empties into Big Sandy at Well- 
ford P. O., Kanawha county. It flows down the southeast 
slope of the Arches Fork anticline. In fact, the latter arch 
appears to have been instrumental in forming the divide be- 
tween the waters of Pocatalico river and Big Sandy creek. 

From the south side, Big Sandy receives the following 
tributaries in Roane county successively eastward : Little 
Laurel and Pigeon runs, Granny creek, Right fork and Blown- 
timber run. Right fork is the largest of these south-side 
branches of Big Sandy and empties into the latter at Newton. 
A large portion of its drainage basin lies in Clay county. 

Little Sandy Creek. 

Little Sandy creek heads in the southern portion of Roane 
county and flows southwestward, emptying into Elk river 10 
miles above Charleston. The area of that portion of its drain- 




PLATE IV. (a)— Barges on the Little Kanawha River, Wirt County. 




PLATE IV. (b) — Steamboat on the Little Kanawha River, Wirt County, run- 
ning between Owensport and Creston. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SUBVET. 41 

age basin included in Roane county is 5.3 square miles. It 
has its source one mile northeast from Dodd P. O. It crosses 
the Roane-Kanawha county line 4 miles due west from Cot- 
ton P. O. Trail branch is its principal tributary in Roane 
county. 

TOPOGRAPHY OF THE LAND. 

The Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area is a highly dissected pla- 
teau 1000 to 1500 feet above tide. Water erosion has reduced 
this original plateau practically all to slope, the streams flow- 
ing in deeply cut "V" shaped valleys. Numerous ridges and 
hills, ranging in elevation from 1000 to 1500 feet above sea 
level and capped with more resistant layers of sandstone and 
rock strata, remain as evidence of the existence of this original 
plateau. 

Across central Wirt and northern Calhoun counties, the 
Little Kanawha river has cut a deep gorge from J4 to J^ mile 
wide and 300 to 500 feet deep through nearly parallel layers 
of rock strata. The valley walls are usually steep and rough, 
often almost straight up, but on reaching the summits, the 
general surface is rolling except where trenched by runs and 
creeks. 

The present flood plain of the Little Kanawha river is 
represented by narrow strips of rich bottom land along the 
shore that widen out first on one side and then on the other. 

River Terraces are found at several points along the val- 
ley walls of the Little Kanawha in Wirt and Calhoun coun- 
ties. These probably correspond closely with those of the 
Ohio river described by the writer in the detailed report of 
Marshall, Wetzel and Tyler counties, and remain as evidence 
of the various positions of the river's channel during the sev- 
eral stijges of the glacial period. Elizabeth and Palestine, 
Wirt county, and Grantsville, Calhoun county, are all three 
built on old terraces of the Little Kanawha. 

These terraces are pronounced along the lower course of 
Hughes river from Cisko P. O. to its mouth. At Cisko the 
public highway, leading eastward up the North fork, occupies 
an old abandoned channel of Hughes river. 

The tributaries of the Little Kanawha as well as those of 



42 PHYSIOGRAPHY OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Elk river have eroded deep canon like gorges with steep val- 
ley walls in this area. These steep hillsides are adapted to 
grazing and should not be tilled for grain and similar products 
that require cultivation. The limestones of the Dunkard and 
Monongahela series of rocks in the northern end of the State 
have been largely replaced by dark red limy shales in Wirt, 
Roane, and Calhoun counties, and their outcrops there pro- 
duce a fertile soil adapted to blue grass. When cultivated 
along these steep slopes, however, it washes badly and fre- 
quent slips result, so that the land soon becomes impover- 
ished. This has been especially true in Calhoun county. In 
Roane the farmers several years ago recognized that tillage 
greatly facilitated the rapid removal of the soil from the steep 
hill slopes and have turned to grazing, with the result that 
Roane now probably raises more fine bred cattle than any 
other county in the State. 



PART II. 

The Geology of the Wirt- 
Roane-Calhoun Area. 



CHAPTER III. 

GENERAL GEOLOGY OF THE WIRT- 
ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Introduction. 



Geologists have classified the sedimentary rocks of the 
earth's surface into divisions based mostly on animal and 
vegetable life of the past ages as revealed by fossils preserved 
in the rocks themselves. 

The principal divisions of the geologic column, construct- 
ed on this basis, are as follows : 

Cenozoic — Recent life forms. 
Mesozoic — Less recent forms. 
Paleozoic — Oldest forms of life. 

Archaean — Generally crystalline rocks with fossils and 
direct evidence of life, largely destroyed. 

The rocks which crop to the surface in West Virginia are 
mostly included in the Paleozoic division and the greater por- 
tion of the area of the State consists of rocks belonging to 
one subdivision of this era, the Carboniferous. 



44 GEOLOGY OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

The subdivisions or ages of the Paleozoic are : 

( Upper ( Permain, 
Carboniferous J 1 Coal Measures or Pennsylvanian. 

[ Lower, Subcarboniferous or Mississippian. 
Devonian. 
Silurian. 
Ordovician. 
Cambrian. 

The outcropping stratified rocks of the Wirt-Roane-Cal- 
houn area are included wholly in the Upper Carboniferous, 
and the exposed beds are all above the base of the Allegheny 
series. The following table illustrates the subdivisions of the 
stratified rocks in northern West Virginia: 

UPPER CARBONIFEROUS. 

Dunkard, or Permo-Carboniferous Series (iioo to 1200 
feet.) 

Monongahela Series (260 to 400 feet.) 
Conemaugh Series (500 to 600 feet.) 

Allegheny Series (225-350 feet.) 

Upper Freeport Coal. 
Upper Freeport Limestone. 
Bolivar Firerclay. 
Upper Freeport Sandstone. 
Lower Freeport Coal. 
Lower Freeport Limestone. 
Lower Freeport Sandstone. 
Upper Kittanning Coal. 
Middle Kittanning Coal. 
Lower Kittanning Coal. 
Lower Kittanning Clay. 
Lower Kittanning Sandstone. 
Vanport (Ferriferous) Limestone. 
Clarion Sandstone. 
Clarion Coal. 
Clarion Clav. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 45 

Pottsville Series (Northern Section, 250-300 feet.) 

Homewood Sandstone. 

Mt. Savage Fire-clay. 

Mt. Savage Coal. 

Upper Mercer Coal. 

Lower Mercer Coal. 

Upper Connoquenessing Sandstone. 

Quakertown Coal. 

Lower Connoquenessing Sandstone. 

Sharon Coal. 

Sharon Conglomerate. 

LOWER CARBONIFEROUS. ' 

Mauch Chunk Shales (40 to 250 feet.) 
Greenbrier Limestone (15 to 100 feet.) 
Pocono Sandstones (400 to 600 feet.) 

DEVONIAN. 

Catskill Sandstones (Venango Oil Group, 300 to 500 
feet.) 

Chemung and Hamilton Shales, penetrated in Wheeling 
deep well to a depth of nearly 2,000 feet below the Venango 
Oil Sand Group without reaching the corniferous Limestone. 

Some general sections will now be given, illustrating the 
order and character of the several formations in the Wirt- 
Roane-Calhoun area, as shown by the outcropping rocks and 
the logs of borings for oil and gas. 

WIRT COUNTY SECTIONS. 

The following section was measured with hand-level 
jointly by C. E. Krebs and the writer eastward down the hill 
road leading from McKinley church to the village of Rock- 
port, located in Steele district. Wood county, near the head 
of Tygart creek, and one mile and a half west of the Wirt- 
Wood county line. This section is very important in that it 
shows the true relative position in the Dunkard series of rocks 



46 



GEOLOGY OP WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



of the several thick limestone ledges capping the hills in 
southern Wood and western Wirt county: 

Rockport, Wood County, Section. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

1. Sandstone, with shale layers.. 27 27 

2. Shale, dark and limy 3 30 

3. Sandstone 9 39 

4. Shale, red 2 41 

5. Sandstone, massive, Gilmore.. 25 66 

6. Shale, sandy 1.3 67.3 

7. Shale, bituminous, (Gilmore 

coal horizon) 0.2 67.5 

8. Fire clay 1 68.5 

9. Limestone 3.5' \ 

10. Shale, sandy 6 (Gilmore 10.5 79 

11. Limestone, darl< r Lime- 
gray on fracture 1 ) stone. 

12. Shale, red 2 81 

13. Fire clay 1 82 

14. Concealed 2 84 

15. Sandstone, coarse and brown . . 6 90 

16. Shale, buff and sandy 10 100 

17. Limestone, gray and hard, fos- 

siliferous. Upper Rockport.. 7 107 

18. Concealed and sandstone 20 127 

19. Concealed 10 137 

20. Limestone, Middle Rockport, 

and concealed 5 142 

21. Concealed 10 152 

22. Sandstone, dark gray, mica- 

ceous, nodular 5 157 

23. Shale, buff and sandy 6 163 

24. Sandstone, shaly 3 166 

25. Shale, reddish 5 171 

26. Limestone, weather- \ Lower 

ing dark gray 5' ( . Rock- 8 179 

27. Limestone, dark gray, f port. 

weathering white 3' ) 

28. Shale, gray and limy 5 184 

29. Sandstone, coarse and brown.. 8 192 

30. Concealed 3 195 

31. Limestone, nodular and brec- 

ciated 1 196 

32. Sandstone, coarse, brown and 

friable, Nineveh 20 216 

33. Concealed 2 218 

34. Limestone, gray and hard, Nin- 

eveh 5 223 



67.5' 



39.5' 



35' 



37' 



44' 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



47 



Thickness. 
Ft. 

35. Shale, red 4 

36. Concealed 3 

37. Sandstone, coarse, brown, and 

micaceous, friable 5 

38. Shale, bright red 5 

39. Sandstone 6 

40. Shale, red 15 

41. Concealed 10 

42. Shale, red 21 

43. Sandstone, Burton 10 

44. Shale, red 5 

45. Limestone, brecciated, some- 

times massive and dark gray 2 

46. Shale, red and sandy 11 

47. Sandstone, green micaceous, 

broken. Fish Creek 25 

48. Concealed and red shale 16 

49. - Sandstone 10 

50. Concealed (mostly red shale) . . 16 

51. Sandstone, shaly, green, mica- 

ceous. Rush Run 10 

52. Fire clay (Dunkard coal hori- 

zon) 1 

53. Concealed 10 

54. Sandstone, nodular 5 

55. Shale 5 

56. Fire clay •. 1 

57. Sandstone, massive, greenish, 
• micaceous, fairly coarse, cliff 

maker, Jollytown 20 

58. Shale, dark, with fire -clay at 

top (Jollytown coal horizon) 5 

59. Limestone, silicious, brecciat- 

ed. Upper Washington 5 

60. Shale, sandy 11 

61. Concealed 5 

62. Sandstone, massive, quarried 

at Rockport, base 695' A. T., 
Hundred 40 

63. Interval as shown by outcrop at 

mouth of Hughes river... 175 

64. Coal, Washington — 



Total. 
Ft. 
227 
230 

235 

240 
246 
261 
271 
292 
302 
307 



309 
320 

345 

361 
371 
387 

397 

398 

408 
413 
418 
419 



439 

444 



449 
460 
465 



505 
680 



84' 



38' 



68' 



46' 



61' 



175' 



The above section gives the Nineveh limestone-Washing- 
ton coal interval as 457 feet as against 507 and 521 feet re- 
spectively at Burton and Littleton, Wetzel county, W. Va. 
The three limestone ledges, the lower one of which comes 39 
feet above the Nineveh limestone, have been designated by 



48 



GEOLOGY OP WIBT-ROANB-CALHOUN AREA. 



the writer the Upper Rockport, Middle Rockport and Lower 
Rockport. This section also gives the true horizon of the Jol- 
lytown coal, coming as it ^does directly over 5 feet of lime- 
stone (Upper Washington) and 236 feet above the Washing- 
ton coal bed. The latter interval at Burton, Wetzel county, 
is 255 feet. 

The following section was measured with aneroid by Mr. 
D. B. Reger, Temporary Field Assistant, southwest down the 
hill road leading down Sandy creek from Limestone Hill P. O. 
in the extreme western point of Wirt county and joined with 
the log of the R. J. Moore No. i well (W 98), drilled by the 
Carter Oil Co., and published in Vol. I- (A),* page 468: 

Limestone Hill Section, Tucker District. 

Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

Sandstone, massive, Nineveh 40 40 

Concealed 5 45 

Sandstone 5 50 

Brown shale 3 53 

Linnestone, good, Nineveh 5 58 

Concealed 12 70 

Sandstone, soft, brown 10 80 

Shale with limestone boulders 20 100 

Red shale, limy 10 110 

Brown shale 3 113 

Sandstone, Burton 5 118 

Red shale 37 155 

Sandstone, shaly 5 160 

Red shale 10 170 

Limy shale 5 175 

Red shale, concealed and red shale 35 210 

Sandstone, limy , 5 215 

Red shale 10 225 

Sandstone 5 230 

Red shale 33 263 

Limestone 2 265 

Sandstone, massive at base 5 270 

Shale and concealed 5 275 

Sandstone 3 278 

Shale, red, yellow and limy 7 285 

Sandstone, flaggy to foot of hill 

road 15 300 

Red shale and concealed 35 335 

Sandstone, gray and flaggy 2 337 

Concealed and gray sandstone to 

top of R. J. Moore No. 1 well 

(W 98) 13 350 

Unrecorded in Moore well 530 880 

Pittsburg coal horizon (supplied 

from McPhearson well (W 96) SSO 



Dunkard and 

880' 
Monongahela Series. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



49 



Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 

Unrecorded 70 950 

Cave (Big Reds, etc) 225 1175 

Unrecorded 150 1325 

Cow Run sand (Dunkard) 40 1365 

Unrecorded 485 1850 

Salt sand 300 2150 

Big Lime 40 2190 

Big Injun sand (water at 2190') 40 2230 

Unrecorded 360 2590 

Berea sand (shells) 12 2602 

Slate 348 2950 

Sand, Gordon ? 8 2958 

Slate to bottom 194 3152 



Conemaugh 

485' 
Series. 



Allegheny, Pottsvllle 

785' 
and Mauch Chunk. 

Greenbrier Limestone. 

Pocono 

412' 
Series. 

Catskill or 
Upper Devonian. 



This is a very important section in that the Nineveh lime- 
stone is noted in good thickness, 53 feet from the top. 

About 3 miles S. 75° E. from Limestone Hill P. O. and 
one mile and a half south of Morristown, Mr. Reger measured 
a section by hand-level down a hill road to Ballard run of 
Tucker creek and joined the same to the top of the W. T. 
McPhearson No. i well (W 96). This section and boring 
record are as follows: 

Morristown Section, Tucker District. 

Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

Concealed from top of hill 10 10 

Limestone boulders (Nineveh?) 

and coal 40 50 

Red shale 11 61 

Sandstone, shaly to road fork 16 77 

Brown shale 8 85 

Reds 20 105 

Sandstone, shaly 3 108 

Brown shale 14 122 

Red shale 11 133 

Concealed 11 144 

Brown shale 22 166 

Reds 11 177 

Sandstone, shaly 14 191 

Concealed 22 213 

Reds 7 220 

Sandstone 4 224 

Reds 16.5 240.5 

Sandstone 7 247.5 

Concealed 12.5 260 

Reds '. 4 264 



Dunkard and 

983' 
Monongahela Series. 



50 



GEOLOGY OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 

Sandstone , 1 265 

Brown shale '. 5 270 

Sandstone 13 283 

Concealed 20 303 

Sandstone 11 314 

Reds, concealed and reds 53 367 

' Sandstone, gray, to 10 ft. below top 
W. J. McPhearson well 

(W 96) 23 390 

Unrecorded in McPhearson well 

(W 96) 590 980 

Coal, Pittsburg 3 983 

Unrecorded 197 1180 

Cave (Big Reds, etc.) 225 1405 

Cow Run sand (water, 1455') 

(Dunkard) 60 1465 

Unrecorded 415 1880 

Salt sand (water, 2180') 370 2250 

Big Lime, sandy 60 2300 

Big Injun sand (water, 2305') 40 2340 

Unrecorded to bottom of hole 846 3186 



Conemaugh 

482' 
Series. 

Allegheny, Pottsville 

785' 
and Mauch Chunk. 

Greenbrier Limestone. 

Pocono and 
Catskill Series. 



Evans Farm Coal Test Boring (W 93). 

Located at Kingsbury P. O., 5 miles northwest of Eliza- 
beth in the edge of Wood county, W. Va. E. E. Wolf, Mas- 
sillon, O., Driller. Commenced drilling Sept. 10, 1906. A. 
Grable, Elizabeth, W. Va., authority for log. 

Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 

Surface 15 15 

Gray shale 9 24 

Red clay 10 34 

Gray shale 6 40 67' 

Sand, gray 14 54 

Shale, gray 3 57 

Red clay 10 67 

Shale, gray, Washington 3 70 Dunkard 

Sand, gray 10 80 -^Q^t 

Shale, gray 5 85 Series 

Red clay 12 97 

Shale, gray 7 104 

Sand, gray 4 108 

Shale, gray 5 113 

Red clay 12 125 

Shale, gray 6 131 124' 

Sand, gray 3 134 

Shale, gray 15 149 

Red clay 10 159 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



51 



Thickness. 
Ft. 

Shale, gray 6 

Red clay 9 

Shale, gray 10 

Sand, gray 4 

Shale, dark gray 3 

Coal, Waynesburg 1 

Fire clay .* 3 

Shale, gray 26 

Sand, gray 7 

Shale, gray 2 

Red clay 3 

Sand, gray 4 

Red clay 3 

Shale, gray . * 1 

Red clay 3 

Shale, gray 2 

Red clay 20 

Shale, gray 3 

Red clay 2 

Shale, gray 16 

Sand, gray 21 

Shale, gray 4 

Red clay 1 

Shale, gray 1 

Red clay 24 

Shale, gray 2 

Sand, gray, Arnoldsburg 12 

Shale, gray 3 

Fire clay 3 

Red clay 19 

Shale, gray 16 

Red clay 25 

Shale, gray 2 

Sand, gray 4 

Shale, gray 6 

Red clay 10 

Shale, gray 3 

Sand, gray, Sewickley 24 

Shale, gray 48 

Sand, gray 22 

Shale, dark gray 7 

Black slate 4.83 

Coal, Pittsburg S.33 

Shale, gray to bottom 1 



Total. 
Ft. 
165 
174 

184 
188 
191 

192 
195 
221 
228 
230 
233 
237 
240 
241 
244 
246 
266 
269 
271 
287 
308 
312 
313 
314 
338 
340 
352 

355 
358 
377 
393 
418 
420 
424 
430 
440 
443 
467 

515 

537 

544 

548.83 

552.16 



161' 



115' 



85.16' 



Mononga- 
hela 

361.16' 
Series. 



553.16 1' Conemaugh Series. 



The coal at 548.83 feet from the top of the section appears 
to represent the Pittsburg bed, coming as it does only 357 
feet below the Waynesburg coal and 30 to 40 feet above an- 
other coal as shown by the next section. 



52 



GEOLOGY OP WIBT-ROANB-CALHOUN AREA. 



Mr. Reger also measured another section by hand-level 
one mile and a half north of Morristown southeast down the 
hill road from Limestone ridge to Tucker creek and connected 
the same with the Francis Gilbert coal test well ( W 95), a 
churn drill boring put down by E. E. Wolf, a coal prospector 
and well driller of Massillon, Ohio, during July, 1906, the de- 
tailed log of which was furnished the Survey by A. Grable 
of Elizabeth, W. Va., through C. E. Krebs, Asst. Geologist. 
Combining this hand-level section and detailed log of boring 
we get the following important section : 

Limestone Ridge Section, Tucker District. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 
Concealed, sandstone and conceal- 
ed from top of high knob 2 
miles N. 10° -15° E. from 

Morristown 35 35 

Sandstone and concealed 15 50 

Limestone boulders (Nineveh), 

thickness not exposed 50 

Sandstone 5 55 

Red shale 5 60 

Sandstone 5 65 

Brown shale 5 70 

Concealed 15 85 

Sandstone, shaly 15 100 

Shale, variegated 20 120 

Sandstone 2 122 

Brown shale 8 130 

Sandstone, brown, friable, flaggy 

at top. Fish Creek 33 163 

Red limy shale 10 173 

Green limy shale 2 175 

Brown shale 8 183 

Sandstone 2 ' 185 

Brown shale 10 195 

Sandstone, shaly 10 205 

Brown shale 10 215 

Red shale 8 223 

Limestone, slialy, brecciated 2 225 

Brown shale 9 234 

Limestone, brecciated and nodular 1 235 



50' 



113' 



72' 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



53 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

Brown shale 10 245 

Concealed 20 265 

Red shale 5 270 

Brown shale 15 285 

Red shale 10 295 

Concealed 20 315 

Sandstone 5 320 

Concealed 5 325 

Red shale 5 330 

Sandy shale 5 335 

Green shale 4 339 

Red shale with limestone nuggets. 3 342 

Green shale 3 345 

Green shale, fine 10 355 

Red shale 10 365 

Brown shale 2 367 

Sandstone 1 368 

Red shale 3 371 

Limestone 1' \ 

Sandstone 1 / 

Green shale 1 r 4 375 

Limestone, ferriferous. 1 ) 

Sandstone, shaly 4 379 

Red shale, limy 4 383 

Green shale 2 385 

Sandstone 5 390 

Concealed 5 395 

Sandstone, gray and flaggy 10 405 

Concealed 10 415 

Sandstone, light brown, massive 

and coarse, Upper Marietta.. 35 450 



140' 



Dunkard 

637' 
Series. 



76' 



Shale, green 1 451 

Red shale 4 455 

Concealed to bore hole (W 95) 5 460 

Francis Gilbert Weil Record. 

Casing (surface gravel) 18 478 

Gray sandstone 3 481 

Red clay 6 487 

Gray shale 8 495 

Red clay 10 505 

Gray shale 12 517 

Red clay 10 527 

Gray shale 3 530 

Gray sandstone. Lower Marietta... 10 540 

Gray shale, Washington fire clay.. 5 545 

Red clay 20 565 

Gray sandstone 3 568 

Gray shale 4 572 

Red clay 48 620 

Gray shale 10 630 

Red clay 7 637 



SC 



97' 



54 



GEOLOGY OP WmT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 



Coal, (6") Waynesburg 0.5 

Gray shale 24.5 

Gray sandstone 4 

Gray shale 4 

Gray sandstone, ..29'| Uniontown 

Gray shale r| sandstone 30 

Red clay 2 

Gray shale 2 

Red clay 6 

Gray shale 10 

Gray sandstone ....4' 

Gray sandy shale.. 13'!^ 26 

Gray sandstone ....9' 

Gray shale 3 

Red clay 1 

Gray shale 5 

Red clay 9 

Gray shale 8 

Gray sandstone 1 

Gray shale 7 

Gray sandstone 3 

Gray shale 2 

Red clay 5 

Gray shale 10 

Gray sandstone, Arnoldsburg 39 

Gray shale 1 

Red clay 8 

Gray shale 2 

Red clay 9 

Gray shale 1 

Gray sandstone, Sewickley 20 

Gray shale 1.5 

Red clay 8.5 

Gray shale 3 

Gray sandstone 5 

Gray shale 5 

Gray sandy shale 9 

Gray shale 2 

Red clay 6 

Gray shale 4 

Gray sandstone 4' 
Gray sandy shale 6 
Gray sandstone 8 

16 
5 
3 

17 ^ 

Gray slate ' 4 . 42 

Black slate 1.33 

Coal, Pittsburg 2.50 



Gray shale 
Gray sandstone 
Gray shale 
Gray sandstone 



Upper 
Pittsburg 
sandstone 59 



637.5 
662 
666 
670 

700 

702 
704 
710 
720 

746 



749 

750 
755 
764 
772 
773 
780 
783 
785 
790 
800 
839 

840 
848 
850 
859 
860 
880 

881.5 

890 

893 

898 

903 

912 

914 

920 

924 



983 



987.42 
988.75 
991.25 



63' 



46' 



93' 



41' 



111.25' 



Mononga- 
hela 354.25' 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



55 



Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 

Gray slate 0.76 992 

Gray sandstone 1 993 

Gray shale 2 995 

Gray sandstone 5 1000 

Gray shale 3 1003 

Gray sandstone 2 1005 

Gray sandy shale 19 1024 

Coal, Little Pittsburg f 0.5 1024.5 

Gray shale 20 1044.5 

Red clay 0.5 1045 

Gray shale 12 1057 

Red clay 2 1059 

Gray shale 1 1060 

Gray sandstone 4 1064 

Gray shale 2 1066 

Gray sandstone, Connelisville 28 1094 

Gray shale 8 - 11 02 

Gray sandstone 4 1106 

Gray sandy shale » 7 1113 

Gray shale 12 1125 

Coal, Little Clarksburg 2 1127 

Fire clay to bottom of hole 3 1130 



33.25' 



105.5' 



Cone- 
maugh 
138.75' 
Series. 



According to the log of the Clayton Casto well (W 94) 
near by, the record of which is published on page 467 of Vol- 
I (A) of the State Survey reports, the base of the above sec- 
tion comes 1045 ^^^t over the Big Injun sand. 

The following section w^s measured with aneroid by 
Robt. D. Hennen, Temporary Field Assistant, southeast down 
a hill road to Enoch fork of Right fork of Reedy : 

Section Two Miles N. W. of Zackville, Reedy District, 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 
Limestone, Nineveh (Ba8e=1070' 

B— A. T.) 5 5 

Concealed 40 45 

Sandstone, massive. Burton 20 65 

Concealed 35 100 

Sandstone, flaggy, Fish Creek 16 115 

Concealed 45 160 

Shale, limy, brown 20 180 

Concealed 20 200 

Brown shale 5 205 

Sandstone, flaggy, Rush Run 15 220 



66' 



50' 



105' 



56 



GEOLOGY OP WIBT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



120' 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft, Ft. 

Concealed 20 240 

Reds 40 280 

Concealed 5 285 

Reds 20 305 

Sandstone, shaly, reds and con- 
cealed 25 330 

Sandstone, massive, Hundred (Base 

=735' B— A. T.) 10 340 < 



This is an important section in that five well known Dun- 
kard formations of northern West Virginia are represented ; 
viz., Nineveh limestone, Burton, Fish Creek, Rush Run, and 
Hundred sandstones. The several small Dunkard coals of 
Wetzel, Marion, and Monongalia counties, appear to have 
thinned away in this portion of the State, and only what 
seems to correlate with the Washington bed was observed Uy 
the writer in Wirt County. 

The following section was measured by the writer south- 
ward along the hill road to Hughes river at Freeport. 



55' 



60' 



Freeport Section, Clay District. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 
Concealed from top of hill on left 

of road 25 25 

Sandstone, forming steep biuff . ... 30 55 

Concealed and shale 15 70 

Sandstone, friable 15 85 

Buff shale and concealed 5 90 

Sandstone, flaggy. Lower iVIarietta? 23 113 

Concealed (spring of water) 2 115 

Red and variegated shale 10 125 

Sandstone, massive, brown, mica- 
ceous 15 140 

Concealed and reds 23 163 

Sandstone, limy and nodular 2 165 

Shale, buff and limy 10 175 

Concealed (old terrace deposit) . . 55 230 

Sandy shale 5 235 

Sandstone 10 245 

Dark reds 5 250 

Concealed and sandstone 15 265 

Dark reds 20 285 

IVIassive sandstone, hard, iight gray, 
micaceous, forming ciiffs, 

Uniontown 40 325 

Shale, red and sandy 5 330 



215' 



Dunkard 
425' 

and Mo- 
nongahe- 
la. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



67 



Thickness. Total, 

Ft. Ft. 
Dark shale (2" — 3") (Uniontown 

coal?) 330 

Fire clay and red shale 9 339 

Dark shale and fire clay 1 340 

Shale, limy, greenish 10 350 

Concealed 25 375 

Sandstone, massive, Arnoldsburg. . 25 400 

Reds 10 410 

Concealed to Hughes river, % mile 

below Freeport 15 425 

(U. S. 600' L— A. T. at river). 



70' 



26' 



A new formation, Arnoldsburg sandstone, makes its ap- 
pearance in the Monongahela series ip this portion of the 
State, coming about 135' feet below the base of the Dunkard 
series. The writer has named it from its exposure in promi- 
nent cliffs near Arnoldsburg, Calhoun county, W. Va. 

The following is a very important section measured with 
aneroid and hand-level by the writer near where the axis of 
the Burning Springs anticlinal crosses Deaver fork of Stand- 
ingstone creek and joined with the log of the Simpson No. i 
well (W 43), the record of which was kept with great care 
• and detail by the late F. W. Minshall^ of Marietta, Ohio : 

Deaver Fork Section, Burning Springs District. 

Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

1. Concealed from top of knob to 

road at low gap 150 150 



2. Concealed and reds along road 

to north 30 180 

3. Concealed 60 240 

4. Sandstone, massive, Conneils- 

vllle 10 250 

5. Concealed and red sandy shale 8 258 

6. Shale, yellow 1 259 

7. Coal, Little Clarksburg 1 260 

8. Concealed, reds and concealed. 85 345 

9. Sandstone, nodular and limy. . . 5 350 

10. Concealed and reds 9 359 

11. Limestone, gray and hard, Elk 

Lick, 6" to 1 360 



Monongahela Series. 



lie 



IOC 



1 See Vol. I (A), pp. 465-6, W. Va. Geol. Survey. 



58 



GEOLOGY OP WIBT-ROANE-CALHOIIN AREA. 



Thickness. Total. 



Ft. 

12. Red shale with limestone nug- 

gets 45 

13. Shale and flaggy sandstone. ... 5 

14. Shale, limy 10 

15. Limestone, fossiliferous, Ames 

(Upper ?) 8" to 1 



Ft. 

405 
410 
420 

421 

426 
427.5 



16. Shale, gray and limy 5 

17. Fire clay with yellow streaks . . 1.5 

18. Coal r— 1" 

19. Fire clay 0—2 i Harlem... 1.6 429.1 

20. Coal — 1 J 

21. Fire clay, shale and concealed 28 



22. Coal (13"), (in situ?) 1 

23. Concealed 11.9 

24. Shale, yellow 6 

25. Limestone, brecciated, nodular. 2 

26. Red shale (Pittsburg Reds) 5 

26-A. Coal blossom, Bakerstown. . . 

27. Concealed to top of Simpson 

No. 1 wall 7 

28. Unrecorded 83 

Simpson No. 1 Well Record (W. 43). 

29. Shale, gray 35 

30. Coal, Brush Creek 4 

31. Dark shale 16 

32. Gray shale 34 

33. Sand, dark, firm 23' ] Mahoning 

[ or 34 

34. Sand, pebbly 11 J Dunkard 

35. Shale, gray 13 

36. Coal, Upper Freeport 4 

37. Shale, gray 16 

38. Sand, gray 3' ] 

39. Sand, white, coarse 6 "1 Burning 



40. Sand, white, fine 3 J- Springs 

41. Sand, gray 28 j Upper 

42. Sand, white, fine 8 J Freeport 



48 



43. Coal, Lower Freeport 3 

44. Shale, gray 18 

45. Sand, gray, Lower Freeport. . . 30 

46. Coal and clay, Upper Kittan- 

ning 6 

47. Clay and shale 5 

48. Sandy shale 9 

49. Sand, gray, oil show 10' 1 (Lower 

Free- 
!- port) 29 
I Gas 

50. Sand, white, pebbly 19' J Sand 



457.1 
458.1 

470 
476 

478 
483 
483 

490 
573 

608 
612 

628 
662 

696 

709 

713 
729 



777 



780 
798 
828 

834 

839 



877 



61' 



37.1' 



153.9' 



97' 



Cone- 

maugh 

559' 
Series. 



68' 



57' 



100' 



Allegheny 
300' 
Series. 



WEST VIBGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



59 



Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 



51. Shale, gray 52 

52. Coal and clay, (Lower Kittan- 

ning) 5 

53. Shale, gray 9 

54. Sand 10 

55. Shale, gray 8 

56. Coal, Clarion 4 



57. Clay and lime. 

58. Shale, gray . . . 



6 
38 



59. Sand, (Second Cow Run) Home- 

wood 

60. Blaclc shale 

61. Coal 

62. Sand, gray 

63. Black shale 

64. Sand, gray, very hard 

65. Shale, black, sandy 

66. Sand 

67. Black shale 

68. Coal 

69. Sand, white and pebbly, some 

gas 

70. Sand, gray 



55 
90 
.5 

5 
28 

5 
40 

3 
59 

1 

34 
5 



71. Shale 10 



72. Big Lime, white 



60 



73. Sand, Keener, gas 1415' 15 

74. Lime 15 

75. Sand, gray, fine 20' 

76. Light sandy shale.. 5 

77. Sand, coarse and 

gray 23 

78. Sand, white and Big 

pebbly, some gas. 22 ■ Injun 

79. Sand, gray 8 Sand 105 

80. Shales, black 4 

81. Sand, white, coarse 

and pebbly 10 

82. Sand, gray and soft 13 

83. Shale, gray 10 

84. Shales 400 

85. Sand, gray Berea, some gas.. 15 



929 

934 

943 
953 
961 
965 

971 

1009 



1064 
1154 
1159 
1164 
1192 
1197 
1237 
1240 
1299 
1300 

1334 
1339 



1349 



1409 



1424 
1439 



31' 



44' 



Pottsville 

330' 
Series. 



10' Mauch Chunk. 



60' Greenbrier 
Limestone. 



1544 



1554 
1954 
1969 



Pocono 

560' 
Series. 



60 



GEOLOGY OP WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



The great arch in the rocks at this point brings the 
Ames limestone of the Conemaugh series 75 to 80 feet above 
drainage. This limestone, with its characteristic fossils of the 
northern end of the State is exposed at several places along 
the anticline between Hughes and Kanawha rivers. Eleven 
different coal beds are also noted in the section. The two, 
included in the Pottsville, no doubt have their equivalents in 
the Kanawha series. 

The following section was measured with hand-level by 
the writer from the summit of a high knob, located i mile 
north of Burning Springs village, nearly on the crest of the 
Burning Springs uplift. This section was joined to the log 
of an oil well (W 53), the record of which was kindly fur- 
nished by Roberts Bros. : 

Section i Mile North of Burning Springs. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

1. Concealed from top of high 

knob 21 21 

2. Sandstone, massive, brown, 

pebbly, coarse, Sewickley. . . 37 58 

3. Concealed 27 85 

4. Sandstone, gray, hard, mica- 

ceous 5 90 

5. Sandy shale 10 100 

6. Sandstone, green flaggy, mica- 

ceous 5 105 

7. Concealed 65 170 

8. Sandstone, fine, gray, mica- 

ceous, flaggy . ., 10 180 

9. Concealed to top of Rathbone 

Oil Tract Well No. 51 (W 53) 70 250 

10. Unrecorded in well (W 53) 460 710 

11. Sandstone, 2nd Cow Run ? (oil 

in) (Burning Springs) 75 785 

12. Unrecorded 438 1223 

13. Salt sand 184 1407 

14. Big Lime 70 1477 



68' 



652' 



Mononga- 
hela 710' 
and Cone- 
maugh 

Series. 



Allegheny, Pottsville 

697' 
and Mauch Chunk. 



Greenbrier Limestone. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



61 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft Ft. 

15. Keener sand 38 1515 

16. Slate 10 1525 

17. Big Injun sand 38 1563 

18. Unrecorded 382 1945 

19. Berea sand, broken 15 1960 

20. Slate to bottom of well (W 53) 20 1980 



Pocono 
483' 



The Sewickley sandstone — Big Lime interval — 1349 ft. 

The following section gives the rock succession as ex- 
hibited by outcropping strata in southeastern Wirt county, 
measured with aneroid by the writer westward down the hill 
road to the Little Kanawha river at Creston: 

Creston Section, Spring Creek District. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

Red shale, capping hill 10 10 

Concealed 25 35 

Sandstone, massive, friable, Lower 

Marietta 15 50 

Shale, limy, red and variable 20 70 

Sandstone, coarse, brown and peb- 
bly, Mannington 50 120 

Concealed 5 125 

Sandy shale 5 130 

Sandstone 3 133 

Concealed and sandy shale 17 150 

Reds 5 155 

Sandstone, shaly, Waynesburg. . . . 25 180 

Shale, with limestone nodules 5 185 

Sandy shale 10 195 

Reds 5 200 

Sandstone, massive, dark gray and 

hard, Gllboy 25 225 

Concealed 5 230 

Sandy shale 10 240 

Reds 5 245 

Sandstone, massive, Uniontown... 25 270 
Fire clay, shaly, Uniontown coal 

horizon 2 272 

Sandstone and concealed 8 280 

Red sandy shale 20 300 

Concealed to Little Kanawha river 

level at Creston 50 350 



Dunkard 

180' 
Series. 



45' 



47' 



78' 



Mononga- 
hela 170' 
Series. 



62 



GEOLOGY OP WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



The base of this section comes about 185' over the Pitts- 
burg coal. The Mannington sandstone, coming 70' from the 
top of the section, forms great, coarse, pebbly cliffs in all di- 
rections from Creston. 

The following section was measured with aneroid by the 
writer and joined to the log of a well drilled for oil and gas 
by the Carter Oil Company, one mile and six-tenths S. W. of 
Munday P. O. 

Straight Creek Section, Burning Springs District. 



Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 



1. Sandstone, coarse, brown, peb- 

bly, Mannington, forms cliffs 40 

2. Concealed to top of McCon- 

aughey No. 1 well (W 65) . . .155 
McConaughey No. 1 Record.- 

3. Unrecorded 277 

4. Coal, Pittsburg 5 

5. Unrecorded 145 

6. Cave 125 

7. Unrecorded 138 

8. Sandstone, Cow Run? 15 

9. Unrecorded 130 

10. Sandstone, Cow Run 7 (IVIahon- 

ing) 60 

11. Unrecorded 140 

12. Sandstone (gas 5' in) 20 

13. Unrecorded 45 

14. First Salt sand 50 

15. Unrecorded 20 

16. Second Salt sand 15 

17. Unrecorded 250 

18. Third Salt sand and Maxton 

(water and black oil 20' in 

sand) 110 

Pencil cave 15 



19 

20. Big Lime 



.118 



21. Big Injun sand 30 

22. Unrecorded 382 

23. Berea sand 25 

24. Slate to bottom 90 



40 
195 

472 

477 

622 
747 
885 
900 
1030 

1090 

1230 
1250 
1295 

1345 
1365 
1380 
1630 



1740 
1755 

1873 



1903 
2285 
2310 

2400 



Dunkard and 
Monongahela 

477' 
Series. 



Conemaugh 

613' 
Series. 



Allegheny 

205' 
Series. 



Pottsville and 

460' 
Mauch Chunk Series. 



118' .Greenbrier 
Limestone. 

Pocono 

437' 
Series. 

90' Catskill. 



Mannington sandstone — Big Lime interval = 1715 feet. 
Pittsburg coal — Big Lime interval = 1278 feet. 



2 Vol. I (A), p. 467, W. Va. Geol. Survey. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



63 



205' 



The following section was measured with aneroid by Mr. 
Reger west from the top of a knob down to Straight creek at 

Munday P. O. in extreme eastern Wirt county : 

Munday P. O. Section, Burning Springs District. 

Thickness. Total. ^ 

Ft. Ft. 

1. Sandstone and concealed from 

top of knob 85 85 

2. Sandstone, shale and concealed 

to level of L, R. Roberts No. 

3 well (W 70) 45 130 

3. Shale and concealed 30 160 

4. Sandstone, coarse, buff, pebbly, 

soft, Upper Marietta 45 205 

5. Red shale 10 215 

6. Concealed and sandstone. 30 245 

7. Red shale 10 255 

8. Sandstone, flaggy and hard at 

top, coarse, soft brown base. 

Lower Marietta 50 305 

9. Coal (2"), Washington (895' B- 

A. T.) 305 

10. Shale, yellow, Washington 3 308 

11. Limestone, brecciated 5 313 

12. Shale, variegated 52 365 

13. Sandstone, hard, flaggy 10 - 375 

14. Concealed and shale 40 415 

15. Sandstone, coarse and pebbly, 

Gilboy 55 470 

16. Shale, red and concealed 20 490 

17. Sandstone, shaly to Straight 

creek 5 495 



100' 



Dunkard 

415' 
Series. 



110' 



Monongahela 

80' 
Series. 



The foregoing general sections illustrate the rock succes- 
sion in Wirt county. 

ROANE COUNTY SECTIONS. 

Several scattered sections will now be given in Roane 
county, arranged by magisterial districts : 

The following section was measured with aneroid by the 
writer in the northern portion of Spencer district southward 
down a hill road to Barnes run, one mile and a half above its 
mouth : 



64 



GEOLOGY OP WIBT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Barnes Run Section, Spencer District. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

1. Reds along hill road to south.. 10 10 

2. Sandstone, green, micaceous, 

Lower Marietta 20 30 

3. Conce'kled 25 55 

4. Sandstone, massive, coarse, 

brown, pebbly, IVIannington. . 60 115 

5. Fire clay (6"), (Waynesburg 

"A" coal horizon) 0.5 115.5 

6. Sandstone, shaly and green.... 4.5 120 

7. Concealed with red shale and 

thin sandstone 60 180 

8. Sandstone, green, broken 10 190 

9. Sandy shale 4 194 

10. Limestone, red, silicious, nodu- 

lar 1 195 

11. Sandy shale and concealed 30 225 

12. Sandstone, green, micaceous, 

Uniontown 35 260 

13. Concealed 5 265 

14. Sandstone, massive, sFialy top, 

Uniontown 20 285 

15. Concealed 20 305 

16. Fire clay (spring) 305 

17. Concealed 3 308 

18. Dark reds with iron nuggets... 7 315 

19. Buff and sandy shale 10 325 

20. Dark red shale 10 335 

21. Sandstone and red sandy shale 9 344 

22. Sandstone 6 350 

23. Concealed to Barnes run at 

fork of road 5 355 



Dunkard 

ISO' 
Series. 



80' 



45' 



50' 



Mononga- 
hela 175' 
Series. 



The following record of a well on Lee run on the Mc- 
Conaughey farm, drilled in 1909 by the Carter Oil Co., the 
record of which was kept for the writer very carefully by Mr. 
J. J. Crotty. Contractor, of Parkersburg, W. Va., gives the 
geological succession in detail: 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL 8UBVBT. 



65 



Section One-half Mile Due West of Richardson, Spencer 

District. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 
Mannington sandstone, forming 

cliff 50 50 

Interval 65 115 

Interval to top of McConaughey 

No. 1 well (R 107) 95 210 

McConaughey Well Record (R 107). 

Surface gravel 8 218 

Limestone 12 230 

Red mud 7 237 

White slate 15 252 

Limestone 8 260 

White slate 20 280 

Red rock 10 290 

Limestone 6 296 

White slate 32 328 

Sandstone shell 7 335 

White slate 18 353 

Red rock 23 376 

Limestone 4 380 

"Pittsburg sand", SeWickley? (Rock 

Creek) 65 445 

White slate 18 463 

Limestone 14 477 

Red rock 68 545 

Limestone shell 8 553 

White slate 75 628 

Sandstone 19 647 

White slate 43 690 

Limestone 20 710 

White slate 64 774 

Limestone shell 7 781 

White slate 29 810 

Red rock (Big Reds) 200 1010 

Limestone 22 1032 

White slate 60 1092 

Limestone shell 8 • 1100 

Black slate 27 1127 

Limestone shell 5 1132 

Black slate 17 1149 

Limestone shell 6 1165 

White slate 35 1190 

Limestone 15 1205 

"Sandstone, Big Dunkard"? (Ma- 
honing and Upper Freeport)158 1363 

Sandy shells 22 1385 

White slate 46 1431 

5 



115' Dunkard Series. 



330* 



32' 



170' 



Mononga- 
hela 362' 
Series. 



Cone- 

maugh, 
1284' 

Allegheny 
and Potta- 
viUe 
Series. 



66 



GEOLOGY OP WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Thickness. Total. 



Ft. 

Limestone 14 

Sandstone 20 

Black slate 9 

Limestone shell 4 

White slate 70 

Sandstone 14 

White slate 40 

Limestone 8 

1st Salt sand 45 

Black slate 15 

2nd Salt sand 75 

Coal, Sewell? 2 

Limestone shell 6 

Black slate 8 

Limestone shell 4 

White slate 40 

Sandstone, Maxton 10 

Black slate 7 

Limestone shell 3 

White slate 11 

Little lime 35 

Pencil cave 14 

Big Lime 134 

Big Injun sand 25 

Black slate 9 

Limestone shell 6 

White slate 43 

Limestone 26 

Black slate 13 

Sandy lime 18 

White slate 64 

Lime shell 7 

White slate 85 

Lime shell 6 

White slate 86 

Brown shale 15 

Berea Grit sand 22 

Gas at 2212' 

Oil at 2224'— 2232' 

White slate to bottom of well 9 



Ft. 
1445 
1465 
1474 
1478 
1548 
1562 
1602 
1610 
1655 
1670 
1745 
1747 
1753 
1761 

1765 
1805 
1815 
1822 
1825 
1836 
1871 
1885 

2019 

2044 
2053 
2059 
2102 
2128 
2141 
2159 
2223 
2230 
2315 
2321 
2407 
2422 
2444 



2453 9' Catskill. 



Mauch Chunk 

124' 
Series. 



134' Greenbrier 
Limestone. 



Pocono 

425' 
Series. 



On the northeast border of Spencer district, Mr, Reger 
measured with aneroid the following section from the top of 
a high knob near Bluehead church eastward along the hill 
road down to West Fork river at Rocksdale P. O. This sec- 
tion was measured down hill on the rise of the rocks, hence 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



67 



the intervals are slightly less than they should be. This is a 
very important section for the reason that several well known 
formations of both the Dunkard and Monongahela are 
identified : 

Section West of Rocksdale P. O., Spencer District. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

1. Sandstone, Hundred, capping 

knob near Bluehead Church. 15 15 

2. Concealed and sandstone 69 84 

3. Fire clay (1") 84 

4. Green shale 1 85 

5. Red shale 12 97 

6. Sandstone 3 100 

7. Concealed 5 105 

8. Sandstone, flaggy, brown, Up- 

per Marietta 19 124 

9. Concealed 11 135 

10. Fire clay (6"), (Washington 

"A" coal horizon) 0.5 135.5 

11. Shale, limy and red 16.5 152 

12. Green shale 5 157 

13. Limestone, shaly 3 160 

ISA. Concealed, sandstone and con- 
cealed 27 187 

14. Coal, Washington and fire clay 2 189 

15. Green shale, Washington 1 190 

16. Limestone, brecciated 5 195 

17. Concealed 10 205 

18. Sandstone, coarse brown, mas- 

sive, pebbly, Mannington. . . . 45 250 

19. Red shale 5 255 

20. Brown shale and concealed 25 280 

21. Sandstone, coarse and pebbly, 

Waynesburg 20 300 

22. Concealed 45 345 

23. Shale and sandstone 16 361 

24. Sandstone, shaly 3 364 

25. Coal (10"), Uniontown 1 365 

26. Shale, sandstone and concealed 

to level of Henry's fork at 

mouth 30 395 



135' 



54' 



61' 



50' 



65' 



30' 



Dunkard 
300' 
Series. 



Mononga- 
hela 95' 
Series. 



68 



GEOLOGY OP WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



About 5^ miles northeast of Spencer and 2 miles below 
Morford P. O., the writer measured a section by hand-level 
down the hill road to Triplet run at the residence of J. T. Mor- 
ford. The rock succession there exhibited is as follows: 



Triplet Run Section, Spencer District. 



Thickness. 
Ft 

1. Concealed from top of knob... 30 

2. Sandstone, forming steep bluff, 

Hundred 30 

3. Concealed 16 

4. Sandstone, green, micaceous.. 10 

5. Concealed 26 

6. Red shale 13 

7. Red shale with iron ore nodules 2 

8. Shale, dark red with limestone 

nuggets at top 14 

9. Sandstone, fine, green, mica- 

ceous 5 

10. Buff sandy shale 8 

11. Sandstone, flaggy 5 

12. Sandy shale 7 

13. Sandstone, shaly at bottom, Up- 

per Marietta 34 

14. Red limy shale 10 

15. Sandstone, coarse, gray, some 

pebbles at bottom, top shaly. 
Lower Marietta 38 

16. Concealed (horizon of Wash- 

ington coal) 4 

17. Green shale, Washington 11 

18. Limestone, brecciated, green.. 5 

19. Buff shale 2 

20. Sandstone, coarse, brown and 

pebbly, Mannington (forms 
great cliffs on Triplet) 55 

21. Concealed 12 

22. Reds 5 

23. Sandstone, green, 

micaceous 11' 

24. Sandy shale 13 

25. Sandstone, nodu- 

lar 10 



Waynes- 
burg 

Sand- 
stone. 



34 



Total. 
Ft. 
30 

60 

76 

86 
112 
125 
127 



141 

146 
154 
159 
166 

200 
210 

248 
252 

263 

268 
270 

325 

337 

342 

376 



60' 



67' 



73' 



52' 



73' 



51' 



Dunkard 
376' 
Series. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



69 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

26. Reds 6 382 

27. Limestone, red nodular, sili- 

cious, brecciated . . ; 1 383 

28. Reds 25 408 

29. Concealed to Triplet run 17 425 



Monongahela 

49' 
Series. 



*• Only 376 feet of the Dunkard measures is left in this por- 
tion of Roane county as compared with 637 feet in western 
Wirt county (See Limestone Ridge section, page 52). 

A very important section was obtained by combining the 
log of the old Asylum welP (R 126) on Goflf run, J^ mile east 
of Spencer, with a section measured with aneroid by the writ- 
er from the summit of a high knob, located ^ mile due north 
of the mouth of Daniels run of Left fork of Spring creek. This 
section exhibits the following rock succession : 

Section One Mile and a Half Southeast of Spencer, Spencer 

District. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

1. Sandstone, coarse, with quartz 

pebbles and conglomerate at 

base, Jollytown 25 25 

2. Concealed and shale 15 40 

3. Sandstone,' brown, flaggy and 

coarse. Hundred 30 70 

4. Concealed 20 90 

5. Sandstone, green, flaggy, fine 

grained 20 110 

6. Concealed along bench 20 130 

7. Sandstone, massive, Upper 

Marietta 35 165 

8. Shale and concealed 10 175 

9. Sandstone 25 200 

10. Reds 10 210 

11. Concealed 15 225 

12. Sandstone, Lower iVIarietta. . . . 25 250 

13. Concealed 4.5 254.5 

14. Coal, Washington (6") 0.6 255 

3 Vol. I, p. 264-5, W. Va. Geol. Survey. 



45' 



40' 



55' 



90' 



Dunkard 
375' 
Series. 



70 



GEOLOGY OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

15. Gray shale, Washington 10 265 

16. Concealed 25 290 

17. Sandstone, Mannington 35 325 



70' 



18. Interval to top of Asylum well 

(R 126) 15 

Well Record. 

19. Sandstone, white, soft 10 

20. Limestone, blue and hard 25 



340 



350 
375 



50* 



21. Red rock, soft 25 400 

22. Limestone, blue and hard 60 460 

23. Slate, white and soft 20 480 

24. Red rock, soft 30 510 

25. Sandstone, white and hard 10 520 

26. Limestone, dark and hard 18 538 

27. Red Rock, soft (coal show, 

Mushroom Run) 17 555 

28. Limestone, white, hard 30 685 

29. Sandstone, white, hard, Sewick- 

ley? (Rock Creek) 45 630 

30. Red rock, soft 25 655 

31. Limestone, blue and hard 30 685 

32. Red rock, soft 12 697 

33. Slate, black, soft, Pittsburg coal 

horizon 5 702 



163' 



92' 



72' 



Mononga- 

hela 327' 
Series. 



34. Limestone, Blue and hard 25 727 

35. Sandstone, gray and hard, Low- 

er Pittsburg 38 765 

36. Slate, white and soft 5 770 

37. Limestone, white and hard 4 774 

38. Slate, black, soft (caves some) 50 824 

39. Sandstone, dark, ) Con- 

hard 16' ( nells-31 855 

40. Sandstone, white and C vjlle 

soft 15' ) 

41. Slate, red, very soft and cavy..l40 995 

42. Limestone, white and hard 25 1020 

43. Slate, dark, soft 5 1025 

44. Slate, white, hard, shelly 20 1045 

45. Limestone, blue and hard 15 1060 

46. Limestone, white and soft 17 1077 

47. Slate, red and soft 23 1100 

48. Limestone, gray and hard 10 1110 

49. Slate, white and soft 33 1143 

50. Sandstone, blue and hard. Salts- 

burg 24 1167 



63' 



90' 



312' 



Cone- 
maugh 
833' and 
Allegheny 

Series. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SUBVBY. 



71 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

51. Slate, white and soft 20 1187 

52. Limestone, blue and hard 10 1197 

53. Sandstone, white, hard on top 

(Dunkard, or Buffalo and Ma- 
honing) 130 1327 

54. Slate, white and soft 10 1337 

55. Limestone, blue and hard 20 1357 

56. Sandstone, white and hard, Up- 

^per Freeport 20 137,7 

57. Limestone, white and hard 10 1387 

58. Slate, black, soft 25 1412 

59. Limestone, dark and hard 15 1427 

60. Slate, white and soft 18 1445 

61. Sandstone, white and hard (Low- 

er Freeport and Clarion.... 85 1530 

62. Slate, black, soft 5 1535 

63. Sandstone, white and hard, 

Homewood 29 1564 

64. Slate and coal 10 1574 

65. Sandstone, white and hard.... 41 1615 

66. Slate, black and soft 25 1640 

67. Limestone, black and soft. ... 20 1660 

68. Slate, white, shelly 40 1700 

69. Sandstone, dark and hard 10 1710 

70. Slate, white, shelly 35 1745 

71. Slate, dark red? 5 1750 

72. Slate, white, shelly 15 1765 

73. Slate, black, very soft 17 1782 

74. Limestone, gray, soft (probably 

gray shale) 57 1839 

75. Slate, black 4 1843 

76. Sandstone, limy, white, oil smell 45 1888 

77. Slate, black 5 1893 

78. Sand, gray, Salt 262 2155 

(Water at 1600') (water big 
flow at 1700'). 

79. Sand, fine and dark 15 2170 

80. Slate, brown 8 2178 

81. Sandstone, very fine, dark, 

Maxton 12 2190 

82. Big Lime 30 2220 



160' 



50' 



68' 



90' 



Pottsville 

635' 
Series. 



20' Mauch Chunk. 



30' Greenbrier 
Limestone. 



72 



GEOLOGY OP WIRT-ROANB-CALHOUN ABEA. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

83. Limestone, gritty, gray (Big In- 

jun sand) 45 2265 

84. Slate, blue and hard 275 2540 

85. Shell 2540 

86. Slate, blue and hard 50 2590 

87. Slate, white 150 2740 

88. Sandstone shell, hard, Berea 

(oil show) 10 2750 

89. Slate, whlte^ 90 2840 

90. Slate, blue and hard to bottom 

of well *. 250 3090 



Pocono 

530' 
Series. 



340' Catskill. 



The following section was obtained by combining the 
log of a well drilled by the Carter Oil Co. on the Goff & Heck 
farm in the southeast corner of Spencer district on Laurel 
run, with a section measured with aneroid by the writer from 
the summit of a high knob one mile south-west of the well : 

Section One Mile S. W. of Tristan P. O., Spencer District. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

1. Concealed and sandstone from 

top of knob 35 35 

2. Concealed with sandstone boul- 

ders 60 95 

3. Buff shale 5 100 

4. Sandstone, friable. Hundred .. 15 115 

5. Concealed 5 120 

6. Dark reds 17 137 

7. Limestone, siliclous, nodular.. 3 140 

8. Buff shale 10 150 

9. Sandstone, brown, flaggy. Up- 

per Marietta 45 195 

10. Buff and red shale and conceal- 

ed 65 260 

11. Dark limy reds (Creston) 20 280 

12. Sandstone, green, micaceous, 

flaggy. Lower Marietta 25 305 

13. Concealed (horizon of Washing- 

ton coal) 5 310 

14. Gray shale, (Washington) 5 315 

15. Buff shale 10 325 

16. Sandstone, coarse, gray and 

pebbly, forming great cliffs, 

Mannington 55 380 

16A. Concealed 65 445 



195' 



115' 



135' 



Dunkard 

445' 
Series. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



73 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

17. Concealed to top of Goff & 

Heck No. 1 well (R 118) on 

Laurel fork 55 500 

Goff & Heck No. 1 Well Record. 

18. Conductor (surface gravel) 13 513 

19. Lime 30 543 

20. Slate 61 604 

21. Sandstone 30 634 

22. Red rock 66 700 

23. Slate and red rock 200 900 

24. Lime 40 940 

26. Sandstone, Connellsville 40 980 

26. Red rock 20 1000 

27. Lime 30 1030 

28. Red cave 30 1060 

29. Slate 140 1200 

30. Big Red cave 90 1290 

31. Sandstone, Little Dunkard? 

(Mahoning) 75 1365 

32. Black slate 35 1400 

33. White slate 35 1435 

34. Sandstone, Big Dunkard? (Low- 

er Freeport) 35 1470 

35. Slate 45 1515 

36. Gas sand 50 1565 

37. Slate 25 1590 

38. Sandstone 50 1640 

39. Slate 30 1670 

40. 1st Salt sand 100 1770 

41. Slate 10 1780 

42. 2nd Salt sand 60 1840 

43. Slate 80 1920 

44. Lime 40 1960 

45. Slate 55 2015 

46. 3rd Salt sand (partly Maxton)198 2213 

(water at 1525' oil show at 1595'). 

47. Big Lime 87 2300 

48. Big Injun sand 80 2380 

49. Slate and shells 280 2660 

50. Lime 12 2672 

51. Slate and shells 428 3100 



535' 



385' 



Mononga- 
hela 920' 
and Cone- 
maugh 

Series. 



Allegheny 

225^ 
Series. 



Pottsville and 

623' 
Mauch Chunk 
Series. 



87' Greenhrler 
Limestone. 



Pocono Sandstones 

800' 
and Catskill. 



(Mannington sandstone — Big Lime interval=1833 ft. 



4 Vol. I (A), p. 469, W. Va. Geol. Survey. 



74 



GEOLOGY OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Curtis district is situated in the western central portion 
of Roane county. In the southeast corner of this area the 
writer obtained the following section by combining the log 
of the J. W. Miller No. i gas well (R 145) with a section 
measured by aneroid northwest down a private road to Stover 
fork of Reedy creek, ys mile south of Cherry Valley church : 



Section i Mile N. W. of Vandalia, Curtis District, Roane Co. 



Thickness. 
Ft. 

1. Concealed and green sandstone 

from top of hill 25 

2. Dark reds 10 

3. Sandstone, limy 3 

4. Sandy shale 7 

5. Sandstone, coarse, brown and 

friable, forming great cliff, 
Jollytown 50 

6. Concealed and sandstone 16 

7. Concealed 80 

8. Reds 5 

9. Sandstone, massive, Upper Ma- 

rietta 45 

10. Red shale 10 

11. Sandstone, limy and nodular. . 5 

12. Dark limy reds to top of J. W. 

Miller No. 1 well (R 145) 60 

J. W. Miller, Well No. 1 Log. 

13. Unrecorded in well 35 

14. Washington coal (horizon sup- 

plied) 

15. Unrecorded 65 

16. Waynesburg "A" coal (horizon 

supplied) 

16A. Interval 60 

17. Unrecorded 800 

18. 2nd Cow Run sand 24 

19. Unrecorded 630 

20. 3rd Salt sand 320 

(1st oil pay 1618'-1620'.) 
(2nd oil pay 1640'-1646'.) 



21. Big Lime 



66 



22. Big Injun sand 18 

23. Unrecorded 389 

24. Berea sand 16 

(gas at 3' and 7' in sand) 



25. Slate to bottom of hole. 



20 



Total. 
Ft. 

25 
35 
38 
45 



95 

110 
190 
195 

240 

250 
255 

315 

350 

350 
415 

415 
475 

1275 
1299 
1929 
2249 



2315 

2333 
2722 
2738 

2758 



95' 



145' 



Dunkard 
475' 
Series. 



110' 



125' 



Monongahela, 
Conemaugh, Allegheny, 

1774' 
Pottsville and 
Mauch Chunk. 

66' Greenbrier 
Limestone. 



423' Pocono. 



20' Catskill. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



75 



The Washington coal crops at level of Stover run at 800' 
(aneroid) above tide, ^ mile below the well. The tidal ele- 
vation of the well mouth is 830' to 835' A. T. Hence, the hori- 
zon of the coal was supplied by the writer, though not record- 
ed in the well record. 

Harper district occupies the southwest corner of Roane 
county. At Boyd P. O., located on Wolf run of Flat fork of 
"Poca", the writer measured with aneroid the following sec- 
tion southwest down the hill road to run level : 

Boyd P. O. Section, Harper District. 



Thickness. Total. 



Ft. 

1. Sandstone, coarse and gray, 

massive, Upper Marietta.... 35 

2. Reds to cross-roads N. E. of 

Boyd 10 

3. Red and variegated shale 20 

4. Sandstone, green, micaceous, 

Lower IVIarietta 20 

5. Reds 10 

6. Concealed 9.5 

7. Darl< shale and fire clay (Wash- 

ington coal) 0.5 

8. Green shale, Washington 10 



9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 

14. 
35. 



16. 



Sandstone 5' 
Concealed 30 

Reds 5 

Sandy shale 10 
Sandstone 6 



Manning- 
ton sand- 
stone 55 



Sandy shale 5 

Sandstone, massive, coarse,_ 
brown and pebbly, Waynes-' 

burg 54 

Fire clay, Waynesburg coal hor- 
izon 1 



17. Sandstone, shaly 7 

18. Fire clay with coaly streak.... 1 

19. Slate 2 

20. Sandstone, shaly, Gilboy 19.5 

21. Darl< shale and fire clay 0.5 

22. Concealed and reds 15 

23. Sandstone, massive, nodular, 

Uniontown 20 

24. Reds 5 

25. Concealed to fork of road, at 

Boyd P. O. (U. S. 705' A. T.) 40 



Ft. 
35 

45 
65 

85 

95 

104.5 

105 

115 

170 

175 

229 

230 

237 

238 

240 

259.5 

260 

275 

295 
300 

340 



35' 



70' 



65' 



60' 



30' 



80' 



Dunkard 
230' 
Series. 



Mononga- 
hela 110' 
Series. 



76 



GEOLOGY OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Two miles southward from Boyd P. O., a fine section was 
obtained at Cicerone P. O. by combining the log of a dry hole 
(R 252), furnished by the owners (Columbia Electric Gas Co. 
of Huntington, W. Va.) with a section measured by the 
writer with aneroid : 

Cicerone Section, Harper District. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

1. Reds from summit of hill 30 30 

2. Sandstone, Lower Marietta.... 20 60 

3. Shale 5 55 

4. Fire clay and dark shale 

(Washington coal) 55 

5. Green shale, limestone nuggets, 

Washington 10 65 

6. Red and buff shale 40 105 

7. Purple reds 10 115 

8. Concealed 10 125 

9. Sandstone, massive, coarse and 

pebbly, forming cliffs, Waynes- 
burg (Bottom 882' A. T.) 35 160 

10. Concealed and reds 30 190 

11. Sandstone, green micaceous ... 10 200 

12. Red and sandy beds 25 225 

13. Sandstone, gray, medium, Un- 

iontown 50 275 

14. Dark reds ♦. 15 290 

15. Sandstone, green, Arnoldsburg 20 310 

16. Dark limy reds 40 350 

17. Concealed and reds 10 , 360 

18. Sandstone, green, flaggy 20 * 380 

19. Shale 5 385 

20. Sandstone, shaly 25 410 

21. Shale 5 415 

22. Sandstone, Sewickiey, (Rock 

Creek) coarse and pebbly to 
top of John R. Johnson No. 1 

well (R 252) 10 425 

J. R. Johnson No. 1 Well Record. 

23. Unrecorded 52 477 

24. Coal, Lower Sewickiey? (Rock 

Creek) (Water at base) 4 481 

25. Unrecorded , 59 540 

26. Unrecorded 1150 1690 

27. Salt sand 85 1775 

28. Unrecorded 205 1980 



55' 



60' 



45' 



115' 



35' 



Dunkard 
160' 
Series. 



230' 



Mononga- 
hela 380' 
Series. 



Conemaugh, Allegheny 

1440' 
and Pottsville Series. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



77 



Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 

29. Little Lime 30 2010 

30. Pencil cave .* -. . . 6 2016 



36' Mauch Chunk. 



31. Big Lime 149 2165 I 149' Greenbrier 

I Limestone. 



32. Big Injun sand 44 



2209 



Pocono. 



Remarks — Show of oil in white sand at. .1175-1190' from top of well. 

Hole full of water 1275' from top of welJ. 

Show of oil at 1673' from top of well. 

Gas at 1675-1680' from top of well. 

Alojig the hill road leading south to Green creek, i mile 
above Kettle P. O., the writer measured with aneroid the fol- 
lowinjr section : 



Section i Mile East of- Kettle P. O., Harper District. 



Thickness. 
Ft. 

Sandstone, flaggy, Arnoldsburg. . . . 30 

Concealed 5 

Dark limy reds . . ". 25 

Buff shale 15 

Concealed and reds : 40 

Sewickley? sandstone, coarse, 
forms cliffs, pebbly, (Rock 

Creek) 45 

Concealed 10 

Sandstone, shaly 10 

Fire clay and trace of dark shale 

(Redstone coal) 0.5 

Limestone, silicious and yellow... 0.5 

Sandy shale 4 

Sandstone, shaly. Upper Pittsburg. 25 

Concealed 15 

Concealed 10 

Sandstone, coarse, pebbly, forms 

great cliffs, Lower Pittsburg 65 
Concealed to Green creek, 1 mile 

southeast of Kettle P. O. ... 27 



Total. 
Ft. 

30 

35 

60 

75 
115 



160 



170 
180 

180. 

181 

185 

210 

225 

235 

300 

327 



160' 



65' 



Conemaugh 

102' 
Series. 



Mononga- 
hela 225' 
Series. 



This is a very important section since it shows the rel- 
ative positions of the two great cliff rocks, Sewickley (Rock 
Creek) and Lower Pittsburg sandstones, along Green creek. 

Smithfield district lies southeast of Spencer district on 
the head waters of Pocatalico and Henry's fork. The follow- 



78 



GEOLOGY OF WIBT-BOAlSrE-CALHOUN AREA. 



ing section was obtained near the head of Clover run of 
Henry's fork by combining the log of the Oppenheimer & 
Kaufman^ No. i well (R 156) with a section measured by the 
writer with aneroid from the summit of a high hill near the 
well : 

Clover Run Section, Smithfield District. 

Thickness. Total. 
Ft. 
Sandstone, massive, coarse, 
brown, with large quartz peb- 
bles, forming cliff and cap- 
ping hill. Upper Marietta... 30 

Concealed 99.5 

Dark shale and fire clay (6") 
(Washington coal) 0.5 



Ft. 



30 
129.5 



30' 



100' 



4. Green shale, Washington 10 

5. Concealed 5 

6. Sandstone, massive, coarse 

brown, and large quartz peb- 
bles, forms cliff, Mannington 50 

7. Coal, slaty (10"), Waynesburg 

"A" 1 

7A. Fireclay and concealed 59 

8. Concealed to top of Oppen- 

heimer & Kaufman No. 1 
well (R 156) 45 



130 

140 
145 



195 

196 
255 



300 



125' 



Dunkard 

255' 
Series. 



Oppenheimer & Kaufman Well Record. 

9. Conductor (surface gravel) 10 310 

10. Sandstone, Uniontown 25 335 



80' 



11. Lime 15 

12. Reds 10 

13. Lime 10 

14. Slate 25 

15. Reds 20 

16. Lime 15 

17. Slate 10 

18. Lime 20 

19. Slate 5 

20. Lime 30 

21. Slate 10 

22. Lime 15 

23. Reds 5 

24. Lime 25 

25. Sandstone ..25'] Upper 

26. Slate 5 i Pittsburg 35 

27. Sandstone . . 5 J 

28. Lime 23 

29. Coal, Pittsburg 3 

(10" casing, 334') 



350 
360 
370 
395 
415 
430 
440 
460 
465 
495 
505 
520 
525 
550 

585 

608 
611 



276' 



Mononga- 
hela 356' 
Series. 



5 W. L. Stephens, Contractor for Heasley & Co., authority for well 
record. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



79 



Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 

30. Lime 69 680 

31. Sandstone 10 690 

32. Slate 5 695 

33. Lime 20 715 

34. Red rock 25 740 

35. Lime 20 760 

36. Sandstone, Connellsville 20 780 

37. Red rock 35 815 

38. Sandstone, Morgantown 25 840 

39. Red rock 60 900 

40. Sandstone, Grafton 10 910 

41. Red rock (Pittsburg shale) 50 960 

42. Lime 10 970 

43. Reds 30 1000 

44. Lime 10 1010 

45. Reds and lime 70 1080 

46. Lime (8"casing, 828') 40 1120 

47. Sandstone, Dunkard? 100 1220 

48. Slate and shells 80 1300 

49. Sandstone, Lower Freeport and 

Clarion 130 1430 

50. Black slate 20 1450 

51. Lime 15 1465 

52. Sandstone 10 1475 

53. Slate and shells 225 1700 

54. Sandstone 22 1722 

55. Slate and lime 40 1762 

56. Coal 2 1764 

57. Lime and slate 56 1820 

58. Sandstone 15 1835 

59. Slate 2 1837 

60. Salt sand 108 1945 

(Water, 13' in sand; hole fill- 
ed up) 

61. Slate 20 1965 

62. Sanflstone 10 1975 

63. Slate and shells 15 1990 

64. Coal 10 2000 

65. Lime 15 2015 

66. Sand, Maxton 35 2050 

67. Little Lime 35 2085 

68. Pencil cave 10 2095 

69. Big Lime 125 2220 

70. Big Injun sand (oil and gas 5' 

in) 22 2242 

71. Slate to bottom of hole 16 2258 



169' 

60' 

70' 

210' 
310' 

334' 



Cone- 

maugh 
819' and 
Allegheny 
Series. 



236' 



Pottsville 
570' 
Series. 



Mauch 

95' 
Chunk. 

125' Greenbrier 

Limestone. 

38' Pocono Sandstone. 



80 



GEOLOGY OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



This is a very important section in that the thickness of 
the Monongahela series is given as 356 feet, agreeing closely 
with the figures found in eastern Wirt countj^ as illustrated by 
the Straight creek section on page 62. The thickness of 
the Pottsville (570 feet) shows a great increase for this series 
over that (300 feet) from the northern end of the State. 

The following detailed record of a well drilled one mile 
and a quarter southwest of the place where the above section 
wa^ taken is interesting. The well starts 55 feet (hand-level 
measurement) below the base of the Mannington sandstone 
and near the base of the Dunkard series : 

L. D. Chambers No. i Well Record (R 158), Smithfield. 

Located i mile due east of Walnut Grove P. O. Author- 
ity, Heasley & Co. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

Conductor, gravel, etc 12 12 

Unrecorded 8 20 

Red shale 105 125 

White slate 110 235 

Sand 7 242 

Blue slate 68 310 

Sand, Upper Pittsburg 30 340 

Lime 18 358 

Coal, Pittsburg 2 360 

Brown slate 80 440 

Red rock 40 ' 480 

Lime 20 500 

Sand, Connellsville 25 525 

Slate, white 10 535 

Red rock 95 630 

Sand, Grafton 10 640 

Red rock, Pittsburg Red Shale 80 670 

Lime 5 675 

Sand 20 695 

Red rock 73 768 

Lime 32 800 

White slate 20 820 

Red rock 30 850 

Lime 25 875 

Dunkard sand 110 985 



Monongahela 

360' 
Series. 



165' 



115' 



235' 



110' 



Cone- 
maugh 
811' and 
Allegheny 

Series. 



WEST VIEGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



81 



Thickness Total. 

Ft. Ft 

White slate 55 1040 

Black sand 60 1100 

Black slate 20 1120 

Dark sand 44 1164 

Black slate 4 1168 

Coal, Lower Kittanning 3 1171 

Lime 54 1225 

Black slate 40 1265 

Lime 23 1288 

Slate 12 1300 

Lime 20 1320 

Sand 65 1385 

Slate 15 1400 

Sand 45 1445 

Dark sand 21 1466 

Slate 19 1485 

Sand 25 1510 

Coal 7 1517 

Lime 33 1550 

Sand 12 1562 

Black slate 3 1565 

White slate 13 1578 

Slate 2 1580 

Sand (water 5' in) 108 1688 

Coal 2 1690 

Lime 5 1695 

Sand 35 1730 

Lime 12 1742 

Red rock 18 1760 

Gray sand, Maxton 38 1798 

Slate 2 1800 

Little Lime 35 1835 

Pencil cave 5 1840 

Big Lime 65 1905 

Keener sand 30 1935 

Lime 31 1966 

Big Injun sand 35 2001 

(Gas at 19' in sand) 

(Oil at 22' in sand) 

Slate to bottom 6 2006 



186' 



Pottsville 

559' 
Series. 



Mauch 

110' 

Chunk. 



65' Greenbrier 
Limestone. 



101' Pocono. 



(This well made 8 to 10 bbls. of oil daily from the Big Injun sand 
when first drilled in during 1909.) 



The thickness of the Monongahela and Pottsville series 
agrees closely with the figures found in the Clover run section 
above. 
6 



82 



GEOLOGY OF WIRT-BOANE-OALHOUN AREA. 



On Rush run of "Poca", the writer obtained the following 
section 5 miles southwest from the L. D. Chambers well 
above, by combining the log of a well (R 159) drilled by the 
Carter Oil Co. with a section measured with aneroid southeast 
down a hill road to Rush run. In the upper portion of the 
section the intervals are slightly less than they should be for 
the reason that the measurements were made along the rise of 
the rocks : 

Section ^ Mile Southwest of Rushville, Smithfield District. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

1. Concealed from top of hill west 

of Rushville P. 55 55 

2. Sandstone, massive, Hundred.. 20 75 

3. Concealed 25 100 

4. Sandstone, Upper Marietta 30 130 

5. Red shale, dark with limestone 

nuggets, "Creston reds" 65 195 

6. Sandstone, green, micaceous. 

Lower Marietta 15 - 210 

7. Concealed 3 213 

8. Fire clay 1 214 

9. Coal (12"), Waslilngton 1 215 

10. Green sliale, Washington 10 225 

11. Sandstone, limy aod concealed 20 245 

12. Sandstone, witli sFiale layers, 

Mannington 40 285 

13. Concealed and sandstone 40 325 

ISA. Concealed 20 345 

14. Concealed 35 380 

15. Red limy shale 13 393 

16. Sandstone 2 395 

17. Concealed to Jos. Dalton No. 1 

well (R 159) 20 415 

Jos. Dalton Well Record. (R 159.) 

18. Unrecorded in well 285 700 

19. Unrecorded 445 1145 

20. Sandstone, Mahoning and Up- 

per Freeport 160 1305 

21. Unrecorded 150 1455 

22. Sandstone 100 1555 



75' 



55' 



85' 



130' 



70' 



285' 



605' 



250' 



Dunkard 
345' 
Series. 



Mononga- 
hela 355' 
Series. 



Cone- 
maugh 
855' and 
Allegheny 

Series. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



83 



Thickness. Total. 



Ft. 

23. Unrecorded 100 

24. Salt sand 60 

25. Salt sand 265 

26. Unrecorded 141 

27. Sand, Maxton 20 

28. Little Lime and Pencil cave... 37 

29. Big Lime 55 



30. Big Injun sand 122 

31. Unrecorded 333 

32. Berea sand 2 

33. Slate to bottom 84 



Ft. 
1655 
1715 
1980 
2121 

2141 
2178 

2233 



2355 
2688 
2690 

2774 



566' Pottsvllle Series. 



57' Mauch Chunk. 



55' Greenbrier 
Limestone. 



457' Pocono Series. 



84' Catskill. 



About 2^4 miles southeast of Rushville, the writer meas- 
ured the following section with aneroid southeast down a hill 
road to Laurel fork. For the same reason given above, the 
intervals are less than they should be : 

Section Yi Mile West of Looneyville, Smithfield District. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

1. Sandstone, green, micaceous. 

Lower Marietta, capping 
knob 1.3 miles N. "W. of 

Looneyville 20 20 

2. Concealed 20 40 

3. Reds 8 48 

4. Limy sandstone 1 49 

5. Shale 5 54 

6. Limy sandstone 1 55 

7. Red and variegated shale 15 70 

7A. Red and variegated shale.... 20 90 

8. Reds and sandstone, Waynes- 

burg 40 130 

9. Concealed 10 140 

10. Sandstone, coarse brown, fria- 

ble 10 150 

11. Concealed 25 175 

12. Sandstone, green, micaceous, 

Uniontown 20 195 

13. Concealed, mostly reds 15 210 

14. Reds 5 215 

15. Sandstone, green, micaceous, 

broken, shaly, Arnoldsburg. . 20 236 



130' Dunkard Series. 



65' 



40' 



Mononga- 
hela 320* 
Series. 



84 



GEOLOGY OF WIBT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

16. Reds, with limestone nuggets.. 15 250 

17. Concealed 15 265 

18. Buff sandy shale 15 280 

19. Reds 10 290 

20. Buff shale 2 292 

21. Sandstone, green, micaceous. . 18 310 

22. Concealed and shale 10 320 

23. Sandstone, limy on top 5 325 

24. Shale 5 330 

25. Shale and concealed 5 335 

26. Sandstone, massive, coarse and 

pebbly, Sewickley? (Rock 
Creek) to Laurel fork level 

at first road fork 50 385 

27. Interval (supplied) 65 450 

28. Pittsburg coal horizon (sup- 

plied) 450 



150' 



65' 



South of Spencer along the Right fork of Spring creek, 
the Mannington sandstone may be observed to undergo a 
structural change, breaking up from a great, coarse, massive, 
pebbly statum 40 to 50 feet thick into several alternate layers 
of red shales and sandstones, and it appears to preserve the 
latter characteristic in the western portion of Smithfield dis- 
trict on Rush and Laurel forks of "Poca". 

The following section was measured with aneroid by the 
writer about 3 miles southeast of Looneyville along a hill road 
leading northwest down on the head of "Poca". The rocks 
here are dipping southeast; and hence the intervals are short- 
er than they should be : 

Section on Head of Poca. River, Smithfield District. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

1. Sandstone, capping knob, 2 

miles N. W. of Bright P. O. 10 10 

2. Reds and concealed with thin 

sandstones 15 25 

3. Sandstone, massive, coarse, 

brown and friable 30 55 

4. Red and sandy shale 30 85 • 

5. Sandstone, coarse and pebbly, 

Sewickley? (Rock Creek).. 35 120 



10' 



110' 



Mononga- 
hela 175' 
Series. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



85 



Thickness. Total. 



Ft. 

6. -Sandy shale 5 

7. Limestone, silicious (6") 0.5 

8. Sandy shale and sandstone.... 24.5 

9. Shale 15 

10. Concealed and shale 8 

11. Coal, Pittsburg (945' B-A. T.) . . 2 

12. Gray shale 5 

13. Concealed and shale 10 

14. Sandstone, coarse 25' 1 

15. Concealed 25 | Lower 

16. Sandstone, coarse j Pilts- 

gray to level of j- burg . . 60 
Poca. river at 
road fork (U. S. 
875' A. T.) ....10 



Ft. 

125 

125.5 

150 

165 

173 

175 

180 
190 



250 



55' 



Cone- 
maugh 
75' 
Series. 



Walton district adjoins Smithfield on the south and west 
and occupies the southern central portion of Roane county. In 
the northern part of Walton district and opposite the mouth 
of Round Knob run of "Poca", the following section was 
measured by the writer with aneroid : 



Shamblings Mill Section, Walton District. 



Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 

1. Sandstone, concealed and sand- 

stone. Hundred, capping knob, 

% mile southward 45 45 

2. Concealed along bench 25 70 

3. Sandstone, massive, coarse, 

brown. Upper IVIarietta, form- 
ing near by the famous "toad- 
stool" or "curious rock" 35 105 

4. Concealed and reds (Creston) 

along bench 60 165 

5. Sandstone, green, micaceous, 

Lower Marietta 20 185 

6. Concealed 5 190 

7. Dark shale blossom, Washing- 

ton coal horizon 190 

8. Green shale, Washington 10 200 

9. Concealed along flat 60 260 

10. Concealed 20 .280 

11. Sandstone, green, micaceous, 

Waynesburg 30 310 



105' 



85' 



70' 



50' 



Dunkard 
310' 
Series. 



86 



GEOLOGY OF WIRT-ROANE- CALHOUN ABEA. 



Thickness, Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

12. Concealed 90 400 

13. Sandstone, Uniontown 25 425 



14. Concealed to Poca, river at 

mouth of Round Knob run. . 45 



470 



115' 



45' 



Mononga- 
hela 160' 
Series. 



The following section was measured southeast down a 
hill road with aneroid by the writer to Poca. river level at 
Walton : 

Walton Section, Walton District. 



Thickness. Total. 
Ft. 

1. Sandstone and concealed from 

top of knob 25 

2. Sandstone, massive. Upper Ma- 

rietta 35 

a. Concealed (Creston Reds) .... 69.5 

4. Dark shale and fire clay (Wash- 

ington coal) 0.5 

5. Green shale, (Washington) 10 

6. Dark reds and concealed 40 

7. Sandstone, massive, Manning- 

ton 20 

8. Concealed and reds 60 

9. Sandstone, massive, Giiboy.... 30 

10. Concealed 50 

11. Concealed to road fork at Wal- 

ton (U. S. 712' A. T.) 30 

12. Concealed to river 15 



Ft. 




25 


60' 


60 




129.5 
130 


70' 


140 
180 

200 
260 


130' 


290 
340 

370 
385 


Monongahela 

125' 
Series. 



Dunkard 
260' 
Series. 



This is a very important section in that the horizon of the 
well known "track rocks", occurring on top of formation No. 
2, is identified as the Upper Marietta sandstone, coming as it 
does 75' over the undoubted Washington coal. These tracks 
will be discussed more fully on a subsequent page of this 
report. 

Two and one-half miles due south of Virgil P. O. on Cot- 
tontree run, the writer obtained the following section by com- 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



87* 



bining the log of a gas well (R 201) drilled by the United Fuel 
Co. with a section measured with aneroid southward from the 
summit of a high point to the well : 

Cottontree Run Section, Walton District. 



Thickness, Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

1. Sandstone, coarse, gray, large 

quartz pebbles, capping high 
point, Sewickley?. (Rock 

Creek) 45 45 

2. Concealed 65 110 

3. Concealed (horizon of Pittsburg 

coal) 110 

4. Concealed 40 150 

5. Sandstone, massive, broken. 

Lower Pittsburg 20 170 

6. Concealed 10 180 

7. Sandstone, coarse, gray, some 

pebbles 30 210 

8. Concealed 10 220 

9. Sandstone, massive, coarse, 

gray, Connellsville 20 240 

10. Concealed to top of W. S. Lew- 

is No. 8 well (R 201) 180 420 

W. S. Lewis No. 8 Record. 
(Elevation=715' L-A. T.) 

11. Slate 100 520 

12. Limestone 20 540 

13. Slate 40 580 

14. Sandstone, Buffalo, Mahoning 

and Upper Freeport 150 730 

15. Slate 25 755 

16. Sandstone, Lower Freeport 35 790 

17. Slate 60 850 

18. Sandstone, Clarion? 30 880 

19. Slate 40 920 

20. Slate 36 956 

21. Slate 24 980 

22. Sandstone, Homewood 110 1090 

23. Slate 5 1095 

24. Sandstone 10 1105 

25. Slate 80 1185 

26. Sandstone 48 1233 

^7. Slate 72 1305 

28. Sandstone 135 1440 

29. Salt sand 440 1880 

30. Little lime 40 1920 

31. Pencil cave 7 1927 



Monongahela 

110' 
Series. 



ISC 



490' 



250' 



Cone- 
maugh 
870' and 
Allegheny 

Series. 



Pottsville 

900* 
Series. 



47' Mauch Chunk. 



88 



GEOLOGY OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 

32. Big Lime 123 2050 123' Greenbrier 

Limestone. 

33. Big injun sand 35 2085 I 40' Pocono 

34. Slate to bottom of hole 5 2090 | Sandstones. 

» (Sewicl<!ey Sand — Big Lime lnterval = 1882 ft.) 

(Pittsburg coal — Big Lime Interva!=i1817 ft.) 

The Pottsville has thickened up locally to over 900 feet, 
and cut away most of the Mauch Chunk series. 

The following section was obtained by combining the log 
of a gas well (R 197) on the head of Hardcamp run, a branch 
of Cottontree in the extreme eastern part of Walton district, 
with an aneroid section measured southward down the hill 
road to the well : 



Section i Mile S. W. of Kester P. O. 

Thickness. TotaL 
Ft. Ft. 

1. Sewlckley? (Rocl< Creek) sand- 

stone, coarse and pebbly, at 
cross-road, head of IHard- 
camp 55 55 

2. Concealed 65 120 

2A. Concealed 10 130 

3. Sandy shale 5 135 

4. Concealed 5 140 

5. Sandstone, Lower Pittsburg... 40 180 

6. Concealed 15 195 

7. Red and variegated shale 20 215 

8. Sandstone, Connellsville, to top 

of H. Marshall Vinyard No. 

1 well (R 197) 25 240 

H. M. Vinyard Well Record, 

9. Drift, surface gravel 17 257 

10. Sandstone, Morgantown (Mur- 

phy) 53 310 

11. Red rock (Big Reds), Pittsburg 

shale and clay 255 565 

12. Sandstone, Buffalo, Mahoning 

and Upper Freeport 150 715 

13. Coal, Lower Freeport 3 718 

14. Slate 102 820 

15. Sandstone, Lower Freeport. .. .105 925 



Walton District. 



Monongahela 

120' 
Series. 



120' 



70' 



408' 



207' 



Cone- 
maugh 
805' and 
Allegheny 

Series. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



89 



Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 

16. Slate 130 1055 

17. Sandstone 35 1090 

18. Slate 25 1115 

19. Sandstone 125 1240 

20. Slate 100 1340 

21. Sandstone 45 1385 

22. Slate 5 1390 

23. Salt sand, (gas show 40' in).. 330 1720 

24. Slate 15 1735 

25. Little lime 55 1790 

26. Pencil cave 12 1802 



27. Big Lime (gas show 36' in) 



.125 



1927 



28. Big Injun sand 40 1967 

29. Slate to bottom .'. 2 1969 



Pottsville 

795' 
Series. 



82' Mauch Chunk, 



125' Greenbrier 
Limestone. 

42' Pocono 
Sandstones. 



(Sewickley sand — Big Lime interval = 1747 ft. 
(Upper Freeport coal — Big Lime interval = 1087 feet) 

Here the Pottsville is only 795 feet thick, but the Mauch 
Chunk is almost double its thickness in the Cottontree run 
section above. 

In the southeastern portion of Walton district the writer 
measured the following aneroid section from the summit of 
a high knob, 2 miles and a half N. 62° W. of Cotton P. O., 
eastward down a private hill road to Lefthand creek, ys mile 
below the mouth of Coleman run : 

Section 2i<4 Miles N. W. of Cotton, Walton District. 



Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 

1. Concealed from top of high 

knob to fork of road (U. S. 

1104' A. T.) on ridge 150 150 

2. Concealed along private road 

to east 20 170 

3. Sandstone, coarse, massive, peb- 

bly, Sewickley?. (Rock 

Creek) 45 215 

4. Concealed 55 270 

5. Sandstone, flaggy. Upper Pitts- 

burg .. . 35 305 



215' 



90' 



Mononga- 
hela 305' 
Series. 



90 



GEOLOGY OP WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft Ft. 

6. Concealed 35 340 

7. Sandstone, coarse, gray, form- 

ing cliff, Lower Pittsburg.. 55 395 

8. Concealed 30 425 

9. Sandstone, Connellsville 20 445 

10. Concealed 65 510 

11. Sandstone, flaggy, Morgantown 30 540 

12. Concealed 15 555 

13. Coal blossoms, trace (Elk Lick) 555 

14. Concealed to Lefthand creek, 

1-5 mile below mouth of Cole- 
man run 40 595 



90' 



160' 



40' 



Cone- 

maugh 

290' 
Series. 



Geary district lies east of Walton district and south of 
• Smithfield, occupying the southeastern corner of Roane 
county. 



Section i Mile S. E. of Bright P. O., Geary District. 



Thickness. Total. 



Ft. 
1. Concealed from top of hill, head 
Dog Run to low gap (U. S. 

1074' A. T.) 100 

Concealed and sandstone 35 

Gray, limy shale 10 



Sandstone 5 

Concealed 30 

Sandstone, massive, Upper 

Pittsburg 5 

Concealed and shale 3.5 

Coal 2' 

Shaly clay ..46"}- Pittsburg 6.5 



10. Coal 



.30" 



Ft. 



100 
135 
145 
150 
180 

185 
188.5 

195 



200 



11. Concealed 5 

12. Sandstone, weathered white. 

Lower Pittsburg 55 255 

W. P. Drake* No. 1 Well (R 172) Record, 

13. Unrecorded 178.5 433.5 

14. Sandstone, Morgantown (Mur- 

phy) 55 488.5 

15. Red rock (Big Reds) 115 603.5 

16. Slate and shells 130 733.5 

17. Sandstone, Buffalo, Mahoning 

and Upper Freeport 150 883.5 



Monongahela 

195' 
Series. 



293.5' 



395' 



Cone- 
maugh 
898.5' and 
Allegheny 

Series. 



6. In this well the Pittsburg coal was struck at 140 ft. in depth; 
hence this section starts 48.5 ft. above the well mouth. — R. V. H. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



91 



Thickness. Total. 



Ft. 

18. Slate 51 

19. Sandstone, Lower Freeport.... 74 

20. Slate 10 

21. Sandstone, Clarion 60 

22. Slate 15 

23. Sandstone, Homewood 105 

24. Slate 90 

25. Sandstone 30 

26. Slate 15 

27. Sandstone 45 

28. Slate 35 

29. Sandstone 45 

30. Slate 70 

31. Sandstone 90 

32. Slate 20 

33. Sandstone 290 

(Water at 1665' and 1780'). 

34. Slate 10 

35. Sandstone 35 

36. Pencil cave 20 



Ft 



37. Big Lime 



38. Big Injun sand 

(Gas at 2065' and 2080'). 



55 



80 



934.6 




1008.5 


210' 


1018.5 




1078.5 




1093.5 




1198.5 




1288.5 




1318.5 




1333.5 




1378.5 




1413.5 


Potts ville 


1458.5 


835' 


1528.5 


Series. 


1618.5 




1638.5 




1928.5 




1938.5 


Mauch 


1973.5 


65' 


1993.5 


Chunk. 


2048.5 


55' Greenbrier 




Limestone. 


2128.5 


80' Pocono. 



(This well is being drilled on down to Berea sand. W. H. Hays, 
a driller on well, authority for record.) 

(Pittsburg coal— Big Lime interval =1798.5 ft.) 

The following is the log of a well (R 170) drilled in 1909 
by the Hope Natural Gas Co. on a branch of Granny creek, 
located 1.8 miles southwest of Newton on the Davidson Drake 
farm. W. H. Barnhart, Contractor, is authority for the record. 
The well starts 57 feet below the top of the Buffalo (Newton) 
sandstone : 



Section 1.8 Miles S. W. of Newton; Geary District. 

(Elevation =730' B-A. T.) 

Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 

Conductor (surface gravel) 13 13 

Sandstone, Big Dunl<ard, (Mahon- 80' 

Ing) 67 



Slate 50 

Sandstone, Lower Freeport 130 

Slate 40 



80 

130 
260 
300 



220' 



Cone- 
maugh 
300' and 
Allegheny 

Series. 



92 



GEOLOGY OF WIRT-ROANE-OALHOUN AREA. 



Thickness. Total. 
Ft Ft. 



Sandstone, (Homewood) 40 

Slate 60 

Coal, Stockton 5 

Sandstone, Coalburg 55 

Slate 64 

Shale 24 

Limestone 32 

Sandstone 50 

Limestone 82 

Sandstone 38 

Limestone 55 

Sandstone 125 

Limestone 15 

Salt sand (water at 950') 95 

Slate 50 

Sandstone (hole full of water at 

1115') 170 

Slate 10 

Red lime 10 

Sand, Maxton 38 

Slate 2 

Little lime 35 

Sandstone, Dawson, Maxton 20 

Slate 10 



Big Lime (gas at 1440') 



75 



340 
400 
405 
460 
524 
548 
580 
630 
712 
750 
805 
930 
945 
1040 
1090 

1260 

1270 
1280 
1318 
1320 
1355 
1375 
1385 

1460 



Pottsville 

960' 
Series. 



Big Injun sand (gas at 1480') 63 1523 

Slate to bottom of hole 2 1525 



Mauch 

125' 

Chunk. 



75' Greenbrier 
Limestone. 

65' Pocono. 



This section shows that the Pottsville series is still in- 
creasing in thickness quite rapidly to the southeast from the 
northwestern end of the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area. 

The writer measured the following aneroid section south- 
ward down the point to the mouth of Little Lefthand run, a 
branch of Lefthand run : 

Section ^ Mile N. E. of Amma P. O. Geary District. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

1. Sandstone, capping point, 

coarse and pebbly, Sewick- 

ley? (Rock Creek) 45 45 

2. Concealed and shale 30 75 

3. Sandstone, flaggy, Upper Pitts- 

burg 25 100 

4. Concealed 10 110 



Monongahela 

110' 
Series. 



WEST VIBGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



93 



Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 

5. Concealed and shale 

6. Sandstone, coarse, Lower Pitts- 

burg 

7. Concealed to forks of Lefthand 



run 



10 


120 


75' 


Cone- 


65 


185 




maugh 
400' 


325 


510 


325' 


Series. 



The base of this section comes about 30 to 40 feet over 
the Bakerstown (Uler) coal, the crop of which is exposed just 
above stream level at Amma P. O. at 695' A. T. 

About 2 miles northeast of Osbornes Mills, the writer 
measured the following aneroid section on the head of Wier- 
long run of Big Sandy creek, southward from the summit of a 
high knob : 

Wierlong Run Section, Geary District. 



Thickness. 
Ft. 

1. Sandstone, coarse, large quartz 

pebbles, capping ridge at 
head of Wierlong run, Sew- 
ickley? (Rock Creek) 50 

2. Concealed and sandy shale. ... 95 

3. Fire clay, trace (Pittsburg coal 

horizon) 



4, Sandstone and sandy shale.... 15 

5. Sandstone, coarse, brown, 

forming cliff at low gap, Low- 
er Pittsburg 60 



Total. 
Ft. 



50 
145 

145 
160 

220 



Monongahela 

145' 
Series. • 



75' 



9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 

13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 



Fire clay, trace 

Reds 5 

Sandy shale and shaly sand- 
stone 20 

Concealed 20 

Reds 25 

Sandstone, shaly 5 

Dark reds with limestone nug- 
gets, "Pittsburg Reds" 70 

Sandstone, flaggy 20 

Concealed 5 

Sandstone, green and shaly 20 

Concealed and reds 10 

Concealed with reds 45 

Sandstone, massive, coarse, 
gray, Saltsburg 30 



19. Fire clay, concealed and reds.. 25 

20. Sandstone, massive, Buffalo.... 55 



21. Dark shale to bed of run. 



10 



220 




225 




245 




265 




290 




295 




365 
385 


275' 


390 




410 




420 




465 




495 




520 
575 


80' 


585 


10' 



Cone- 

maugh 

440' 
Series. 



94 



GEOLOGY OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Farther southeast the writer measured the following sec- 
tion from the top of a high knob, at the corner of Roane and 
Kanawha counties, northward down a private hill road to Big 
Sandy creek at the mouth of Wierlong run : 

Section 1.7 Miles East of Osbornes Mills, Geary District. 



Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 
1. Concealed from top of high 
knob, comer in Roane-Ka- 
nawha line 45 45 



2. Sandstone, coarse... 

3. Concealed along flat. 

4. Sandstone, coarse . . 



Lower 25 
Pitts- 20 
burg 25 



5. Concealed 30 

6. Concealed 40 

7. Dark reds 10 

8. Sandstone, green, micaceous, 

shaly 35 

9. Concealed and reds 70 

10. Sandstone, coarse, friable on 

top, Grafton 30 

11. Concealed and reds 50 

12. Concealed 40 

13. Sandstone, coarse, grayish 

white, Saitsburg 30 

14. Concealed 15 

15. iVIassive sandstone, coarse, 

grayish white and pebbly, 

Buffalo 41 

16. Coal, Brush Creek 4 

17. Sandstone, massive to fork of 

road, (U. S. 660' A. T.) oppo- 
site mouth of Wierlong run. 55 

18. Concealed to Big Sandy creek. 10 



70 

90 

115 

145 
185 
195 

230 
300 

330 

380 
420 

450 
465 



506 
510 



565 
575 



Monongahela 

45' 
Series. 



70' 



215' 



176' 



4' 



65' 



Cone- 

maugh 

530' 
Series. 



The following section was obtained at Uler P. O. by com- 
bining the log of a dry hole (R 167) drilled by the South Penn 
Oil Co. in 1909 with an aneroid section measured by the writer 
from the summit of Weedy Knob, located 1.4 miles southeast 
of Uler, northward down the hill leading to the latter point : 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



95 



Weedy Knob Section, Geary District. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

1. Concealed, mostly reds from 

summit of Weedy Knob 70 70 

2. Sandstone, forming bluff, and 

concealed, Arnoldsburg .... 30 100 

3. Fire clay (spring water) (Low- 

er Unlontown coal) 100 

4. Sandstone, green, micaceous... 10 110 

5. Sandy shale 20 130 

6. Reds 25 155 

7. Concealed 20 175 

8. Sandy shale and thin sand- 

stones 35 210 

9. Concealed and coarse brown 

sandstone 15 225 

10. Sandy shale 15 240 

11. Concealed 30 270 

12. Sandstone, coarse, gray. Upper 

Pittsburg 55 325 

12A. Pittsburg coal horizon 325 



100' 



225' 



Mononga- 
hela 325' 
Series. 



13. Concealed, (mostly sandstone).. 45 370 

14. Sandstone, massive, to foot of 

general steep slope 30 400 

15. Concealed and reds 90 490 

16. Sandstone, massive, green, 

coarse, Morgantown 40 530 

17. Concealed ' 15 545 

18. Rod and variegated shale 20 565 

19. Sandstone, massive, Grafton... 30 595 

20. Fire clay, (spring) (Harlem 

coal horizon) 595 

21. Concealed along bench 15 610 

22. Sandstone 15 625 

23. Concealed 40 665 

24. Sandstone, massive, Saltsburg.. 40 705 

25. Coal, Bakerstown, 12" to 4 709 

26. Unrecorded in W. F. Wilson No. 

1 well (R 167) 190 899 

27. Interval in same 1270 2169 



28. Big Lime 150 2319 



29. Big Injun sand 10 2329 

30. Unrecorded to bottom ,.1050 3379 



205' 



65' 



114' 



190' 



Cone- 

maugh 

574' 
Series. 



1270' Allegheny, Potts- 
ville and Mauch 
Chunk. 

150' Greenbrier 
Limestone. 

1060' Pocono and 
Catskill. 



96 



GEOLOGY OF WIBT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



The following section was obtained in the extreme south- 
eastern part of Geary district by combining the log of a dry 
hole (R 1 68) drilled on the W. C. Tallman farm in the edge of 
Clay county, }i mile south of Wallback P. O., with an aneroid 
section measured by the writer from the summit of a high 
knob located ^ mile northwest of the well. Mr. Tallman is 
authority for the log of this well : 

Section at Wallback P. O., Geary District. 



Thickness. 
Ft. 

1. Concealed and shale from top 

of knob % mile N. W, of 
Wallback .' 15 

2. Sandstone, flaggy 25'] Sewick- 

3. Sandstone, massive, I ley? ... 40 

pebbly 15' J 

4. Concealed and shale 10 

5. Sandstone, massive, large 

quartz pebbles, (Rock Creek) 45 

6. Concealed and shale 50 

7. Sandstone, concealed and sand- 

stone. Upper Pittsburg to 
bench 60 



Total. 
Ft. 



15 



55 



65 



110 
160 



220 



55' 



105' 



60' 



Mononga- 
hela 220' 
Series. 



8. Concealed and sandstone 80 300 

9. Concealed 265 565 

10. Sandstone, massive, coarse, peb- 

bly, Saitsburg 40 605 

11. Shales 4 609 

12. Coal, Bakerstown 1 610 

13. Concealed to top of W. C. Tail- 

man No. 1 well (R 168) 15 625 

Well Record. 

14. Surface gravel 18 643 

15. Sandstone, Buffalo, Mahoning, 

Freeport, etc 422 1065 

16. Coal, Roaring Creek 10 1075 

17. Sandstone, Homewood 75 1150 

18. Coal, Stockton 6 1156 

19. Sandstone, Coalburg : 69 1225 

20. Slate 20 1245 

21. Sandstone 25 1270 

22. Slate and limestone 300 1570 

23. Sandstone 55 1625 

24. Limestone and slate 106 1731 

25. Salt sand 294 2025 



390' 



465' 



Cone- 
maugh 
855' and 
Allegheny 

Series. 



Pottsville 

950' 
Series. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



97 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

26. Slate and limestone 85 2110 

27. Red rock 10 2120 

28. Little Lime 35 2155 

29. Pencil cave 10 2165 

30. Big Lime 130 2295 

(3 breaks and all caved) 

31. Big Injun sand 6 2301 

32. Limestone 54 2355 

33. Slate 108 2463 

34. Limestone 52 2515 

35. Slate and hard shells 510 3025 

36. Sandstone, Gantz 25 3050 

37. Slate and shells 576 3626 

(Dry hole). 



Mauch 

140' 

Chunk. 

130' 



730' 



6or 



Pocono and 
1331' 
Catskill. 



Formation No. 15 of the above section was recorded by 
the driller as all sand, but it is quite evident that he neglected 
to record slate divisions, since no such thickness (422 ft.) of 
continuous sand has ever been recorded at this horizon in the 
Appalachian area. 

CALHOUN COUNTY SECTIONS. 

Several scattered sections will now be given by magis- 
terial districts in Calhoun county. 

Sheridan district occupies the northwestern portion of 
Calhoun. Mr. Reger measured the following section with 
aneroid from the top of a high knob west of Brooksville down 
the river hill to water level near the town: 

Brooksville (Big Bend P. O.) Section, Sheridan District. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

1. Red shale, capping knob west 

of town 35 35 

2. Sandstone, hard, brown, 19.5 54.5 

3. Slate, gray 0.5 55 

4. Limestone, sliaiy 2 57 

7 



57' 



98 



GEOLOGY OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Thickness. 
Ft. 

5. Concealed 13 

6. Sandstone, hard, brown, flaggy, 

micaceous. Lower Marietta.. 15 

7. Concealed 15 

7A. Concealed 25 

8. Sandstone and concealed 15 

9. Sandstone, hard, brown, fine 

grained, flaggy 5 

10. Shale, gray 5 

11. Sandstone, massive, making 

overhanging cliff 10 

12. Slate, gray 0.3'") Waynesburg 

13. Red shale 1.7' [ "A" coal 2.3 

14. Slate, gray 0.3' J horizon 

15. Limestone, silicious 4.7 

16. Sandstone, shaly 5 

17. Gray shale, with limestone nug- 

gets 8 

18. Sandstone, hard 

and gray 5' 

19. Shale, gray 5 j Waynes- 

20. Sandstone, shaly. 5 burg sand- 

21. Limestone, sili- i- stone 32 

cious 5 

22. Shale, red 8 

23. Sandstone, limy. 4 



Total. 
Ft. 

70 

85 
100 

125 
140 

145 

150 

160 



162.3 

167 
172 

180 



212 



43' 



60' 



52' 



Dunkard 
212' 
Series. 



24. Concealed and red limy shale. . ,, 13 225 

25. Sandstone, shaly 4 229 

26. Slate, brown 3 232 

27. Sandstone, gray, massive, coarse 

grained, Gilboy 33 265 

28. Limestone, silicious, gray 15 280 

29. Sandstone, brown, massive.... 15 295 

30. Slate 3 298 

31. Concealed to public road (U. S. 

B. M. 673' A. T.) 52 350 

32. Concealed 8 358 

33. Sandstone, gray and flaggy 2 360 

34. Concealed to river 15 375 



53' 



110' 



Mononga- 
hela 163' 
Series. 



The following aneroid section was measured by Mr, Reger 
southeast down the Little Kanawha river hill and joined with 
the record of the B. P. Ferrell No. 3 (C 306) well: 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



99 



Section i Mile N. W. of Purdy P. O., Sheridan District. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

1. Sandstone, flaggy and brown, 

Hundred 10 10 

2. Concealed 100 110 

3. Sandstone, coarse, brown, and 

pebbly Lower Marietta 45 155 

4. Concealed 10 165 

5. Coal blossom, Washington (945' 

B-A. T.) 165 

6. Shale, greenish yellow, Wash- 

ington 3 168 

7. Limestone, brecciated. 2 170 

8. Sandstone, shaly 10 180 

9. Concealed 30'] Mannlng- 

10. Sandstone, green, I- ton Sand- 45 225 

fine, flaggy 15 J stone 

11. Concealed 20 245 

12. Sandstone, shaly, green and mi- 

caceous, Waynesburg 40 285 

13. Slate, gray 1 2»6 

14. Concealed 19 305 

15. Sandstone, massive, grayish 

brown, Uniontown 50 355 

16. Coal (2"), Uniontown (755' B-A. 

T.) - 355 

17. Shale, gray 1 356 

18. Sandstone, gray, massive, me- 

dium grained and hard 24 380 

19. Flint, red and gray with green 

coating on cleavage planes.. 10 390 

20. Concealed and red shale to level 

of B. P. Ferrell No. 3 (C 306) 

well 40 430 

B. P. Ferrell No. 3 Well Record. 

21. Unrecorded 205 635 

22. Unrecorded 1065 1700 

23. Salt sand (gas 110' in; water 

170' in) 265 1965 

24. Little Lime 20 1985 

25. Pencil cave 10 1995 



165' 



60' 



60' 



70' 



280' 



Dunkard 

285' 
Series. 



Mononga- 
hela 350' 
Series. 



Ponemaugh, AUe- 

1330' 
gheny and Pottsville. 

30' Mauch Chunk. 



26. Big Lime 



90 



27. Keener and Big Injun sands... 70 

28. Slate, black 348 

29. Berea sand (oil and gas 19' in) 30 



2085 

2155 
2503 
2533 



90' Greenbrier Lime- 
stone. 

448' Pocono 
Sandstones. 



30. Unrecorded to bottom of hole.. 3 



2536 



Catskill. 



100 



GEOLOGY OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



This is a very important section in that both the Wash- 
ington and Uniontown coals are given. The Washington coal 
— Big Lime interval is here shown to be 1830 feet. 

Center district is situated in the north central portion of 
Calhoun county. At its western margin, 2 miles northwest of 
Grantsville, Mr. Reger measured the following hand-level sec- 
tion southeast down the "Nighcut" hill road to the Little 
Kanawha river. This is a very important section in that two 
coals (Uniontown and Lower Uniontown) make their appear- 
ance in the section. 

Nighcut Hill Section, Center District. 



Thickness. 
Ft. 

1. Concealed from top of hill % 

mile southeast from Purdy P. 
O 100 

2. Sandstone, coarse, brown and 

friable, Waynesburg 33 

3. Red limy shale 4 

4. Concealed 11 

5. Red limy shale 11 

6. Brown shale 11 

7. Sandstone 5.5 

8. Concealed and brown shale 19.5 

9. Coal, Uniontown 0.5 



Total. 
Ft.. 



100 

133 

137 

148 

159 

170 

175.5 

195 

195.5 

203 
208.5 
230.5 
231.5 

236 



10. Sandstone, limy 7.5 

11. Limestone, shaly, Uniontown... 5.5 

12. Sandy shale and sandstone.... 22 

13. Shale and fire clay 1 

14. Coal, slaty 12" 1 Lower 

15. Fire clay 36"}- Uniontown ... 4.5 

16. Coal, slaty 6" J (Elev. = 808' L-A. T.) 

17. Brown shale 6.5 242 . 5 

18. Shale with brecciated limestone 

nuggets 17.5 260 

19. Sandstone 1.5' 

20. Shale, limy 3.0 

21. Sandstone, flaggy ...11.0 i^ 43 303 

22. Sandstone, limy and 

shaly 27.5 

23. Shale 22 325 

24. Sandstone 16.5' , Rock 

25. Shale 11.0 / Creek 

26. Sandstone, mas- f Sand- . 41 366 

sive 13.5 stone 



133' Dunkard Series. 



62.5' 



40.5' 



67' 



63' 



Mononga- 
hela 256' 
Series. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



101 



Thickness. 
Ft. 

27. Concealed to top of L. E. Betts 

No. 1 well (C287) 3 

28. Concealed to Little Kanawha 

river at foot of Nighcut hill 
road 20 



Total. 
Ft. 

369 



389 



23' 



120' Dunkard Series. 



90' 



75' 



The w^riter measured the following section with aneroid 
from the summit of a high knob one-half mile southwest of 
Grantsville north-east down to river level at the latter point : 

Grantsville Section, Calhoun County. 

Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

1. Concealed from top of knob. ... 55 55 

2. Sandstone, green and flaggy, 

Waynesburg 45 100 

3. Concealed 20 120 

3%. Concealed and reds 55 175 

4. Sandstone, green, micaceous, 

fine grained, Uniontown 35 210 

5. Concealed with limestone boul- 

ders 45 255 

6. Sandstone, green, micaceous, 

Arnoldsburg? 30 285 

7. Concealed 20 305 

8. Shale, buff and sandy 15 320 

9. Concealed 44 364 

10. Limestone, gray and hard, 6" to 1 365 

11. Sandstone, massive 15 380 

12. Concealed to Little Kanawha 

river at Grantsville (670' L-A. 

T.) 105 485 

Th© Washington coal comes very close the top of the 
section; hence the horizon of the Pittsburg coal cannot be 
more than 15 to 20 feet below low water level at Grantsville. 

The following section was obtained by combining the log 
of the J. H. Martin^ No. i well (C 283), located one mile due 
north of Grantsville on Leafbank run, with an aneroid section, 
measured by the writer southeast down the second hill road 
and joined to the well mouth : 



200' 



Mononga- 
hela 365' 
Series. 



7 Record furnished by the owner, G. L. Cabot, Boston, Mass. 



102 



GEOLOGY OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Leafbank Run Section, Center District. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

1. Sandstone, coarse, brown, Low- 

er Marietta 35 35 

2. Coal, Washington 0.3 35.3 

3. Concealed 34.3 70 

4. Sandstone, massive, coarse, 

iVIannington 20 90 

5. Fire clay, Waynesburg "A" coal 

liorizon 90 

6. Shale 5 95 

7. Limy sandstone 2 97 

8. Shale, buff and red, with thin 

sandstones 28 125 

9. Concealed, reds and concealed, 30 155 

10. Sandstone, friable, Waynesburg 15 170 

11. Concealed, mostly reds 70 240 

12. Sandstone and sandy shale 15 255 

13. Sandstone, friable 15 270 

14. Shale, buff and sandy 5 275 

15. Linnestone, gray and hard, Un- 

iontown, 10" to 1 276 

16. Limy sandstone 4 280 

17. Concealed 15 295 

18. Reds 10 305 

19. Concealed 15 320 

20. Sandstone, massive, coarse, 

brown, pebbly, forming cliffs, 

Arnoldsburg 50 370 

21. Concealed 10 380 

22. Sandy and variegated shale.... 20 400 

23. Sandstone and concealed 15 415 

24. Sandstone, flaggy and green. ... 20 435 

25. Concealed 5 440 

26. Shale . . .- 5 445 

27. Sandstone, massive and coarse 

at bottom, flaggy and friable 

at top, Rocl< Creek 25 470 

28. Red shale, limy 20 490 

29. Sandstone, massive to top of J. 

H. Martin No. 1 well (C 283) 10 500 
(Elev. of well=685' L-A. T.) 

J. H. Martin No. 1 Well Record. 

30. Conductor (surface gravel) 12 512 

31. Sandstone, Upper Pittsburg 20 532 

32. Lime 30 562 



35.3' 



Dunkard 
170' 
Series. 



134.7' 



105' 



95' 



Mononga- 
hela 392' 
Series. 



100' 



92' 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOIX)GICAL SURVEY. 



103 



Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 

33. Red rock 40 602 

34. Sandstone 20 622 

35. White slate 25 647 

36. Lime 30 677 

37. Red rock 40 717 

38. Sandstone and lime, Morgan- 

town 50 767 

39. Red rock 45 812 

40. Lime 60 872 

41. Red rock 70 942 

42. Lime 25 967 

43. Red rock 23 990 

44. Sandstone, Saltsburg 40 1030 

45. Red rock 30 1060 

46. Lime 10 1070 

47. Black slate 40 1110 

48. Sandstone, Mahoning 60 1170 

49. Black slate 30 1200 

50. Sandstone? 645 1845 

51. Black slate 32 1877 

52. Salt sand to bottom of well 8 1885 

Gas at 1385' from top of well. 
Made 1,266,000 cu. ft. per day. 
Rock pressure=100 lbs. 
Interval supplied from well 

(C 281) 130 2015 

... 80 2095 



205' 



263' 



140' 



Cone- 

maugh 

608' 
Series. 



53. 



Allegheny, Pottsville 

845' 
and Mauch Chunk. 



Greenbrier Limestone. 



54. Big Lime (well C 281).... 

The driller's log is evidently wrong in recording forma- 
tion Xo. 50 as all sand- When the parting slates are thin and 
not specially marked in color, they often omit to record them. 

The following hand-level section was measured due south 
from Lovada P. O. along the road to Leafbank run : 

Lovada P. O. Section No. i. Center District. 



Thickness. 
Ft. 

1. Red shale 3.5 

2. Fire clay 1 

3. Shale, brown 10 



4. Sandstone, shaly ... 11' 1 Lower 

5. Sandstone, coarse, Mariet- 

brown 11 ] ta Sand- 

6. Shale and conceal- J- stone 29 

ed 4 

7. Sandstone, coarse, 

brown 3 

8. Shale .' 3 

9. Coal blossom, Washington 

(1142' L-A. T.) 0.5 



Total. 

Ft. 

3.5 

4.5 

14.5 



43.5 



46.5 



47 



47' 



104 



GEOLOGY OP WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

10. Brown limy shale 16.5 G3 . 5 

11. Sandstone, limy lO'lManning- 

12. Sandstone, hard, Uon 13.5 77 

brown 3. 5' J 

13. Shale, brown, with limestone 

nuggets 14 91 

14. Shale, variegated, with lime- 

stone nuggets 16 107 

15. Sandstone, limy 6 113 

16. Brown shale 16.5 129.5 

17. Concealed 16.5 146 

18. Shale, brown 9 155 

19. Sandstone 2 157 

20. Shale, brown and limy 16.5 173.5 

21. Sandstone, massive, coarse, soft 

brown, Waynesburg 19 192.5 

22. Reds 19.5 212 

23. Concealed 33 245 

24. Shale, brown 11 256 

25. Sandstone, limy 5.5']Unlon- 

26. Sandstone, brown, town 

flaggy, hard.. 8 isand- 

27. 51ate, brown ...1 jstone .. 16.5 272.5 

28. Sandstone 2 J 



29. Limestone, shaly 6.5 

30. Concealed * 37 

31., Shale, brown 4 

32. Fire clay 2 

33. Sandstone, mas- 
sive, buff, coarse, 
soft 17.5' 

34. Slate, brown ... 0.5 

35. Sandstone, mas- 

sive, buff, coarse 13 . 5 

36. Concealed 5 

37. Sandstone, coarse, 

brown, soft 16.5 



Arnolds- 
burg 
Sand- 
stone 



53 



38. Slate, brown 

39. Fire clay 

40. Limestone, shaly 

41. Limestone, flaggy, 

brown, micaceous 10' 

42. Sandstone, shaly. . 7.5 

43. Sandstone, limy ..15 

44. Sandstone, shaly.. 4 

45. Sandstone, limy... 1.5 

46. Sandstone, gray 
and flaggy to Leaf- 
bank run 15 



0.5 

1 

9.5 



53 



279 
316 
320 
322 



375 



375.5 
376.5 

386 



439 



30' 



115.5' 



Dunkard 
192.5' 
Series. 



80' 



102.5' 



64' 



Mononga- 

hela 246.5' 
Series. 



(Base of section, 750' L-A. T.) 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



105 



The follow^ing is a record of a well (C 281) on the Rosa 
Givens farm, drilled by G. L. Cabot, on the head of Leafbank 
run, 3 miles N. E. of Grantsville, that starts near the base of 
the Waynesburg sandstone : 

Lovada P. O. Section No. 2, Center District. 



(Elevation of well mouth 870'B-A. T.) 

Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

Unrecorded 250 250 

Unrecorded 105 355 

Slate 5 360 

Red rock 10 370 

Lime 20 390 

Sand, Connellsville 10 400 

Red rock 70 470 

Lime 5 475 

Sand, Grafton 20 495 

Lime 20 515 

Red rock, Pittsburg Red Shale 20 535 

Slate and shells 25 560 

Shale 5 565 

Coal, Bakerstown 7 572 

Slate .'. 18 590 

Red rock 20 610 

Lime 5 615 

Red rock 15 630 

Slate 20 650 

Red rock 20 670 

Slate and lime 45 715 

Slate 30 745 

Lime (8" casing, 770') 25 770 

Sand, Upper Mahoning 20 790 

Slate 30 820 

Sand, Lower Mahoning *. 20 840 

Slate 20 860 

Sand 5 865 

Slate and shells 70 935 

Sand 60 995 

Slate 45 1040 

Sand 55 1095 

Slate 15 1110 



Monongahela 

250' 
Series. 



150' 



172' 



268' 



Cone- 

maugh 

590' 
Series. 



Allegheny 

270' 

Series. 



106 



GEOLOGY OP WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 

Sand, Homewood 45 1155 

Lime 15 1170 

Slate 40 1210 

Sand 10 1220 

Slate 70 1290 

Lime and sand 75 1365 

Slate 75 1440 

Sand 75 '1515 

Black slate 20 1535 

Slate and lime 40 1575 

Sand, Maxton 20 1595 

Little Lime 20 1615 

Slate 10 1625 

Big Lime 80 1705 

Sand, Big Injun 70 1775 

Slate (61/4" casing, 1847'.) 337 2112 

Black slate 30 2142 

Shell, Berea 3 2145 

Slate and sand 20 2165 

Slate and shells 198 2363 

Sand 5 2368 

Slate and lime to bottom 73 2441 



100' 



305' 



Pottsville 
405' 
Series. 



110' Mauch Chunk. 



Greenbrier Limestone. 



440' Pocono 
Sandstones. 



296' Catskill. 



A glance at this section shows that a great thinning has 
taken place in the Pottsville measures from the thickness 
shown in the Wallback P. O. section, page 96, 28 miles 
southward. A decrease of at least 500 feet or about 18 feet to 
the mile. 

The following section was obtained on Yellow creek by 
combining the log of an oil well (C 270) drilled by the Low- 
ther-Kaufman Oil & Coal Co. on the J. T. Richards farm, with 
an aneroid section measured by the writer westward down a 
private hill road to Yellow creek at Ayers P. O. : 

Ayers P, O. Section on Yellow Creek, Center District. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

1. Sandstone, capping hill east of 

Ayers P. 20 20 

2. Shale and concealed 30 50 

3. Sandstone, Lower Marietta.... 10 60 

4. Concealed, mostly reds and 

shale 30 90 



Dunkard 

185' 
Series. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



107 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

5. Sandstone, massive, Manning- 

ton 20 110 

6. Concealed and shale 40 150 

7. Sandstone, massive, coarse 

and yellow, Waynesburg. . . . 35 185 

8. Concealed and reds 20 205 

9. Massive sandstone, coarse, Gil- 

boy 25 230 

10. Concealed 20 250 

11. Massive sandstone, Uniontown 24.5 274.5 

12. Limestone, silicious and hard 

(5") 0.5 275 

13. Shale and sandstone, friable... 34 309 

14. Limestone, gray and hard 3 312 

15. Red shale with limestone nug- 

gets 20 332 

16. Limestone, very silicious to top 

of J. T. Richards No. 1 well 

(C 270) 3 335 

J. T. Richards No. 1 Well Record (725' B-A. T.) 

17. Conductor (surface gravel) ... 10 345 

18. Unrecorded 1518 1863 

19. Maxton sand 8 1871 

20. Unrecorded 44 1915 



89.5' 



60.5' 



Mononga- 
hela Cone- 
ma ugh 
1678' Al- 
legheny 
and Potts- 
ville. 



1528' 



52' Mauch Chunk. 



Greenbrier Limestones 
538' and 
Pocono Sandstones. 



21. Big Lime (thickness not given) 1915 

22. Unrecorded 527 2442 

23. Berea sand (oil show) 11 2453 

(Mannington sandstone — Big lime interval=1730'.) 

One mile and a half N. 70°-8o° E. of Ayers P. O. the fol- 
lowing aneroid section was measured by Mr. Reger and the 
writer southward down a hill road to Yellow creek at Big 
Springs P. O., and joined to the log of the F. S. Wilson No. i 
well (C 276) : 

Big Springs P. O. Section, Center District. 

Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 
1. Sandstone, flaggy. Lower Ma- 
rietta 20 20 



2. Washington fire clay shale 5 25 

3. Sandstone, flaggy, brown 25 50 

4. Concealed 5 55 

5. Sandstone, massive ] 

brown, coarse 10 65 

6. Concealed [viannington 5 70 

7. Sandstone, massive, I Sandstone 

brown, coarse .... 15 85 



20' 



65' 



Dunkard 

145' 
Series. 



108 



GEOLOGY OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA, 



Thickness. Total. 



Ft. 

8. Red shale 5 

9. Concealed 15 

10. Sandstone, hard, green, fine 5 

11. Concealed 5 

12. Sandstone, greenish 5 

13. Concealed 5 

14. Sandstone, coarse, gray, 

Waynesburg 5 

15. Concealed 15 

16. Green shale 5 

17. Sandstone, shaly 5 

18. Red shale and concealed 30 

19. Sandstone, gray, flaggy, Union- 

town 20 

20. Shale, greenish red 4 



Ft. 
90 
105 
110 
115 
120 
125 

130 
145 

150 
155 
185 

205 
209 



21. Limestone, gray ] 
and hard l'|Uniontown 

22. Reds, limy 14 [Limestone 16 

23. Limestone, gray 
and hard 1 J 

24. Concealed and reds 20 

25. Sandstone, massive, coarse, 

gray to Yellow creek at Big 
Springs P. O., Arnoldsburg. . 35 

F. S. Wilson No. 1 (C 276) Well Record. 
25A. Unrecorded 250 530 



225 
245 

280 



26." Unrecorded 530 

27. Dark sandstone (thickness omit- 

ted) 

28. Unrecorded 785 

29. Little Lime 25 

30. Pencil cave 9 



31. Big Lime (thickness omitted) 







32. Unrecorded 486y2 



33. Berea sand 



31 



1060 

1060 
1845 
1870 
1879 

1879 

23651/2 

2396y2 



(Oil pay 21' in sand and 10' thick) 
34. Slate to bottom 4 



60' 



64' 



71' 



Mononga- 
hela 385' 
Series. 



250' 



Allegheny, Pottsville 

1349' 
and Mauch Chunk. 



Greenbrier Limestone 

5171/2' 
and Pocono Sandstones. 



24001^ Catskill. 
(Mannington sandstone — Big Lime interval=1794 feet. 



The following section was obtained near the common cor- 
ner to Calhoun, Ritchie and Gilmer counties by combining an 
aneroid section measured by the writer northward down the 
hill road leading down on Rocklick run of Leatherbark creek, 
Ritchie county, with the log of the M. M. Tingler No. i well 
(C 261 A), located one mile S. i5°-20° W. of Eva P. O., Ritch- 
ie county : 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



109 



Section Two Miles North of Nobe P. O., Calhoun County. 



Thickness. 
Ft. 

1. Sandstone, coarse, brown and 

friable, Jollytown?, capping 
high kcnob 35 

2. Concealed 5 

3. Reds 5 

4. Concealed and red shale 40 

5. Sandstone, coarse, brown, peb- 

bly, forms great cliffs around 
hillsides. Upper Marietta... 59 
G. Dark shale and fire clay (Wash- 
ington "A" coal horizon).... 1 



Total. 
Ft. 



35 



7. Sandy shale 5' 1 Cres- 



8. Sandstone, massive 30' ton 



;i; 



60 



9. Concealed and reds 25' J Reds 

10. Sandstone, massive, Lower Ma- 

rietta 20 

11. Concealed 20 

12. Coal blossom, Washington 

(1025' L-A.T.) 

13. Fire clay shale (typical), Wash- 

ington 10 

14. Concealed 10 

15. Sandstone, massive. Manning- 

ton 50 

16. Concealed and sandstone, 

Waynesburg 60 



40 
45 
85 



144 
145 

205 



225 
245 

245 



255 
265 

315 

375 



17. Concealed to top of Tingler well 20 395 
M. M. Tingler No. 1 Well Record (C261A). 

18. Surface gravel (conductor) .... 30 425 

19. Unrecorded 37 462 

20. Coal, Uniontown (supplied from 

log of John Modesitt No. 1 

well, located 1 mi. S. W 3 465 

21. Unrecorded 10 475 

22. Sandstone (water at 105') 30 505 

23. Unrecorded 65 570 

24. Sandstone, Arnoldsburg ....... 25 595 

25. Unrecorded 20 615 

26. Slate 10 625 

27. Limestone, Benwood 30 655 

28. Red rock 20 675 

29. Limestone (water at 290'), Sew- 

ickley 30 705 

30. Slate and shells 55 760 

31. Coal, Pittsburg 6 766 



35' 



110' 



100' 



130' 



Dunkard 
375' 
Series. 



90' 



130* 



60' 



111' 



Mononga- 
hela 391' 
Series. 



110 



GEOLOGY OF WIRT-ROANE- CALHOUN AREA. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

32. Slate and shale 29 795 

33. Sand 15 810 

34. Red rock 20 830 

35. Slate and shells 60 890 

36. Sandstone, Connellsville 45 935 

37. Cave (mostly reds) 245 1180 

38. "Sand, First Cow Run" (Buffalo) 25 1205 

39. Cave 60 1265 

40. Slate, white 30 1295 

41. Slate and shells 45 1340 

42. Sand 15 1355 

43. Slate 10 1365 

44. Sand 35 1400 

45. Slate 10 1410 

46. Sand 15 1425 

47. Slate 30 1455 

48. Sand, Lower Freeport 90 1545 

49. Slate 15 1560 

50. Sand, Homewood 110 1670 

51. Slate 70 1740 

52. Sand 85 1825 

53. Sand, hard (water at 1485') 90 1915 

54. Slate and lime 65 1980 

55. Lime 10 1990 

56. Slate 35 2025 

57. Sand, Maxton 50 2075 

(Gas, 1620'-1645'; water, 1640'-1650'.) 

58. Slate 15 2090 

59. Lime, Little 25 2115 

60. Pencil cave 10 2125 

61. Big Lime ' 50 2175 

62. Sand, Big Injun (light gas at 

1780') 45 2220 

63. Lime 50 2270 

64. Slate 20 2290 

65. Sand, Squaw 10 2300 

66. Slate and shells 95 2395 

67. Lime 60 ^55 

68. Slate and shells 95 2550 

69. Lime 25 2575 

70. Slate, brown (steel line meas- 

urement) 42 2617 

71. Sand, Berea (oil show) 6 2623 

72. Unrecorded to bottom 104 2727 



169' 



270' 



135' 



115' 



105' 



Cone- 

maugh 

574' 
Series. 



Allegheny 
220' 
Series. 



515' Pottsville Series. 



50' Mauch Chunk. 



50' Greenbrier Lime- 
stone. 



448' Pocono Sandstones. 



104' Catskill. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLX)GICAL SURVEY. 



Ill 



Sherman district lies east of Center district, and at Hattie 
P. O. on its eastern margin, the following aneroid section was 
measured by Mr. Reger and the writer northward down the 
hill road to the Little Kanawha river level at that point : 

Hattie P. O. Section, Sherman District. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

1. Concealed and reds from top of 

hill 40 40 

2. Coal blossom, Washington 40 

3. Washington fire clay shale 10 50 

4. Sandstone, massive. Manning- 

ton 45 95 

5. Reds, thin sandstones and con- 

cealed 70 165 

5A. Concealed 30 195 

6. Sandstone, massive, coarse, 

brown and pebbly, forming 

cliff, Uniontown 55 250 

7. Brown shale 2 252 

8. Concealed and reds 103 355 

9. Sandstone, shaly, Arnoldsburg. 10 365 

10. Coal blossom (2"), Lower Un- 

iontown 365 

11. Sandy shale 2 367 

12. Sandstone, massive, and con- 

cealed 28 395 

13. Sandstone, Sewickley 20 415 

14. Sandstone, shaly 40 455 

15. Red and sandy shale to level of 

Lower run 25 480 

16. Sandstone, flaggy to Little Ka- 

nawha River at Mussel 

Shoals ford (683' A. T.) 10 490 



40' 



125' 



85' 



115' 



50' 



75' 



Dunkard 
165' 
Series. 



Mononga- 
hela 325' 
Series. 



One mile and a half southwest of Hattie P. O. and }i mile 
north-west of Index P. O., the following aneroid section was 
measured by the writer northwest down the hill road to Little 
Kanawha river: 



112 



GEOLOGY OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



65' 



175' 



Index P. O. Section, Sherman District. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

1. Concealed from summit of hill 45 45 

2. Limy shale and concealed, 

Washington fire clay shale.. 10 55 

3. Shale, brown, with iron ore at 

top 20 75 

4. Sandstone, massive. Manning- 

ton 20 95 

5. Concealed and reds 20 115 

6. Shale and sandstone ^ . . 5 120 

7. Concealed 60 180 

8. Sandstone, flaggy at top, coarse 

and friable at bottom, 

Waynesburg 50 230 

9. Fire clay 230 

10. Concealed 10 240 

11. Sandstone and concealed 55 295 

12. Sandstone, massive, buff, coarse, 

pebbly, forming cliffs, Union- 
town 50 345 

13. Concealed 78 423 

14. Sandstone 2 425 

15. Concealed and reds 10 435 

16. Sandstone, coarse and gray, Ar- 

noldsburg 40 475 

17. Concealed to level of Little Ka- 

nawha river (680' B-A. T.) . . . 30 505 



115' 



130' 



30' 



Dunkard 
230' 
Series. 



Mononga- 
hela 275' 
Series. 



The intervals are excessive on account of being measured 
northwest down the dip of the rocks. 

Four miles due south of Hattie P. O. and ^ mile south- 
west of Stumptown, the following aneroid section was meas- 
ured by the writer eastward from the top of a high hill down 
to level of Bear fork of Steer creek: 

Stumptown Section, Sherman District. 



Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 

1. Massive sandstone, coarse and 

pebbly, capping hill, Waynes- 
burg 50 50 

2. Concealed 60 110 

3. Sandstone, massive, coarse and 

pebbly, Uniontown 30 140 



50' Dunkard Series. 

90' 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOIX)GICAL SURVEY. 



118 



Thickness. 
Ft. 

4. Concealed and massive sand- 

stone 85 

5. Green Shale 6 

6. Blue shale 7.5 

7. Coal 0'— 5"] Lower Un- 

8. Slate, gray 0' — 6" I iontown 

9. Coal 0'— 6" (945'B-A. T.) 1.5 



10. Concealed with reds... 

11. Sandstone, greenish 

Rock creek 



.95 



gray. 



20 



12. Concealed (mostly sandstone) . . 50 

13. Green shale 5 

14. Sandstone, massive, green, me- 

dium grained, Upper Pitts- 
burg 45 

15. Concealed 5 

16. Sandy shale 10 

17. Concealed to Bear Fork, % mi. 

above Stumptown (710'B-A. 
T.) 15 



Total. 
Ft. 

225 
231 
238.5 



240 

335 

355 

405 
410 



455 

460 
470 



485 



100* 



115' 



IOC 



Mononga- 
hela 405' 
Series. 



30' Conemaugh Series. 



The following section was obtained by combining the log 
of an oil well boring (C 357) on the W. L. Camden* farm with 
a hand-level section measured by Mr. Reger southward down 
a hill road to Road fork of Laurel creek and joined to the well 
mouth : 

Section 34 Mile N. W. of Whitepine P. O., Sherman Dist. 



Thickness, Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

1. Concealed from top of knob ^ 

mile N. E. of Camden well 
^ (C 357) 30 30 

2. Reds 22 52 

3. Concealed 33 85 

4. Brown shale 11 96 

5. Concealed, sandstone and shale 25 121 

6. Washington fire clay shale 7.5 128.5 

7. Sandstone, flaggy 16.5 145 

8. Concealed, sandstone, and con- 

cealed 34.5 179.5 

9. Limy shale 4 183.5 

10. Sandstone, Waynesburg 60 243.5 

11. Brown shale 14.5 258 



121' 



137' 



Dunkard 
258' 
Series. 



8 Vol. I (A), p. 396, W. Va. Qeol. Sur. 



n4 



GEOLOGY OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

12. Sandstone, shaly 7 265 

13. Sandstone 7 272 

14. Brown shale 16.5 288.5 

15. Sandstone, limestone, shale and 

sandstone 16.5 305 

16. Yellow shale 29 334 

17. Sandstone, coarse, pebbly, Un- 

iontown 20.5 354.5 

18. Coal 0.3 1 Unlon- 

19. Shale 1.5 ■ town coal 2 356.5 

20. Slate and coal 0.2 

21. Brown shale 14 370.5 

22. Sandstone and concealed to top 

of W. L. Camden No. 1 well 

(C 357) 14.5 385 

W. L. Camden Well Record Elev.=805' B-A. T.) 

23. Unrecorded 16 401 

24. Red rock 34 435 

25. White slate 25 460 

26. Blue sandstone, Sewickley 50 510 



27. Red rock 30 

28. Red rock 95 

29. Coal, Pittsburg 3 

30. Slate 45 

31. Red rock 40 

32. Sandstone, Connellsville 60 

33. Red rock and shells 55 

34. Sandstone, Morgantown 17 



35. Red rock and shells 

36. Sandstone, Grafton . 



35 

40 



37. Slate and shells 10 

38. Sandstone, Saltsburg 35 

39. Slate and shells 30 

40. Coal, Bakerstown 4 

41. Slate and shale 20 

42. Red rock and shells 68 

43. Slate 80 

44. Sandstone, Mahoning 28 

45. Lime 30 

46. Sandstone, Lower Freeport 65 

47. Slate 12 

48. Sandstone 172 

49. Slate 20 

50. Sandstone, Clarion 95 

51. Black slate 164 

52. Sandstone 40 

53. Black slate 20 

54. Sandstone, hard 26 

55. Slate and shells 155 

56. Salt sand 51 



540 
635 

638 

683 
723 
783 

838 
855 

890 
930 

940 

975 

1005 

1009 

1029 
1097 
1177 
1205 

1235 
1300 
1312 
1484 
1504 
1599 
1763 
1803 
1823 
1849 
2004 
2055 



96.5' 



155.5' 



128' 

145' 
72' 

75' 

79' 
196' 



Mononga- 
hela 380' 
Series. 



Cone- 

maugh 

567' 
Series. 



Allegheny and 

850' 
Pottsville Series. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



115 



Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 

57. Black slate 10 2065 

58. Red rock 8 2073 

59. Shale 2 2075 

60. Big Lime 118 2193 

61. Big Injun sand 64 2257 

62. Slate and shells 287 2544 

63. Black slate 35 2579 

64. White slate and shells 286 2865 

65. Pink slate 18 2883 

66. Slate and shells to bottom 403 3286 



20' Mauch Chunk. 

118' Greenbrier Lime- 
stone. 

386' Pocono Sand- 
stones. 



707' Catskill or Venan- 
go Group. 



The Venango oil sands are entirely absent here as ''sands", 
but their place is still marked by the pink slate or red beds, 
coming 2865 feet from the top of the section. 

The follow^ing detailed log of a gas well drilled on the 
ridge Y^ mile east of Kite Knob is of special interest, since the 
same coal (Bakerstown) is recorded in this well as in the 
Camden boring above : 

M. H. Kight Well No. 1 (C 358) Record. 



Located 1.1 Mile West of Whitepine P. O., Sherman District. 
Drilled from Feb., to Oct., 1903, by the Richardson Drilling Co. 

Authority: Godfrey L. Cabot, Manufacturer of "Carbon Black." 

Thickness. Total. 



Ft. Ft. 

Conductor 10 10 

White sand, Lower Marietta and 

Mannington 70 80 

Black slate 10 90 

White sand, Waynesburg 40 130 

Red rock 40 170 

Red rock 10 180 

White sand, Gilboy 20 200 

Slate 25 225 

Cased with 10" casing. 

Red rock 35 26^ 

White lime 25 285 

Slate 15 300 

Sand, Arnoldsburg 40 340 

Red rock 25 365 

White lime 15 380 

White sand, Sewlckley 40 420 



Dunkard 

170' 
Series. 



ITC 



80' 



Mononga- 
hela 380' 
Series. 



116 



GEOLOGY OP WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

White lime .*. . 45 465 

Red rock 45 510 

White lime 15 525 

Red rock 25 550 

Red rock 25 575 

White lime 15 590 

Red rock 80 670 

Slate 100 770 

Lime 15 785 

Red rock 130 915 

Coal, Bakerstown 5 920 

Red rock 70 990 

White sand 10 1000 

Cased with 8%" casing. 

Red rock 20 1020 

Blue slate 30 1050 

Slate and shells 50 1100 

White lime 20 1120 

White slate '. 30 1150 

White lime 25 1175 

White sand, Second Cow Run? 175 1350 

Slate and shells 50 1400 

White sand 25 1425 

Black sand 25 1450 

Black slate 10 1460 

Black sand 40 1500 

Black slate 100 . 1600 

White slate and shells 50 1650 

Black sand 50 1700 

White sand, Salt sand? 40 1740 

Black sand 25 1765 

Shells and slate 120 1885 

(Show of oil at 1893', Salt sand?) 

White sand 18 1903 

Slate 18 1921 

Lime 22 1943 

(Cased with 6^" casing.) 

Sand, oil and water 17 1960 

Lime .'....- 12 1972 

Red rock 8 1980 

Slate 15 1995 

Pencil cave 9 2004 

Big Lime 93 2097 

Big Injun sand (very hard) 93 2190 

Slate 50 2240 

Lime 15 2255 

Slate and shells 97 2352 

White slate 38 2390 



130' 



370' 



200' 



Cone- 
. maugh 
570' 
Series. 



Allegheny and 

840' 
Pottsville Series. 



Mauch 

44' 
Chunk. 

93' Greenbrier Lime- 
stone. 



423' 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



117 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

Slate and shells 85 2475 

Black slate 40 2515 

Hard shell with a few sands in it, 

Berea 5 2520 

Lime and shells 80 2600 

Lime and slate to bottom 48% 2648% 

Lee district lies southv^est of Sherman, Center, and Sheri- 
dan districts. South of Arnoldsburg, the writer measured the 
following aneroid section from the top of a high knob east- 
ward down to Spring run : 

Section i% Miles South of Arnoldsburg, Lee District. 



Thickness Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

1. Sandstone, Mannington, coarse, 

brown and pebbly, capping 

knob 1-14 niiles south of town 35 35 

2. Concealed and shale 75 110 

3. Sandstone, massive, brown, me- 

dium grained, Gilboy 50 160 

4. Concealed to bench 55 215 

5. Concealed to another bench.... 25 240 

6. Sandstone, Arnoldsburg 50 290 

7. Concealed -. 10 300 

8. Dark red, limy shale 5 305 

9. Limestone, nodular, silicious 

and friable 5 310 

10. Sandstone, nodular, limy 7 317 

11. Red shale 5. 322 

12. Concealed to Spring creek at 

U. S. 812' L-A. T 15 337 



110' Dunkard Series. 



180' 



20' 



27' 



Mononga- 
hela 227' 
Series. 



Washington district lies south of Lee and covers the 
southern portion of Calhoun county. On the West Fork river 
the following section was obtained by combining the log of a 
gas well (C 375) drilled at Minnora by the South Penn Oil Co-, 
with an aneroid section measured by the writer down a high 
point one mile due east of the town on Sears run : 



118 



GEOLOGY OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Minnora Section, Washington District. 




1. Sandstone, coarse, 

brown and pebbly 

2. Sandstone, flaggy, 

micaceous and 
green 



3. Concealed and shale 40 

4. Sandstone, coarse, dark gray.. 30 

5. Concealed and shale 20 

6. Sandstone, green, micaceous, 

Sewickley 30 

7. Concealed to bench 15 

8. Concealed and sandstone 80 

9. Concealed 125 

10. Sandstone, green, micaceous, 

weathering gray, Connells- 
viile to level Sears run .... 40 

11. Concealed to top E. C. Knotts 

No. 1 well (C 375) 25 

(Elevation top=775' L-A. T.) 
E. C. Knotts No. 1 Record. 

12. Unrecorded 300 

13. Sandstone, Buffalo & Mahoning 125 

14. Slate 90 

15. Sandstone 10 

16. Slate 35 

17. Sandstone 15 

18. Slate 15 

19. Sandstone 135 

20. Slate 30 

21. Sandstone 15 

22. Slate 255 

23. Sandstone 45 

24. Slate 127 

25. Sandstone 83 

26. Slate 120 

27. Sand, Maxton 50 

28. Slate 10 

29. Big Lime 178 

30. Big Injun sand 28 

31. Slate 4 

32. Lime 20 

33. Red rock 10 

34. Unrecorded 300 

35. Shells and slate 20 

36. Slate to bottom 82 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. 
40 



55 

95 
125 

145 

175 

190 
270 

395 
435 
460 



760 

885 

975 

985' 
1020 
1035 
1050 
1185 
1215 
1230 
1485 
1530 
1657 
1740 
1860 

1910 
1920 

2098 

2126 
2130 

2150 
2160 
2460 
2480 
2562 



55' 



70' 



50' 



95' 



165' 



450' 



Mononga- 
hela 270' 
Series. 



Cone- 

maugh 

615' 
Series. 



Allegheny and 

975' 
Pottsville 
Series. 



Mauch 

60' 
Chunk. 

178' Greenbrier 
Limestone. 



Pocono and 

464' 
Catskill Sandstones. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



119 



Four miles east of Minnora in the eastern part of Wash- 
ington district, the following section was obtained by combin- 
ing the log of a gas well drilled by the South Penn Oil Co. on 
the Chenoweth farm at Nicut P. O. with an aneroid section 
measured by the writer from the summit of a high knob i mile 
S. 60° W. of Nicut P. O. eastward down the hill road to 
Chenoweth well : 



Nicut P. O. Section, Washington District. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

1. Reds capping Icnob 30 30 

2. Sandstone, buff, coarse, pebbly, 

soft, Waynesburg 45 75 

3. Concealed 10 85 

4. Reds 5 90 

4A. Buff sandy shale 10 100 

5. Sandstone, buff and coarse.... 15 115 

6. Concealed and sandstone 5 120 

7. Sandstone, Uniontown 25 145 

8. Concealed 5 150 

9. Shale, red and variegated 28 178 

10. Sandstone, nodular 2 180 

11. Concealed to low gap (elevation 

here U. S. 1224' A. T. on 

rock) 20 200 

12. Concealed 15 215 

13. Sandstone, buff, coarse 15 230 

13A. Concealed 5 235 

14. Sandstone, green, flaggy, form- 

ing steep bluff along hill, Se- 

. wickley 50 285 

15. Concealed 20 305 

16. Red shale 15 320 

17. Concealed 15 335 

18. Sandstone, shaly 5 340 

19. Concealed and shale 20 360 

20. Sandstone, massive, buff, coarse, 

quartz pebbles. Upper Pitts- 
burg 60 420 

21. Concealed along bench 80 500 

22. Sandstone, coarse ] 20 520 

and gray Connells- 

23. Concealed . ville Sand- 5 525 

24. Sandstone, coarse stone 

and pebbly J 34.5 559.5 

25. Slate, black, and fire clay (6") 

to 5' below top of D. O. Chen- 
oweth No. 1 well (C 376)... 0.5 560 



Dunkard 

75' 
Series. 



70' 



85' 



55' 



135' 



Mononga- 
hela 345' 
Series. 



140* 



120 



GEOLOGY OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 

D. O. Chenoweth No. 1 Record. 

26. Conductor (surface gravel) 16 576 

27. Unrecorded 254 830 

28. Coal, Bakerstown 830 

28A. Unrecorded 95 925 

29. Sand, Mahoning 87 1012 

30. Unrecorded 78 1090 

31. Sandstone, Upper Freeport 40 1130 

32. Unrecorded 75 1205 

33. Sandstone, (gas 15' in), Lower 

Freeport 50 1255 

34. Unrecorded 80 1335 

35. Sandstone, Homewood 60 1395 

36. Unrecorded 210 1605 

37. Sandstone 70 1675 

38. Unrecorded 50 1725 

39. Sandstone, (gas 3' in) 25 1750 

40. Unrecorded 210 1960 

41. Coal 7 1967 

42. Salt sand 138 2105 

43. Slate 10 2115 

44. Little Lime 35 2150 

45. Pencil cave ' 18 2168 

46. Big Lime 92 2260 

47. Big Injun sand 102 2362 

48. Brown shale 283 2645 

49. Shells (Berea sand) 10 2655 

50. Unrecorded 135 2790 

51. Pink rock 2790 

52. Unrecorded 5 2795 

53. Sandstone 10 2805 

54. Unrecorded to bottom 950 3755 



270' 



182' 



Cone- 

maugh 

592' 
Series. 



Allegheny 

323' 
Series. 



Pottsville 

770' 
Series. 



63' Mauch Chunk. 



92' Greenbrier Lime- 
stone. 

395' Pocono Sand- 
stones. 



1100' Catskill Sand- 
stone. 



In the southern part of Washington district on the head 
of Whiteoak run the writer measured the following aneroid 
section eastward down a hill road to the latter stream : 



Section i^ Miles S. W. of Stinson, Washington District. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

1. Sandstone, coarse, brown and 

friable, capping hill 15 15 

2. Fire clay (trace) 15 



15' 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



121 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

3. Reds 5 20 

4. Buff sandy shale 15 35 

5. Sandstone, coarse, brown and 

pebbly, Sewickley? (Rock 

Creek) 25 60 

6. Shale and concealed 45 105 

7. Buff sandy shale 25 130 

8. Sandstone, coarse, brown, large 

quartz pebbles. Lower Pitts- 
burg 65 195 

9. Fire clay horizon (spring wat- 

er), concealed 195 

10. Concealed 55 250 

11. Sandstone, massive, Connells- 

ville 40 290 

12. Concealed to fork of road at 

head of Whiteoak (U. S. 990' 

A. T.) 5 295 



45' 



70' 



160' 



Mononga- 
hela 130' 
Series. 



Cone- 

maugh 

165' 
Series. 



In the western part of Washington district on Beech creek 
the following section was obtained by combining the log of a 
dry hole (C 374), drilled by the South Penn Oil Co. on the T. 
P. Jarvis farm, with an aneroid section measured by the writer 
eastward from the top of a high knob down to the level of the 
well : 

Section i Mile North of Oka P. O., Washington District. 



Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 

1. Concealed and sandstone from 

top of knob west of Jarvis 

well (C 374) 20 20 

2. Concealed along steep bluff 30 50 

3. Sandstone, dark gray, mica- 

ceous, Sewickley 30 80 

5. Concealed along gentle slope.. 40 120 

6. Sandstone, medium, coarse, 

gray, forms cliffs, (Rock 

Creek) 40 160 



7. Concealed along bench .'.. 10 170 

8. Concealed along "steep bluff. ... 55 225 



80' 



80' 



65' 



Mononga- 
hela 225' 
Series. 



122 



GEOLOGY OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Thickness. Total. 
Ft, Ft. 

9. Concealed along steep bluff, 
mostly sandstone, Lower 

Pittsburg 60 285 

10. Concealed along bench 80 365 

11. Sandstone, coarse and pebbly, 

and concealed 35 400 

12. Sandstone, massive, Morgan- 

town (Oka) to top of T. P. 

Jarvis No. 1 well (C 374)... 35 435 

T. P. Jarvis No. 1 Well Record (C 374) 
(850' B-A. T.) 

13. Unrecorded 190 625 

14. Lime 30 655 

15. Unrecorded - 8 663 

16. Red rock, cave 42 705 

17. Lime 30 735 

18. Sand, Buffalo and Mahoning... 92 827 

19. Slate and red rock 48 875 

20. Coal, Lower Freeport 4 879 

21. Unrecorded 26 905 

22. Sand (water) 190 1095 

23. Slate 5 1100 

24. Lime 65 1165 

25. Black slate 70 1235 

26. Lime 145 1380 

27. Unrecorded 3 1383 

28. Sand 22 1405 

29. Slate and lime 105 1510 

30. Sand 30 1540 

31. Slate 10 1550 

32. Sand 25 1575 

33. Black slate and sand 185 1760 

34. Slate i^ 15 1775 

35. Coal, (Sewell?) 5 1780 

36. Sand 10 1790 

37. Slate 15 1805 

38. Sand 56 1861 

39. Pink rock 26 1887 

40. Sand, hard, Maxton 38 1925 

41. Break of slate 2 1927 

42. Big Lime 218 2145 

43. Slate 515 2660 

44. Lime 8 2668 

45. Slate 47 2715 

46. Shells 80 2795 

47. Red rock 3 2798 

48. Slate 57 2855 

49. Sand, Gordon 10 2865 

50. Slate to bottom of hole 577 3442 



210' 



392' 



52' 



221' 



Cone- 

maugh 

602' 
Series. 



Allegheny 
273' 
Series. 



675' 



Pottsville 

761' 
Series. 



86' 



66' Mauch Chunk. 

218' Greenbrier Lime- 
stone. 



653'. 

67' 
577' 



Pocono and 
1297' 

Catskill 
Sand- 
stones. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 123 

The Big Injun appears to be absent. 

The Rock Creek sandstone — Big Lime Interval=1767 feet. 

The foregoing general sections of the stratified rocks in 
the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area give a maximum thickness of 
the Carboniferous in this portion of the State as 3700 feet, di- 
vided as follows: 

Upper Carboniferous. 

Feet. 

Dunkard Series 700 

Monongahela Series 380 

Conemaugh Series 600 

Allegheny Series 270 

Pottsville Series 950 2900 feet. 

Lower Carboniferous. 

Feet. 

Mauch Chunk 150 

Greenbrier Limestone 150 

Pocono Sandstones 500 800 feet . 



Total 3700 feet , 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE DUNKARD SERIES. 



The Dunkard series is the highest group of rocks of the 
Carboniferous of the Appalachian area, and the most recent 
in formation except the alluvium along the river bottoms and 
larger streams. This group of rocks was named from Dunkard 
creek, a stream located in the southwestern corner of the State 
of Pennsylvania, by Dr. I. C. White\ His original description 
is as follows : 

"The uppermost beds are found at the headwaters of Dunkard 
creek, a large stream which heads near the West Virginia-Pennsyl- 
vania line, on the eastern slope of the watershed separating the Ohio 
and Monongahela river drainage systems, and flowing eastward, puts 
into the Monongahela two miles above Greensboro, Greene county, 
Pennsylvania, and four miles north from the West Virginia line. This 
stream flows over the Permo-Carboniferous rocks from its source to 
the point at which it leaves the West Virginia line at Mount Morris, 
Pennsylvania, a distance of more than thirty miles, furnishing very 
fine exposures of these rocks along its banks and bluffs; hence the 
geographical name, Dunkard, which I have given the series." 

Originally it was supposed that this group of rocks held 
no coal beds of economic value, and for that reason was called 
the Upper Barren measures in the early study of the geology 
of this country. 

This series was placed for a long time under a compromise 
term, Permo-Carbonif^ rous, on account of the presence of fos- 
sil plants of the Permian age in its shales, and the failure to. 
find Permian animal remains. 

Dr. White placed the base of the Dunkard series at the 
horizon where Permian plants were first observed in the fossil 



1 U. S. G. S. Bull. No. 65, p. 20; 1891. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 125 

Hora ; viz., the Cassville shales just over the Waynesburg coal 
seam. 

The following is a general description of the Dunkard 
>eries in West Virginia^ : 

"As exhibited in West Virginia, the rocks of this series consist 
of a succession of brown and gray sandstones, interstratified with much 
red shale, many beds of limestone, and several thin, impure and unim- 
portant coal beds, the entire series being slightly gypsiferous through- 
out, though no accumulations of gypsum have taken place owing proba- 
bly to the absence of any considerable thickness of limestone beds. 

"In Ohio and northern Marshall counties, like Greene and Wash- 
ington of Pennsylvania, this series holds less red shale and a greater 
proportion of limestone and gray limy shales than further to the south- 
west. The coal beds are also more numerous, and the sandstones less 
massive, the whole resulting in a gentle rolling topography, finely 
adapted to grazing and agriculture, except along the immediate gorges 
of the streams. 

"As we pass southwestward, however, the coal beds all disappear 
except one (the Washington) before we reach the Little Kanawha 
river, and the limestones with one or two exceptions thin away into 
great masses of marly red shales, holding only nuggets of lime, while 
the sandstones thicken up, and, capping the ridges in long lines of 
cliffs, often make a rugged topography better fitted for grazing and 
fruit culture than for agriculture. When the massive sandstones dis- 
appear from the ridges or uplands, however, there frequently occur 
limited areas of beautiful rolling lands which yield abundant crops, 
the red marly shales being quite fertile from the disseminated lime- 
stone nuggets. 

"The soils formed by the disintegration of the Dunkard beds have 
the reputation of producing a fine quality of wool in which the fiber 
is peculiarly firm and strong, so that its area is often known as the 
"sheep belt" of West Virginia, since probably 90 per cent, of the sheep 
raised in the State are grown upon the outcrops of the Dunkard series. 
These rocks occupy a belt about 40 to 60 miles in width bordering the 
Ohio river and extending east from the same over portions or all of 
the following named counties: Ohio, Marshall, Wetzel, Tyler, Monon- 
galia, and Marion (west of the Monongahela river), western Harrison 
and Lewis, Doddridge, Pleasants, Wood, Wirt, Ritchie, Calhoun, Gilmer, 
Roane, Jackson, and the uplands of Mason and southern Putnam, but 
tailing out into a narrow belt, which soon overshoots even the highest 
hills of Wayne, a short distance east from the Big Sandy river at the 
Kentucky boundary." 

The following is a type section of the Dunkard series of 
rocks by Dr. I. C. White as exposed along Dunkard creek from 
the head of its Pennsylvania fork in Gilmore township, Greene 
county, Pa., to Mt. Morris: 



2 Vol. II, page 101, W. Va. Geol. Survey. 



126 



THE DUNKARD SERIES. 



Dunkard Creek Section^ 

Ft, In. 
Concealed from top of Shough's Knob. 165 

Sandstone, massive, Gilmore 40 

Shales, with limestone at base 15 

Sandstone and shales and concealed. . .100 

Shale, red 2 

Shales, gray 20 

Shale, marly 2 

Sandstone and shale 35 

Red shale 3 

Sandstone and shale 50 

Red shale 3 

Shales and sandstone, Nineveh 25 

Shales 20 

Coal, Nineveh 1 6 

Shales 28 

Limestone (No. X), Nineveh 7 

Shales, sandstone and concealed 100 

Sandstone, massive. Fish Creek 20 

Shales with fossil plants 10 

( coal 0' 5" ] 
Coal, Dunkard \ slate 0' 1" \ 1 

[ coal 0'. 6" J 

Limestone 1 

Sandstone 10 

Shales 17 

Limestone, Jollytown 1 6 

Shales and sandstone 25 

Coal, Jollytown 1 1 

Calcareous shales, fossiliferous, fish 

teeth 6 

Limestone, Upper Washington 4 

Shales and sandstone 115 

Limestone, Middle Washington 3 

Shales 40 

Sandstone ". 35 

Shale 5 

Coal, (coal, impure 1' 2"") 

Washington, "A" -{fire clay 2' 6" i 4 2 

[ coal 0' 6" J 

Shales and sandstones 60 

Limestone, Lower Washington 5 

Shales 5 

Coal, Washington, slaty 5 

Shales and sandstones, including coal 

bed near center 110 

Coal, Waynesburg "A" 2 6 

Shales 10 

Sandstone, Waynesburg 50 

Shales, with fossil plants (Cassville) 5 

Waynesburg coal. 

Total 



Ft. 



In. 



480 



223 



276 8 



182 



1162 



8 I. C. White in W. Va. Geol. Survey Vol. II, p. 102. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



127 



The writer in his report on Marshall, Wetzel and Tyler 
counties for the State Survey modified the above section con- 
siderably and added several new formations, some of which 
appear to be represented in the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area. For 
that reason the three following accurate detailed sections are 
here re-published from the Marshall-Wetzel-Tyler report, pp. 
no, 148 and 156, respectively: 

Burton Section, Wetzel County. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 
Sandstone, mostly from top of high 
knob west of summit of Burton 

hill road 43.0 43.0 

Massive sandstone, concealed to 

bench 31.2 74.2 

Concealed and sandstone, massive, 

Gilmore 31.2 105.4 

Concealed to summit of Burton hill 

road 20.8 126.2 

Sandstone and shale 15.0 141 . 2 

Shale, buff 10 . 151 . 2 

Concealed 36.4 187 . 6 

Buff shale 5.2 192 . 8 

Sandstone, massive,] Taylor 10.4 203.2 

Ruff sandy shale y Sand- 5.2 208.4 

Sandstone, massive. J stone 26.4 234.8 

Concealed 5.2 240 . 

Limy, dark gray shale, with lime- 
stone nuggets 5.0 245 . 

Sandstone, with shale layers 10.4 255.4 

Buff shale 8.4 263.8 

Concealed 2.0 265 . 8 

Black slate 0.0 265.8 

Concealed 26.0 291.8 

Sandstone, friable, sandy shale, and 

sandstone 26.0 317 . 8 

Shale, sandy and gray 3.0 320.8 

Coal, Nineveh (11") to (1230' 

B-A.T.) 1.0 321.8 

Shale 3.4 325.2 

Limestone, yellowish and silicious, 

Nineveh 2.0 327 . 2 

Shale 5.2 332.4 

Fire clay, dark gray 1.0 333.4 

Concealed and shale 16.8 350.2 

Sandstone, massive, Burton 40.0 390.2 

Sandy shale 4.2 394.4 



105.4' 



129.4' 



86.0' 



73.6' 



128 



THE DUNKARD SERIES. 



Thickness. 
Ft. 

Coal, Hostetter 10" to 1.0 

Fire clay and sandy sliale 10.4 

Sandstone, friable 31.2 

Fire clay and concealed 5.2 

Sandstone, friable 15.6 

Concealed to top of Sarah Anderson 

No. 1 oil well 21.2 

(Sarah Anderson No. 1 Record.) 

Sand and gravel from top of hole. . 18.0 

Slate and shells 80.0 

Coal, Jollytown 2.0 

Slate 15.0 

Limestone, Upper Washington .... 40.0 

Slate and shells 45 . 

Red rock 10.0 

Slate 5.0 

Lime 5.0 

Slate 5.0 

Red rock 15.0 

Sandstone, (10" casing top of sand) 

(Upper Marietta) 30.0 

Red rock 5.0 

Slate, white 10.0 

Slate, black 5.0 

Lime, IVIiddle Washington 10.0 

Slate 20.0 

Lime 5.0 

Slate 11.0 

Black shells 14.0 

Limestone, Lower Washington 5.0 

Coal, Washington (little water)... 2.0 

Slate 33.0 

Lime '. 20.0 

Sandstone 20 . 

Slate 5.0 

Lime, dark 5.0 

Lime, white 20.0 

Slate 20.0 

Coal, Waynesburg. 



749.0 
754.0 
764.0 
769.0 
779.0 
799.0 
804.0 
815.0 
829.0 
834.0 

836.0 
869.0 
889.0 
909.0 
914.0 
919.0 
939.0 
959.0 



84.6' 



Total. 
Ft. 
395.4 
405.8 
437.0 
442.2 
457.8 

479.0 



497.0 98' 
577.0 



579.0 
594.0 
634.0 
679.0 
689.0 
694.0 
699.0 
704.0 
719.0 



257' 



125' 



Littleton Section (Clay District), Wetzel Co. 

Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

Concealed, sandstone and sandy 

shale from level of Geo. N. Gil- 

lingham No. 1 well (W 56) to 

summit of hill road (U. S. 1406' 

A. T.) 46.0 46.0 

Sandstone and sandy shale 14.5 60.5 

Black slate 0.5 61.0 



173' 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



129 



Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 
Mostly concealed, shale and sand- 
stone 112.0 173.0 

Black blossom, Nineveh coal 0.0 173.0 

Sandstone and sandy shale 12.0 185.0 

Black bituminous shale (1267' A. 

T.) 0.3 185.3 

Shale, limy 2.0 187.3 

Limestone, gray and ' 

hard, silicious 4.0 191.3 

Shale, limy VNineveh ... 2.5 193. S 

Limestone, gray and 

hard, silicious J 0.5 194.3 

Variegated and red sandy shale... 38.6 232.9 

Fire clay, Hostetter coal horizon.. 0.0 232.9 



59.9' 



Sandy and red shale and concealed 17.6 250.5 

Sandstone, friable and concealed.. 26.0 276.5 

Buff sandy shale 10.4 286.0 

Red and sandy shale 20.8 307.7 

Massive sandstone (quarry rock) 

Fish Creek 35.0 342.7 

Shale 3.6 346.3 

Coal 0' 5"] (Fish Creek) 

Slate, gray 1 f (1100' 

Coal 6 J A. T.) 1.0 347.3 

Fire clay and sandstone, friable . . . 

Concealed and red shale 

Sandy shale with thin sandstones. 
Sandstone, friable (Rush Run).... 

Sandy shale 

Coal 0' 4"] 

Shale, gray 2 } Dunkard, 0.7 412.4 

Coal 2 J (1034' A. T.) 

Shale, sandy, red and variegated.. 41.0 453.4 

Sandstone, friable, (Joilytown) 10.0 463.4 

Black slate, Jollytown Coal (982' 

A. T.) 1.0 464.4 



Limestone, gray and silicious. Up- 
per Washington 

Shale, limy 

Sandstone, friable, and sandy shale 
(Hundred Sandstone) to R. R. 
east end Martin tunnel (952' A. 
T.) 

Concealed 19.7 

Coal (Hundred) 0.3 



2.5 
5.5 



.22.0 



Unrecorded in well (W 56) 200.6 

Coal, Washington (supplied) 0.0 

Unrecorded 125 . 

Waynesburg Coal. 

9 



12.4 


359.7 


20.8 


380.5 


15.6 


396.1 


10.6 


406.7 


5.0 


411.7 



466.9 
472.4 



494.4 
514.1 
614.4 



715.0 

715.0 



114.4' 



65.1' 



52' 



50' 



200.6' 
840.0 125' 



130 



THE DUNKxVED SERIES. 



Section One Mile Northeast of Steelton, Wetzel Co., W. Va. 



Thickness Total. 

Ft. Ft. 
Unrecorded from top of knob to 

bench or flat 265 . 265 . 

Sandstone, friable (Fish Creek)... 25.0 290.0 

Concealed 25.0 315.0 

Massive sandstone (Rush Run) 10.0 325.0 

Shale, gray at top, sandy in mid- 
dle and red at bottom 50.0 375.0 

Massive sandstone, (Hundred) 10.0 385.0 

Shale, variegated and red 17.0 402.0 

Sandstone, friable and shale 7.0 409.0 

Coal 0' 4"] (11") 

Slate, gray ..0 1 \ (Hundred) 1.0 410.0 

Coal 6 



Limy shale, gray at top, red at bot 
tom 

Massive sandstone, forming cliff, 

Upper Marietta 33.0 

Sandy shale 6.0 

Coaly shale and slate, Washington 
"A" 1.0 

Shale 15 . 

Black slate (3") 0.2 

Limy shale, variegated and red 10.0 

Limestone, silicious and limy shale, 

Middle Washington 10.0 

Sandstone, massive. Lower Mariet- 
ta 30.0 

Shale 2.0 

Dark shale (4") 0.3 

Buff limy shale 6.0 

Coal, slaty. 
Coal, good 



'..0' 8") Washing- 

..1 7 I ton 2.2 

Gray limy shale 15 . 

Sandstone and shale 42 . 



Slate with streaks' 

of coal ..0' 2 
Shale, gray 1 
Coal, slaty 10 
Coal 8 



Waynes- 
burg 

"A" Coal 



25.0 435.0 



468.0 
474.0 

475.0 

490.0 
490.2 
500.2 

510.2 



540.2 
542.2 
542.5 
548.5 

550.7 

565.7 
607.7 



2.7 610.4 



Fire clay, thin sandstone and shale 10.0 620.4 
Massive sandstone, forming cliff, 

Waynesburg 35.0 655.4 

Shales, sandy 3.0 658 . 4 

Limestone, dark gray, flaggy, Elm 

Grove 2.0 660.4 

Concealed 9.6 670. 



325' 



85' 



65' 



35.2' 



40.5' 



59.7' 



59.6' 



Waynesburg coal, place for but concealed. 



WEST VIRGINIA QEOLOOlCAL SURVEY. 



131 



This last section is important in that it shows the relation 
of the Upper and Lower Marietta sandstones to the Washing- 
ton and Washington "A" coals. A careful study of the pre- 
ceding sections and the next of the Dunkard series has caused 
the writer to change some of the names of the formations in 
the above section. The new names are those in parentheses. 

The following section was measured with the hand-level 
jointly by Mr. C. E. Krebs, Asst. Geologist, and the writer 
eastward down the river hill from the grindstone quarries to 
the Washington coal bed at a point 7 miles southwest from 
Marietta, Ohio, nearly opposite Brisco station on the West 
Virginia side. This is a very important section in that the true 
position of the several divisions of the Marietta sandstone 
group in their type locality is shown with reference to the 
Washington coal: 

Marietta, Ohio, Section. 



Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 

1. Sandstone, Jollytown, and con- 

cealed 40 40 

2. Reds, dark, with limestone nug- 

gets 20 60 

3. Sandstone, fine grained, brown 

and bluish, quarried for 
grindstones, Hundred ...... 41 101 



4. Reds, dark 5 

5. Concealed and sandstone ..... 16 

6. Shales, dark red 15 

7. Sandstone, bluish, medium 

grained with limestone con- 
glomerate at base. Upper 
Marietta 52 

8. Reds and concealed 45'"jCre8ton 

9. Sandstone 2 ^Reds 62 

10. Reds 15 J 

11. Sandstone, bluish, medium 

grained, micaceous, Lower 
Marietta 20 

12. Concealed 5 



13. Coai, Washington, 9" to 

14. Fire clay shale, Washiington. 



1 
lb 



106 
122 
137 



189 



251 



271 
276 

277 
287 



40' 
61' 



88' 



87' 



11' 



Both the Hundred and Upper Marietta sandstones are be- 
ing quarried here for grindstones. The Lower Marietta, com- 



132 THE DUNKARD SERIES. 

ing directly over the Washington coal, does not seem to have 
been quarried. This section corresponds closely with the Steel- 
ton, W. Va., Section*, republished and revised on page 130 
of this report. 

The Dunkard series of rocks extends over the entire west- 
ern half of both Wirt and Roane counties. It appears to be 
missing entirely from the summits of the highest hills only 
along the Volcano anticlinal in Wirt north of the Little Kana- 
wha river, and in southeastern Roane and southern Calhoun. 
The series consists of sandstones, sandy shales, limestones, 
limy shales, red shales and only two or three thin coal beds. 
The characteristic red shales appear in every section observed 
by the writer, and the limestones of the northern end of the 
State appear to change to red marly shales with brecciated 
nuggets of limestone scattered through the same. The maxi- 
mum thickness left uneroded (637 feet) is found in western 
Wirt county as shown by the Limestone Ridge section, page 

52. 

Several scattered sections of the Dunkard series, in addi- 
tion to those already published in Chapter III, will now be 
given. 

WIRT COUNTY SECTIONS, DUNKARD SERIES. 

The following aneroid section was measured by the writer 
from the top of a high hill down a point to Hughes river : 

Section ^ Mile West of Freeport, Clay District. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

Concealed from top of hill 40 40 

Sandstone, coarse, light brown, Up- 
per Marietta 40 80 

Concealed and sandstone, steel 

gray 25 105 

Concealed 30 135 

Sandstone, massive, dark green 10 145 



80' 



4 Marshall- Wetzel-Tyler Report, p. 156, W. Va. Geol. Survey. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



133 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

Sandy shale and concealed 20 165 

Sandy shale, (Lower Marietta Sand- 
stone) 25 190 

Concealed 25 215 

Sandstone, flaggy and shaly 10 225 

Red sandy shale 5 230 

Concealed 15 245 

Sandstone, steel gray, micaceous.. 10 255 

Concealed 15 270 

Sandstone, Waynesburg 5 275 

Concealed 30 305 

Sandstone, massive, dark gray, Gil- 
boy .40 345 

Concealed to Hughes river, 1 mile 

• below Freeport 50 395 



150' 



Dunkard 
305' 
Series. 



75' 



Monongahela 

90' 
Series. 



The following detailed hand-level section, measured by 
the writer down a sharp point to Hughes river, y^ mile below 
Greencastle, is of interest in that it gives the exact interval be- 
tween the Upper Marietta sandstone and the Washington 
coal: 

Greencastle Section, Clay District. 



Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 
Massive sandstone, dark green, mi- 
caceous. Upper IVIarietta .... 30 30 

Concealed and reds 5 35 

Sandstone, massive 10 45 

Shale 5 50 

Fire clay 1 51 

Red shale 21 72 

Shale, light green 2 74 

Concealed 36 110 

Coal, Washington (9") 0.7 110.7 

Shale, gray, Washington 5 115.7 

Concealed to Hughes river, % mile 

below Greencastle 40 155.7 

River here is about 595' A. T. 



30' 



80' 



45.7' 



Another important detailed hand-level section was 
measured by the writer on the north side of the Little Kana- 
wha river near the lower ferry at Elizabeth, as follows : 



134 



THE DUNKARD SERIES. 



Elizabeth Section, North Bank of River (Wirt County). 



Thickness. 
Ft. 
Massive sandstone, forming cliffs, 

Upper iVIarietta 20 

Concealed 13 

Dark reds with limestone nuggets, 

Creston 15 

Shales, greenish 2 

Sandstone, limy, nodular 3 

Red shale 5 

Sandstone 5 

Concealed 20 

Coal blossom, Wasiiington (615' 

L-A. T.) 

Black shale 1 

Shale, yellowish, Washington 5 

Limestone, brecciated 3 

Sandstone and concealed to Little 

Kanawha River 7 



Total. 
Ft. 

20 
33 

48 
50 
53 
58 
63 
83 

83 

84 
89 
1)2 

99 



20' 



63' 



16' 



West of the river in Tucker district the writer measured 
the following aneroid section northwest down the hill road on 
head of Road run, ^ mile south of Lotta P. O. : 

Lotta P. O. Section, Tucker District. 



' Thickness. 

Ft. 
Sandstone, coarse, brown, Nineveh, 

capping knob, and concealed 30 
Sandstone, green, micaceous, fine 

grained 10 

Concealed 4 

Limestone, gray, hard, Nineveh 

(8" visible) 1 

Concealed to fork of private road . . 15 

Concealed 5 

Sandstone 10 

Shale and concealed 15 

Sandstone, green, micaceous 5 

Buff and red shale 20 

Sandstone, green 5 

Reds 10 

Sandstone, flaggy, green, micaceous, 

Burton 10 



Total. 

Ft. 

30 

40 
44 

45 

60 

65 

75 

90 

95 
115 
120 
130 

140 



Concealed 25 165 

Reds 20 185 

Shale, sandy 20 205 

Concealed, mostly shale 25 230 



45' 



1070' B-A. T. 



95' 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



135 



130' 



155' 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

Reds 6 235 

Sandstone, nodular, limy 5 240 

Shale, buff and sandy 5 245 

Concealed 10 255 

Sandstone, green, micaceous. Rush 

Run 15 270 

Red and green shale 15 2S5 

Sandstone and sandy shale 10 295 

Reds, sandy 15 310 

Sandstone, green, broken 5 315 

Concealed 35 350 

Sandy shale and sandstone 20 370 

Concealed 25 395 

Sandstone, coarse, flaggy, with 

limestone conglomerates at 

base, Upper Marietta 30 425 

This section, in addition to the two general sections given 
for Limestone Hill P. O. and Limestone Ridge on pa^s 48 
and 52, exhibits the rock succession of the Dnnkard series of 
Tucker district in a thorough manner, and reveal the absence 
of several of the thin coals of the Dnnkard series of northern 
W. Va. 

Mr. Robert D. Hennen measured the following aneroid 
section : 



Section ^ Mile West of Pewee, Reedy District. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

Limestone, Nineveh 5 5 

Concealed 15 20 

Sandstone, flaggy 5 25 

Concealed, with reds 5 30 

Sandstone, shaly and friable. Bur- 
ton 40 70 

Concealed 10 80 

Reds 15 95 

Brown sandy shale 15 110 

Concealed 20 130 

Sandstone, massive, Fish Creek 25 155 

Concealed 15 170 

Yellow shale 15 185 

Sandstone, shaly 5 190 

Concealed 30 220 

Sandstone, flaggy, Rush Run 10 230 



65' 



85' 



75' 



1,3.6 



THE DUNKARD SERIES. 



Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 



Concealed 5 

Reds 50 

Shale, yellow 20 

Sandstone, flaggy and shaly, Hun- 
dred 15 



235 
285 
305 

320 
335 



90' 



80' 



Concealed 15 

Shale, yellow and sandy to fork of 
road, Vz mile west of Pewee 

P. 15 "350 

Concealed, with reds 18 368 

Brown sandy shale 7 375 

Sandstone, Upper Marietta, to 

Creek level Pewee 25 400 

Base of section=:680' A. T. 
About 5 miles due south of Elizabeth in the southern point 
of Elizabeth district, Mr. Robert D. Hennen measured the fol- 
lowing aneroid section on the east bank of Reedy creek, % 
mile abdve Fox schoolhouse : 



Fox Schoolhouse Section, Elizabeth District. 



Thickness. 
Ft. 
1.^ Sandstone, massive, fine grain- 
ed, micaceous. Upper Mariet- 
ta, (forms cliffs) 40 

2. Concealed 20 

3. Brown and yellow shale. 5 

4. Sandstone, flaggy, bluish white 5 

5. Concealed 5 

6. Sandstone, massive, coarse. 

Lower Marietta 20 

7. Coal blossoms, Washington.... 



8. Concealed to Spring creek 



10 



Total. 
Ft. 



40 

60 
65 

70 
75 

95 
95 

105 



40' 



55' 



10' 



This section, along with those at Elizabeth and Green- 
castle, pages 134 and 133, respectively, shows that the inter- 
val from the Washington coal up to the base of the Upper 
Marietta sandstone varies from 55 to 80 feet. Other sections 
in western Roane county show it to reach 90 to 100 feet. 

The writer measured the following short hand-level sec- 
tion on the east bank of the Little Kanawha, north of Cherry 
P. O. near the foot of the steep structural slope of the western 
flank of the Burning Springs (Volcano) anticline. It is im- 
portant in that it shows the true relative position of three per- 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



137 



sistent strata of the Dunkard series in the Wirt-Roane-Cal- 
houn area : 



Cherry P. O. Section, Burning Springs District. 

Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 
Sandstone, massive, forming cliffs, 

Lower Marietta 45 45 

Shale, limy 5 50 50.5' 

Coal, Washington, 2" to 0.5 ,50 5 

Fire clay, limy shale and concealed 40 90.5 

Sandstone, coarse and pebbly, form- 80' 

ing cliff, Mannington 40 130.5 

On the w^aters of Spring creek in the southern portion of 
Wirt county, the writer measured the following aneroid sec- 
tion from the top of a high knob, located i mile southwest of 
Evelyn P. O. eastward along the public highway leading down 
to the mouth of Horse run of Spring creek : 

Evelyn P. O. Section, Spring Creek. 

Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 
Sandstone, brown, shaly, capping 

hill, Rush Run 25 25 

Reds 14 39 

Limestone nuggets, brecciated .... 1 40 
Sandstone, greenish gray, Jolly- 
town 40 80 

Shale, red and buff 20 100 

Concealed 17 117 

Sandstone, nodular and limy 3 120 

Red shale 20 140 

Sandstone, flaggy, micaceous' and 

green, Hundred? 20 160 

Reds 15 175 

Fire clay and iron nuggets 175 

Concealed 5 180 

Variegated shale and concealed 20 200 

Dark red shale, Creston 47 247 

Green shale 3 250 

Red sandy shale 30 280 

Sandstone, Lower Marietta 20 300 

Concealed, with reds 25 325 

Sandstone, massive, coarse, brown, 

pebbly, Mannington 50 375 



80' 



80' 



UO' 



75' 



Unrecorded to base of series. 



60 



435 



60' 



138 THE DUNKARD SERIES. 

The Hundred sandstone — Washington coal interval is less 
than it should be on account of the rapid rise of rocks to the 
east. 

ROANE COUNTY SECTIONS, DUNKARD SERIES. 

* In addition to several general Roane county sections in- 
cluding the Dunkard series published in Chapter III, several 
scattered sections of the latter group of rocks will now be 
given in Roane county. 

Reedy district occupies the northwestern corner of the 
latter area and its outcropping rocks, except a narrow strip 
along Spring creek in the extreme eastern part, all belong in 
the Dunkard series. 

Mr. Robert D. Hennen measured the following hand-level 
section southeast to Reedy, creek level at the north end of the 
town of Reedy : 

Section at North End of Reedy, Reedy District. 

Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 

1. Sandstone, coarse, loosely ce- 

mented, dark gray, Upper Ma- 
rietta 22.5 22.5 22.5' 

2. Concealed (mostly reds, Cres- 

ton) 52.5 

3. Sandstone and limy shale, most- 

ly shale 16 

4. Sandstone, massive, dark yel- 

low, fine grained, Lower Ma- 
rietta 5 

5. Shale, brown, limy near top. ... 18.5 

6. Concealed to public road 8 

7. Coal, good, Washington (22").. 1.8 

8. Coal, rotten, and fire clay 1.7 126.0 I .,. n, 

9. Concealed to Reedy creek 13 139.0 I 

The Upper Marietta sandstone — Washington coal interval 
has here reached lOO feet. The interval between the base of 
the Upper Marietta sandstone and the top of the Lower Mari- 
etta sandstone is nearly always occupied in the Wirt-Roane- 
Calhoun area by dark red limy shales that the writer has desig- 
nated the Creston reds from their fine exposure on the Creston 



75 




91 




96 




114 


5 


122 


5 


124 


3 



101.8' 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



139 



flats, I mile and a half N. 80° E. of the tov^n of Creston, Wirt 
county, W. Va. 

Curtis district lies directly south of Reedy district, and 
near the former's northern boundary line, 2 miles southwest 
from Kyger, the writer measured the following aneroid sec- 
tion southeast down a hill road : 

Section Two Miles Southwest of Kyger, Curtis District. 

Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 



Massive sandstone, capping high 

knob. Rush Run 25 25 

Concealed 45 70 

Reds 5 75 

Sandstone and concealed 20 95 

Reds 5 100 

Sandstone, massive, green. Rush 

Run 10 110 

Concealed 10 120 

Reds 10 130 

Concealed and reds 45 175 

Sandstone, shaiy and brown, Hun- 
dred , 15 190 

Concealed 35 225 

Sandstone, flaggy and green, Upper 

Marietta 20 245 

Reds, concealed and sandstone.... 50 295 

Concealed to fork of road (U. S. 

722' L-A. T.) 60 355 

Concealed 20 375 

Washington coal horizon below 

drainage 375 



25' 

85' 

80' 

55' 
50' 

80' 



The following aneroid section was measured by Mr. Reger 
southward along the hill road down to Little Spring creek, 
Yi mile east of Triplet P. O. : 

Section ^ Mile East of Triplet P. O., Spencer District. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

Red shale from top of hill 20 20 

Sandstone, green, shaly. Fish Creek 10 30 

Brown shale, sandstone, and con- 
cealed 40 70 

Red shale 10 80 

Sandstone, green, flaggy, Jollytown 25 105 



30' 



75' 



140 



THE DUNKABD SERIES. 



Concealed and red shale. . . 
Sandstone, shaly, Hundred. 



Thickness. 
Ft. 

20 

30 



Concealed 4 

Limestone, brecciated, 1 

Concealed 5 

Sandstone, shaly . . "1 Upper 10 

Red shale i Marietta 10 

Sandstone, shaly. . J Sandstone 10 

Red shale 50 

Sandstone, shaly 4 

Fire clay (12") 1 

Red shale and concealed 40 

Sandstone and concealed 20 

Coal, Washington, horizon 



Total. 
Ft. 
125 
155 

159 
160 
165 
175 
185 
195 

245 
249 
250 
290 
310 
310 



Green shale, Washington 5 315 

Concealed 20 335 

Sandstone, Mannington 45 380 



50' 



40' 



Interval to base of Dunkard series 60 



440 



115' 

70' 
60' 



CALHOUN COUNTY SECTIONS, DUNKARD SERIES. 

In addition to several general Calhoun county sections, 
including in their top portion the Dunkard series, published in 
Chapter III, two more widely separated sections of this group 
of rocks will now be given. 

In the extreme northeast corner of Sheridan district of 
Calhoun county, on the head of Seths fork of Leading creek, 
Mr. Reger measured the following aneroid section of the 
Dunkard rocks southward down the hill road from Lough 
P. O. 

Lough P. O. Section, Sheridan District. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

1. Red shale, sandy, with lime- 

stone nuggets from top of hill 30 30 

2. Sandstone, limy 3 33 

3. Sandy shale 27 60 

4. Sandstone, coarse, brown, soft. 

Upper IVIarietta 40 100 



100' 



WEST VmGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



141 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

5. Concealed 10 110 

6. Sandstone, shaly 5 115 

7. Concealed '... 20 135 

8. Red limy shale 7 142 

9. Sandstone, shaly 3 145 

10. Red shale mostly (Creston) 73 218 

11. Sandstone, Lower Marietta.... 6 224 

12. Concealed and shale 10 234 

13. Coal, Washington, 9" to (900' L- 

A. T.) 1 235 

14. Shale, greenish yellow, Wash- 

ington 5 , 240 

15. Limestone, brecciated 5 245 

16. Sandstone, shaly to fork of road 

(U. S. 884' A. T.) 6 251 



135' 



16' 



The following section was measured by the writer on the 
head of Pine run, down the hill road leading northward from 
Mt. Zion P. O. 

Mt. Zion P. O. Section, Center District. 



Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 

1. Massive sandstone, coarse, 

brown, friable. Lower Mariet- 
ta 44.5 44.5 

2. Coal (6"), Wasliington 0.5 45 

3. Fire clay and buff shale 25 70 

4. Concealed 5 75 

5. Sandstone, massive, coarse and 

gray, Waynesburg 75 150 

5A. Concealed 20 170 

6. Concealed mostly 95 265 

7. Coal, (old opening, reported 3" 

to 4" thick) (872' L-A. T.) 
Uniontown, i/^ mile S. E. of 
Star P. 0.3 265.3 



45' 



125' 



Dunkard 

170' 
Series. 



Monongahela 

95.3 . 
Series. 



This is an important section in that it reveals the presence 
of two coals, giving the Washington-Uniontown coal interval 
as 220 feet. 

All the foregoing sections of the Dunkard series in the 
Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area are so distributed as to give a fair 
idea of the thickness and character of the several formations 
of this group of rocks in this portion of the State. 



142 THE DUNKAED SERIES. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE DUNKARD FORMATIONS. 

A detailed description of the recognized formations of the 
Dunkard rocks in the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area will now be 
given, and also for the purposes of comparison a brief descrip- 
tion of other type formations of this series that appear to be 
absent in this portion of the State. 

The following formations of the Dunkard series, arranged 
in descending order, have been recognized and described in 
the northern end of the State : 

Proctor Sandstones. 

Windy Gap Limestone. 

Windy Gap Coal. 

Gilmore Sandstone. 

Gilmore Coal. 

Gilmore Limestone. 

Upper Rockport Limestone. 

Taylor Sandstone. 

Middle Rockport Limestone. 

Lower Rockport Limestone. 

Nineveh Sandstone. 

Nineveh Coal. 

Nineveh Limestone. / 

Burton Sandstone. 

Hostetter Coal. 

Fish Creek Sandstone. 

Fish Creek Coal. 

Rush Run Sandstone. 

Dunkard Coal. 

Jollytown Sandstone. 

Jollytown Coal. 

Upper Washington Limestone. 

Hundred Sandstone. 

Hundred Coal. 

Upper Marietta Sandstone. 

Washington "A" Coal. 

Creston Red Shale. 

Middle Washington Limestone. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 143 

Low^er Marietta Sandstone, 

Washington Coal. 

Washington Fire Clay Shale. 

Washington Sandstone. 

Little Washington Coal. 

Mannington Sandstone. 

Waynesburg "B" Coal. 

Waynesburg "A" Coal. 

Waynesburg Sandstone. 

Elm Grove Limestone. 

Cassville Plant Shale. 
The highest recognized formation of the group of rocks in 
the area under discussion is the Low^er Rockport limestone; 
hence that portion of the column extending from the Proctor 
sandstones down to and including the Middle Rockport lime- 
stone appears to have been eroded, and need not be described 
in this report. 

The Upper, Middle, and Lower Rockport Limestones. 

In western Wirt and eastern Wood counties there occur 
three ledges of limestone, ranging in thickness from 5 to 8 feet, 
and separated by from 25 to 30 feet of sandy shales and sand- 
stones, the lower one of which comes 10 to 15 feet above the 
Nineveh sandstone. The writer has designated them the Up- 
per Rockport Limestone, Middle Rockport Limestone, and 
Lower Rockport Limestone, from their fine development 
along the hill road i mile west of the village of Rockport in 
the southern part of Wood County, W, Va., and i mile and a 
half west from the Wirt-Wood county line. The relative po- 
sition of these three limestone ledges is well shown by the 
Rockport section published on page 46. They all appear 
to weather to a grayish •white, but on fresh fracture are dark 
gray in color. They also have numerous minute fresh water 
fossils, apparently bivalve Crustacea, and fish teeth. The 
writer has observed a limestone ledge in the western portion 
of Church District, Wetzel County, W. Va., coming 10 to 15 
feet above the Nineveh sandstone, that no doubt correlates 
with the Lower Rockport. 



144 THE DUNKARD SERIES. 

These three ledges add a great deal to the fertility of the 
soil in western Wirt and eastern Wood. In the Wirt-Roane- 
Calhoun area they are confined to a narrow belt in Wirt 
county along the Wood county line. 

The Nineveh Sandstone. 

The highest definitely recognized formation of the 
Dunkard series next below the Rockport limestones in the 
Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area is the Nineveh sandstone. In the 
section measured at Limestone Hill P. O. in the extreme 
western part of Wirt county, this stratum was noted, page 
48, and also in the section measured near Lotta P. O., page 
134. In the vicinity of Limestone Hill P. O. it forms an 
escarpment near the summits of the high hills. There it is a 
coarse, brown, very massive sandstone. It disappears to the 
eastward and southward and was not recognized in either 
Roane or Calhoun county. The sandstone has been so desig- 
nated by I. C. White from its development a few feet above 
the coal of that name near the village of Nineveh, Greene 
county, Pennsylvania. 

The Nineveh Coal. 

In the northern end of the State there occurs quite a 
persistent coal a short distance below the base of the Nine- 
veh sandstone. It was so called by Dr. John J. Stevenson 
from the village of Nineveh, Greene County, Pa. Its blossom 
was observed by Mr. Reger at an elevation of 1025' A. T., 
one-half mile southeast of Limestone Hill P. O. in extreme 
eastern Wirt county. There, as elsewhere in the area, it is 
of no economic importance, but of scientific interest in that 
it lends additional evidence as to the identity of the Nineveh 
limestone. 

The Nineveh Limestone. 

In the northern end of the State there occurs a very per- 
sistent stratum of limestone, ranging in thickness from 10 to 
15 feet, and coming about the same distance below the Nine- 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 145 

veh coal, that has also been named by Dr. Stevenson from 
the same village as the coal. In the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun 
area, the only place the measures reach up to this horizon is 
in the western part of Wirt county where it has contributed 
quite a good deal to the fertility of the soil near the summits 
of the hills in Tucker and Reedy districts. 

The limestone appears to carry minute fossil fragments 
of fresh water origin, such as fish teeth, etc. According to 
the Limestone Ridge section on page 52, it comes 938 feet 
over the Pittsburg coal. This same interval at Burton, Wet- 
zel county, W. Va., is 986 feet. 

The chemical composition and character of the lime- 
stone will be taken up in a subsequent chapter of this report. 

The Burton Sandstone. 

At 25 to 30 feet below the Nineveh limestone in the 
northern end of the State a great massive sandstone comes 
into the series that has been named by the writer* the Burton 
sandstone from its development near the village of Burton, 
Wetzel county, W. Va. Its horizon is noted in the Limestone 
Hill section of western Wirt county, but there it appears to 
have lost its massive character. In the vicinity of Pewee, 
Reedy district of the same county, this stratum has a thick- 
ness of 40 feet with its base coming 65 feet below the Nine- 
veh limestone. 

In Roane and Calhoun counties its horizon comes too 
high in the measures to catch the tops of the hills with the 
possible exception of a small area of northwestern Roane. 

The Hostetter Coal. 

In Wetzel county, W. Va., a persistent coal bed, 6 to 18 
inches in thickness, comes immediately at .the base of the 
Burton sandstone near the village of Burton. This stratum 
has been named the Hostetter coal by I. C. White^ It dis- 



6 Marshall-Wetzel-Tyler Report, W. Va. Geol. Sur., p. 182, 1909. 

7 Bui. 65, p. 33, U. S. Geological Survey. 

10 



146 THE DUNKARD SERIES. 

appears to the southwest from the northern end of the State 
and was not recognized in the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area. 

The Fish Creek Sandstone. 

At 40 to 50 feet below the base of the Burton sandstone 
in northeastern Wetzel county, W. Va., occurs a very mass- 
ive sandstone that has a wide distribution. It has been 
named the Fish Creek sandstone by J. J. Stevenson from 
its outcrop on a stream of that name near Deep Valley, 
Greene county. Pa. A detailed description of this stratum is 
given by the writer on pages 185-187 and 593-594 of State 
Survey report on Marshall, Wetzel and Tyler counties. 

In the extreme western Wirt county this rock is noted 
outcropping along the hill road leading southward from 
Limestone Hill P. O. down Sandy creek, coming 80 feet be- 
low the Nineveh limestone and having a thickness of 33 feet. 
There it is flaggy at top and massive and friable at bottom. 
It was noted in the section measured 2 miles northwest of 
Zackville, published on page 55. There only 15 feet thick- 
ness was visible, its top and bottom being concealed. This 
stratum was also noted in the section measured down a hill 
road, Yt. mile west of Pewee P. O., page 135. There its 
top comes 60 feet below the Burton sandstone, and the rock 
has a visible thickness of 25 feet. 

In Roane and Calhoun counties, it comes too high in the 
measures to catch the tops of the highest hills with the pos- 
sible exception of a small area of the northwest portion of 
Reedy district, Roane county. 

The Fish Creek Coal. 

In the northern end of the State there occurs a thin (6" 
to 15"), very persistent, double-bedded coal immediately at 
the base of the Fish Creek sandstone that has been named by 
the writer the Fish Creek coaP from its association with the 
rock above. In like manner to the Hostetter coal, it, too, thins 



8 Marshall-Wetzel-Tyler Report, page 187, W. Va. Geol. Survey. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 147 

away to the southwest and was not observed at any point in 
the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area. 

The Rush Run Sandstone. 

At 35 to 40 feet below the base of the Fish Creek sand- 
stone and immediately over the Dunkard coal in northeastern 
Wetzel county, W. Va., there occurs a rather massive sand- 
stone, ranging from 10 to 25 feet in thickness, that has been 
named by the writer the Rush Run® sandstone from a stream 
of that name along which it outcrops near Hundred, W. Va. 

In western Wirt county its outcrop was noted along the 
hillsides at several points. In the Zackville section, page 
55, it is shown to have a thickness of 15 feet, coming 200 
feet below the Nineveh limestone and 85 feet above the Hun- 
dred sandstone. In the section measured by the writer at 
Lotta P. O., this sandstone is noted, coming 205 feet below 
the Nineveh sandstone and 125 feet above the Upper Mari- 
etta .sandstone. It was also noted in the Pewee P. O. sec- 
tion. At this point it is a flaggy rock. It is too high in the 
measures to catch the hills of central and eastern Wirt 
county, except near Evelyn P. O. as shown by the section at 
the latter point, page 137. 

In Roane and Calhoun counties, this rock apparently 
comes too high in the Dunkard series to catch the hill tops. 

The Dunkard Coal. 

A short distance (6 inches to 20 feet) below the Rush 
Run sandstone in northeastern Wetzel county, W. Va., there 
occurs a double-bedded coal seam, ranging in thickness from 
6 to 15 inches. It was named the Dunkard by J. J. Stevenson 
from its outcrop on Dunkard creek, Greene County, Pa., 
where it comes 35 to 45 feet above the Jollytown coal, 265 to 
290 feet above the Washington coal and 750 feet above the 
Pittsburg bed. In like manner to the other Dunkard coals 
above, it, too, appears to thin away to the southwest from 



9 Marshall-Wetzel-Tyler Report, page 191, W. Va. Geol. Survey. 



148 THE DUNKARD SERIES. 

the northern end of the State, and was not observed at any 
point in the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area. 

The Jollytown Sandstone. 

In the 30 to 50 feet of measures that intervene between 
the Dunkard coal and the Jollytown bed next below, there 
frequently occurs a sandstone, sometimes flaggy and some- 
times massive, both on Dunkard creek, referred to above, 
and on Fish creek in northeastern Wetzel county, W. Va. 
The writer has named this stratum the Jollytown^" sandstone 
from its association with the coal of the same name 5 to 10 
feet below it. 

In western Wirt county this rock outcrops about one- 
fourth way up the hillsides. In the section measured in the 
southeastern point of Wirt county at Evelyn P. O., page 137, 
it is shown to be 40 feet thick, greenish gray in color, coming 
220 feet over the Washington coal horizon. 

In Roane county its outcrop is found near the summits 
of the hills at several points. In the section measured at 
Spencer,! page 69, this rock is shown to be pebbly and 
coarse, having a thickness of 25 feet, coming 225 feet above 
the Washington coal. It appears to be the great cliff rock, 
50 feet thick, that shows along the east side of Reedy creek 
near the summits of the hills, }i mile north of Vandalia P. O. 
In the section given for Vandalia, page 74, this stratum 
comes 255 feet over the Washington coal and 145 feet above 
the base of the Upper Marietta sandstone. There it is a great, 
coarse, browm, and friable sandstone, apparently being too 
loosely cemented to have any value as a building stone. 

In Calhoun county the outcrop of the Jollytown sand- 
stone is confined to a small area on the waters of Leading- 
creek north of Freed P. O. where it should catch the summits 
of the highest knobs. 

The Jollytown Coal. 

In southwestern Pennsylvania and in the bordering 
counties of West Virginia, there occurs a very persistent 



10 Marshall-Wetzel-Tyler Report, page 197, W. Va. Geol. Survey; 
1909. 



WT]ST vraGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 149 

coal bed, 6 to 24 inches thick, coming 5 to 10 feet below 
the Jollytown sandstone and directly over the Upper Wash- 
ington limestone. It was so named by J. J. Stevenson from 
the village of Jollytown, Greene county, Pa., where it out- 
crops 30 to 40 feet above Dunkard creek. 

In Wirt, Roane and Calhoun counties it appears to have 
thinned away entirely. 

The Upper Washington Limestone. 

In southwestern Pennsylvania and northern West Vir- 
ginia there occurs immediately under the Jollytown coal a 
very persistent limestone that has been named by J. J. 
Stevenson^^ the Upper Washington Limestone from its out- 
crop near Washington, Pa. In Marshall and Wetzel and the 
Panhandle counties of West Virginia, this stratum runs from 
2^ to 9 feet in thickness. Southwest from this region, how- 
ever, it seems to undergo a structural change into limy reds. 
The Rockport section, page 46, shows this stratum 5 feet 
in thickness and serves positively to identify the Hundred 
sandstone in this region. 

The Hundred Sandstone. 

At 5 to 10 feet under the Upper Washington limestone, 
and 200 feet above the Washington coal in northeastern Wet- 
zel county, there occurs a very massive sandstone, bluish 
and brown in color, ranging in thickness from 30 to 40 feet, 
that has been named by the writer the Hundred^^ sandstone 
from its crop in a great cliflf two miles west of the town of 
Hundred, W. Va., where it has been quarried for building 
stone. This same stratum has also been quarried quite ex- 
tensively near Marietta, Ohio, for grindstones, and its rela- 
tion to the Upper and Lower Marietta sandstones at their 
type locality is well shown by the Marietta, Ohio, section 
recently measured by the writer and Mr. Krebs, and pub- 
lished on page 131 of this report. There the Hundred sand 
stone comes 175 feet, hand-level measurement, over the 



11 Second Geol. Survey of Pa., Vol. K, p. 45; 1875. 

12 Marshall-Wetzel-Tyler Report, page 214, W. Va. Geol. Survey. 



150 THE DUNKABD SERIES. 

Washington coal, and 36 feet above the top of the Upper 
Marietta sandstone, the latter also having been quarried for 
grindstones. 

In western Wirt county this stratum forms cliffs and 
steep bluffs around the hillsides. This rock passes out in 
the air in central and eastern Wirt county, but in the south- 
eastern part of its area it crops near the summits of the hills. 

In Roane county the Hundred sandstone is quite a prom- 
inent cliff maker, and along with the Upper Marietta sand- 
stone just below always forms steep bluffs around the hillsides 
just above the more gentle slope of the Creston reds. Es- 
pecially is this true in the vicinity of Spencer. Its relative 
position to the other outcropping rocks is well shown in the 
sections given for Rocksdale P. O., Triplet run, and Spencer, 
pages 67, 68, and 69, respectively. It outcrops along 
the hillsides near the summits, at times, all the way between 
Spencer and Walton. Southeast of both points, however, it 
passes into the air on the steep western slope of the Burning 
Springs (Volcano) anticline. This rock is noted in both the 
Rushville and shamblings Mill sections, pages 82 and 85, 
coming 25 feet over the Upper Marietta sandstone. Its rela- 
tion to other outcropping rocks near Kyger and Triplet post- 
offices is given in the sections for these ponts on page 139. 
Its interval above the Washington coal in Roan varies from 
140 to 180 feet. 

In Calhoun county this sandstone is also a prominent 
topographic feature near the summits of the high hills in the 
northern part, along the axis of the Burchfield syncline. 

The Hundred Coal. 

At 2 to 5 feet under the Hundred sandstone at its type 
locality in northeastern Wetzel county, there occurs a thin 
coal bed, 3 to 4 inches thick, that the writer has named the 
Hundred^^ coal from the town of Hundred located one mile 
and a half to the southeast. It apparently thins out to the 
southwestward from the Hundred region and was observed 



13 Marshall- Wetzel-Tyler Report, page 215, W. Va. Geol. Survey; 
1909. 



WEST vntGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 151 

by the writer where its horizon is exposed at only one point 
in the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area. 

In Roane county a coal was once opened up on the W. A. 
Snodgrass farm on Johnson run of Middle Fork of Reedy 
creek at an elevation of 795' A. T. (aneroid). This coal, ac- 
cording to Jos. R. Graham, was i8" thick and of a cannelly 
type. It comes 50 feet above the base of the Upper Marietta 
sandstone and appears to represent the Hundred bed. The 
opening had been abandoned and had fallen shut so that the 
writer was unable to examine it. This is the only point in 
the three counties that any coal was observed at or close the 
horizon of the Hundred bed, and is evidently only a local 
deposit. 

The Upper Marietta Sandstone. 

The interval between the base of the Hundred sandstone 
and the Washington coal in the northern end of the State is 
often occupied largely by two great sandstone ledges that 
have been named by I. C. White, State Geologist, the Mari- 
etta sandstones from their occurrence near Marietta, Ohio, 
where they, along with the Hundred ledge above, have been 
quarried for building purposes and for grindstones. The 
writer designated these two ledges the Upper and Lower 
Marietta^* sandstones. The relative position of each to the 
Washington coal below, and to the Middle Washington lime- 
stone and Washington "A" coal, is well shown in the Steel- 
ton, W. Va.. and Marietta, Ohio, sections, pages 130 and 
131, respectively. 

The Upper Marietta sandstone, according to the two 
sections just mentioned, is a bluish and brown, medium 
grained sandstone, 30 to 40 feet in thickness, coming imme- 
diately over the Washington "A" coal and 75 to 100 feet 
above the Washington coal. 

In Wirt county this rock is a very prominent topographic 
feature, forming the first steep bluff above the gentler slope 
of the outcrop of the Creston reds next below. It is the prom- 
inent cliff rock on the north side of Hughes river, ^4 mile 



14 W. Va. Geol. Survey, Marshall- Wetzel-Tyler Report, page 215; 
1909. 



152 THE DUNKAED SERIES. 

north of Greencastle P. O., (see section at the latter point on 
page 133, coming there 125 feet above the river and 80 feet 
above the Washington coal bed. 

On the north side of the Little Kanawha river, opposite 
Elizabeth, this sandstone has been quarried some for build- 
ing purposes, coming there 63 feet (hand-level measurement) 
above the Washington coal. It outcrops in bold bluffs, 35 to 
40 feet high, along main Reedy creek to the Roane county 
line, and also along the lower course of Right fork of Reedy. 
It is carried into the air along the crest of the Burning 
Springs arch, but comes down into the measures again in 
eastern Wirt. At Munday P. O. (see section at this point on 
page 63), it is a great, coarse, buff and pebbly sandstone, 
45 feet thick, coming 100 feet above the Washington coal. In 
the southern point of Wirt, this sandstone makes steep bluffs 
along the west hillside of Spring creek. 

In the Limestone Ridge section, page 52, it is 35 to 40 
feet thick, coming 187 feet over the Waynesburg coal. To the 
northward from this point in the section given at Lotta P. O., 
the Hundred sandstone is 30 feet thick with a limestone con- 
glomerate at base, the top coming 350 feet below the Nineveh 
limestone. In the Pewee P. O. section of Wirt, this stratum 
is reported 25 feet thick, coming 370 feet below the Nineveh 
limestone. 

In Roane county the Upper Marietta sandstone frequent- 
ly forms vertical cliffs 40 to 50 feet in height. At the town 
of Reedy it has been quarried for building purposes. There 
it is a bluish gray in color, 25 to 30 feet thick, coming 100 feet 
(hand-level measurement) above the Washington coal, and 
127 feet above Reedy creek. The Reedy section on page 138 
shows its position relative to other outcropping rocks at that 
place. At Spencer, it is this stratum that forms the first steep 
slope southeast of the Asylum for the Insane, coming there 
90 feet above the Washington coal, the latter belonging a few 
feet (15 to 25) above the foundation for the building. In'the 
northern point of Smithfield district, near the head of Clover 
run, this standstone becomes very coarse, brown, and mass- 
ive, forming great cliffs, carrying large rounded quartz peb- 




I'LATE V. — Toadstool Rock in Situ on Summit of Hill Opposite the Mouth 
of Round Knob Run of Poca, Roane County. Formed by Disintegration 
from Upper Marietta Sandstone. (30 to 40 ft. high.) 



AVEST VTRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 153 

bles, and resembling very much the great Mannington cliff 
rock below it. The Clover Run section on page 78 gives 
its position in the rock column there. One mile north of 
Hammack P. O. on the head of Shammon Branch of "Poca" 
river, this stratum forms great vertical cliffs 40 to 50 feet in 
height, capping the summits of the hills. One-third 
mile south of the mouth of Round Knob run of "Po- 
ca" river there occurs a topographic freak of erosion. 
There the action of water and atmospheric agencies 
has carried away most of the Upper Marietta sand- 
stone, and left standing a lone toad-stool shaped rock in 
situ, 25 to 30 feet in height, capping the ridge. The natives 
call it the "curious rock." A photograph of same is given on 
another page. Its horizon is shown by the Shamblings Mill 
section, page 85, coming there 85 feet above the Washing- 
ton coal bed. The locally famous "Track rocks", one mile 
and a third northwest of Walton, occur on this stratum. There 
it is coarse, brown and massive, 35 feet thick, coming 70 to 
75 feet above the Washington coal. The tracks, however, in- 
stead of being imprints left by wild animals, appear to be the 
handiwork of man (possibly the Indian), attempting to imi- 
tate the tracks of the Buffalo. This stratum frequently carries 
2 to 3 feet of limestone conglomerate at its base. 

In northern Calhoun county the Upper Marietta sand- 
stone frequently forms a prominent escarpment near the sum- 
mits of the hills. 

The Washington "A" Coal. 

At 70 to 90 feet above the Washington coal and at the 
base of the Upper Marietta sandstone in the Marshall-Wet- 
zel-Tyler area of northern West Virginia, there occurs a thin 
coal bed, 10 to 15 inches thick that has been named the Wash- 
ington "A" coal. The Steelton, W. Va., section on page 130 
shows its position with reference to the Middle Washington 
limestone and other strata. 

At no point in the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area did the 
writer or his assistants observe coal at this horizon, but fre- 
quently 6 to 12 inches of fire clay was seen at the base of the 



154 THE DUNKAED SERIES. 

Upper Marietta sandstone. Evidently this coal bed follows 
the law of disappearance to the south-west from the northern 
end of the State similar to the other higher coal beds of the 
Dunkard series. 

The Middle Washington Limestone. 

At 5 to 20 feet under the Washington "A" coal and 40 to 
50 feet above the Washington coal in Marshall and Wetzel 
counties, there occurs a yellowish gray limestone, 6 to 12 feet 
thick, that has been named the Middle Washington limestone 
by J. J. Stevenson^^. This stratum has apparently been re- 
placed by limy red shale in the three counties imder 
discussion. 

The Creston Red Shale. 

In the Wirf-Roane-Calhoun area, 40 to 60 feet of dark 
red shale with limestone nuggets separate the Upper from 
the Lower Marietta sandstone. The writer has designated 
this formation the Creston Red Shale or Creston Reds from 
its fine development on the Creston Flats, one mile east from 
the town of Creston, Wirt county. These reds are found out- 
cropping immediately below all the points described for the 
Upper Marietta sandstone above, and add very much to the 
fertility of the soil in all three counties, especially in central 
and western Roane. Their outcrop generally forms a gentle 
slope, making a distinct break in the topography along the 
steep hillsides. Their horizon is noted at the type locality of 
the .Marietta sandstones in the Marietta, Ohio, section, page 
131, having there a thickness of 62 feet, and coming imme- 
diately over the Lower Marietta sandstone. That section is 
almost a duplicate of this portion of the rock column as found 
in the three counties under discussion. These reds are noted 
in several of the scattered sections given on preceding pages 
of this report. A massive sandstone frequently makes its ap- 
pearance in these reds. 



15 Second Geol. Survey of Pa., Vol. K, page 49; 1875. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 155 

The Lower Marietta Sandstone. 

The Lower Marietta sandstone is also quite massive in 
the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area, forming cliffs and steep bluffs, 
but not on the same scale as the Upper Marietta. At its type 
locality as shown by the Marietta, Ohio, and Steelton, W. 
Va., sections, pages 131 and 130, respectively, it comes im- 
mediately over the Washington coal bed. 

In Wirt county it outcrops along the Little Kanawha 
river and its large tributaries, coming there from a few inches 
to 5 feet over the Washington coal. Three miles below Burn- 
ing Springs, just below Cherry P. O. (see section at the latter 
point, page 137), it outcrops in a great cliff, 45 feet high, 5 
feet over the Washington coal and 20 to 25 feet above the 
great Mannington cliff. In eastern Wirt county in the vicin- 
ity of Munday P. O., it is a great, coarse, brown sandstone, 
having a thickness^ of 50 feet and coming directly over the 
Washington coal (see Munday P. O. section, page 63). It 
is also noted in the sections given at Creston and Freeport. 

In Roane county this stratum has been quarried for build- 
ing purposes at Spencer. A quarry has been opened up on 
Laurel run of Goff run of Spring creek, one-half mile due east 
from Spencer, on the land of H. B. Hkighes, which has fur- 
nished a large portion of the building stone used in the town 
of Spencer. Stone from this quarry in the Lower Marietta 
was recently used in building the new kitchen and bakery for 
the State Asylum for the Insane, and has given very satisfac- 
tory results. At the quarry the rock is medium grained and 
a steel gray in color. Its thickness and position are shown in 
the several Roane county sections given for Barnes Run, 
Triplet Run, Spencer, Tristan, Boyd, Cicerone, Rushville, 
Looneyville and Shamblings Mill. 

In Calhoun county this sandstone outcrops along the 
stream valleys of the northern portion and one mile north- 
west from Purdy P. O. (see section for this point, page 99) 
it has a thickness of 45 feet, as reported by Mr. Reger, being 
coarse, brown and pebbly, and coming about 10 feet over the 
Washington coal. Its thickness and character are shown in 



156 THE DUNKARD SERIES. 

Other portions of Calhoun by the sections given for Leafbank. 
Lovada P. O. and Mt. Zion P. O. 



The Washington Coal. 

The Washington coal is the most persistent and most 
valuable, from an economic standpoint, of any bed in the 
Dunkard series in the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area. I. C. White^* 
has the following to say concerning this coal: 

"This bed which is the only one of the Dunkard series that is 
workable over a wide area was first described by the writer, and 
named the Brownsville coal from its occurrence at the village of that 
name in Monongalia county, West Virginia. Subsequently, however, 
the same coal was found in greater development at Washington, Penn- 
sylvania, and it was designated from that locality by Prof. Stevenson. 

"It is always a multiple bed, being separated into two or three 
layers by divisions of slate. Occasionally these divisions are numerous 
and the entire thickness of the bed is 8 to 10 feet, but in all cases the 
only pure or merchantable coal is the bottom portion, which seldom 
exceeds 214 to 3 feet. The upper part of the bed is nearly always very 
impure, since it contains so much ash and slate as to constitute it a 
mere bed of richly bituminous shale. 

"The following section of this coal, taken near Farmington, 
Marion county. West Virginia, well illustrates the structure of this 
bed when it is thick: 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

1. Coal 6 

2. Shale 3 

3. Coal and shale 8 

4. Coal 1 

5. Shale 4 

6. Coal 5 

7. Shale :^. 

8. Coal 1 

9. Shale 4 

10. Coal 1 1 

11. Shale 3 

12. Coal, fair 2 

13. Slate 2 

14. Coal, good 2 6 



Total 10 9 

"Here the upper or roof portion of the coal, although 6 feet 
thick, is entirely worthless, and the only really good coal in the bed 
is the 2y2 feet at the bottom." 

In the area under discussion, a section of the Washington 
coal in a way favors that given above, in that the purest and 



16 Bulletin 65, p. 37, U. S. Geol. Survey. 



AVEST ATRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 157 

best coal is at the bottom portion of the bed. The outcrop 
of the coal over the three counties is shown on the general 
and economic geology map accompanying this report in a 
separate cover. The same map also shows by means of con- 
tour lines its approximate tidal elevation all over the area, 
although its horizon belongs far above the summits of the 
highest hills in several portions of the three counties. Its 
chemical composition and character will be taken up in a 
separate chapter of this report. 

The writer at first identified this bed in the Wirt-Roane- 
Calhoun area as the Waynesburg "A" coal for the reason that 
it came only lo to 20 feet above a great, coarse, gray and 
brown, massive, pebbly sandstone, 40 to 50 feet thick, that 
has all the lithographic features of the Waynesburg rock of 
•the north central portion of the State. But since the field 
work was completed, a si>ecial trip was made by the writer 
from Long Run station, Doddridge county, and the undoubt- 
ed Washington coal there traced by its outcrop southwest- 
ward to the Ritchie-Calhoun county line, proving the persist- 
ent coal of the Dunkard series in the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun 
area to represent the Washington bed, and the great sand- 
stone, 10 to 20 feet under it, to be the Mannington, and not 
the Waynesburg rock. 

In Wirt county the Washington coal has been opened up 
by farmers and mined at a number of points for local domestic 
fuel. It appears to be quite variable in its thickness, thinning 
away at times to only a streak of black shale 2" to 3" thick, 
and again thickening up a short distance away to 24". On the 
north bank of Hughes river, i mile above its mouth, this coal 
is 9" thick, coming 45 feet above the Little Kanawha river. 
Eastward from this point the coal rises rapidly and passes 
out into the air before the crest of Burning Springs anticline 
is reached, but comes back down again in the measures in the 
eastern point of the county, and at Munday P. O. it is report- 
ed by Mr. Reger as only 2" thick (see section at this place on 
page 63). The blossom of this coal is exposed at the fork 
of the road at the mouth of Standingstone at an elevation of 
635' A. T. (aneroid). Its blossom is also exposed on the north 



158 THE DUNKAED SERIES. 

bank of the Little Kanawha river, near the lower ferry at 
Elizabeth, coming there only i6 feet above river level. One- 
half mile southeast from Palestine its horizon is exposed 
in a low hill just northwest of the bridge over Reedy creek. 
It, is only 2" thick there, and comes at an elevation of 665' A. 
T. (aneriod). It is only 3" thick where it outcrops along the 
hill road leading west from the ferry at Cherry P. O. South- 
ward from Palestine up Reedy creek its outcrop is exposed at 
several points on both sides of the latter stream, ranging be- 
tween 25 and 40 feet above creek level, all the way up to the 
Wirt-Roane county line. One-fourth mile south of the fork 
of the road opposite the mouth of McCutcheon run it has a 
thickness of 12", coming at an elevation of 685' A. T. 
(aneroid). 

In Roane county the Washington coal appears to be 
slightly thicker and not quite so variable in thickness. Its 
outcrop over the county as mentioned above is shown on the 
economic geology map accompanying this report. Mr. Robt. 
D. Hennen obtained the following section at an opening in 
this coal on the land of A. C. Calloy, near the mouth of the 
first small run emptying into Reedy creek from the east be- 
low Miller run, and one mile north of Kyger: 

Ft. In. 

1. Shales, brown and sandy 4 

2. Concealed 8 

3. Fire clay, hard and slaty 2 6 

4. Coal 1 10 

5. Concealed 

A sample was collected by the writer there for analysis, 
the composition of which as reported by Prof. Hite is as 
follows : 

Proximate Analysis. Ultimate Analysis. 

Per cent. , Per cent. 

Moisture 1.10 Carbon ' 71.15 

Volatile Matter 32.75 Hydrogen 5.11 

Fixed Carbon 55.03 Oxygen 10.28 

Ash 11.12 Nitrogen 0.82 

Sulphur 1.52 

Ash 11.12 



Total 100.00 

Sulphur 1.52 

Phosphorus 0.007 



Total 100.00 



\VEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 159 

Calorific value: 

Calorimeter B. T. U 12,873 

Calculated B. T. U 12,779 

Carbon 71.15 

Fuel ratio = = = 3.32. 

Oxygen + Ash 10.28 + 11.12 

It is this coal that has been mined by stripping along the 
bed of Coal run of Spring creek, 2 miles northwest from Mill- 
ard P. O., on the land of Schofield Matic, at an elevation of 
737' A. T. Monroe Cheuvront, a brother-in-law of Mr. Matic, 
reports it there as 26" thick. 

This bed outcrops in the town of Spencer at an elevation 
of 775' A. T. (aneroid), its outcrop being well exposed along 
the turnpike leading northwest from Spencer. There the fol- 
lowing section was measured by the writer in descending 
order : 

Ft. In. 

1. Sandstone, massive, Lower Marietta.. 25 

2. Shale, gray 2 

3. Shale, dark 6 

4. Shale, gray 3 

5. Shale, dark 5 

6. Coal, good, Washington 1 2 

7. Fire clay shale, greenish grs^r, Wash- 

ington 10 

8. Shale, buff and red 10 

Three miles east from Spencer its outcrop is exposed on 
the head of Left fork of Little Spring creek, ^ mile west of 
Morford P. O. at an elevation of 860' A. T. It has there a 
thickness of 10". The Spencer section on page 69 gives the 
relative position of this coal to other strata in this region. 
Th;s coal crops along the hillsides of the several branches of 
Spring creek southeast, south, and southwest of Spencer. It 
is this coal that has been mined by stripping yg mile north- 
east from Speed P. O. on the Stalnaker Heirs land at an ele- 
vation of 835' A. T. (aneroid). There the following section 
is exposed : 

Ft. In. 

1. Sandstone, shaly. Lower Marietta 10 

2. Shale, red 4 

3. Shale, gray and soft 4 

4. Coal, O" to 1 4 

5. Fire clay shale, green, Washington, to 

run level 5 



160 THE DUNI^ARD SERIES. 

The variable nature of the coal is well exhibited at this 
place, thinning away in places from 14" of coal to only a dark 
streak of bituminous shale. Two and one-third miles south- 
east from Speed, this coal has been opened up at the edge of 
the road on the land of W. A. J. Mitchell, ^ mile northwest 
from Rushville at an elevation of 905' A. T. (aneroid). Mr. 
Mitchell mines it for domestic consumption. Mrs. Mitchell 
reports it about 36 inches thick, or the greatest found by the 
writer in Roane county. Three miles southward from Rush- 
ville, its crop is exposed on the south side of "Poca" river, 
opposite the mouth of Round Knob run (see Shamblings 
Mill section, page 85) at an elevation of 985' A. T. (aneroid). 
There only a trace of dark shale occurs at its horizon. The 
same is true where it outcrops along the public road one mile 
northwest from Walton. There it has an elevation of 955' 
A. T. (aneroid). Only 2" of dark shale occurs at the horizon 
of the Washington coal at the Roane-Kanawha county line at 
July P. O., 2 miles northwest of Cicerone. Its elevation there 
is 945' A. T. (aneroid). Northward from this region along 
the western boundary of Roane, very little, if any, coal occurs 
at the horizon of the Washington bed until Flat Fork P, O. 
is reached. Just below the latter point and near the Thos. 
Hughes No. 2 well (R 244), the writer measured the follow- 
ing section at this coal's outcrop : 

Ft. In. 

1. Sandstone, Lower Marietta 25 

2. Slate 3 

3. Coal, Washington 8 

4. Fire clay shale, Washington 10 

About 4 miles due eastward at Gandeeville, this coal 
passes under Biglick run of "Poca" river at an elevation of 
800' A. T. (aneroid). In this region it rarely exceeds 12" in 
thickness. Northwest from this region in the southwest 
corner of Curtis district, the coal has been opened up along 
Left fork of Elk fork of Mill creek. Mr. Thos. Allen has 
mined the bed by stripping from the run at an elevation of 
795' A. T. (aneroid) and reports it 16 inches thick without 
partings. He says the coal burns up without leaving much 
ash, and gives good satisfaction whenever used by the black- 
smiths of the community. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 161 

In Calhoun county the Washington coal reaches a better 
development than anywhere else in the area under discussion. 
On the headwaters of Leading creek in the extreme northern 
portion of the county, it has been mined much by farmers for 
domestic fuel. 

Robt. D. Hennen measured the following section of this 

coal at the Ben Dye bank, located on the head of Cole run of 

Leading creek, one mile and three-fourths northeast of Freed 

P. O.: 

Ft. In. 

1. Slate, roof 1 6 

2. Coal, good (no parting) 3 6 

3. Fire clay and concealed to creek. 

This mine has been operated for many years to supply 
the local country trade. The main heading is driven in 500 
feet under the hill. The bank is not operated at the present 
time (Sept. 7, 1909). The sample was taken from formation 
No. 2 of the above section along the main heading about 300 
feet from the mine mouth. Its composition and calorific value^ 
as reported by Prof. Hite, are as follows : 

Proximate Analysis. Ultimate Analysis. 

Per cent. | Per cent. 

Moisture 1.34 1 Carbon 73.09 

Volatile Matter 36.54 Hydrogen 5.42 

Fixed Carbon 53.77 i Oxygen 10.02 

Ash 8.35 i Nitrogen 1.06 

Sulphur 2 . 06 

Total 100.00 Ash 8.35 

Sulphur 2.06 

Phosphorus 0.027! Total 100.00 

Calorific value: 

Calorimeter B. T. U 13,418 

Calculated B. T. U .13,300 

Carbon 73.09 

Fuel ratio = = = 3.98. 

Oxygen + Ash 10.02 + 8.35 

The above results show a very good coal, excelling any 
sample of the same bed obtained by the writer in the Mar- 
shall-Wetzel-Tyler area. The fuel ratio (3.98) is very high 
for coal from the Dunkard series of rocks, and compares 
favorably with the Pittsburg coal where it is mined along the 
Ohio river front of Marshall county, W, Va. The fairly low 
11 



162 THE DUNKARD SERIES. 

sulphur content (2.06 per cent.) would adapt it for smithing 
purposes in this region, located as it is 15 to 20 miles from a 
standard gauge railroad. 

Other samples collected by Mr. R. D. Hennen on the 
waters of Leading creek will be described in a subsequent 
chapter on the coals of the area. 

Along the ridge near Lovada P. O. 2j/^ miles N. 10° E. 
of Grantsville, a thin coal, 6" to 15" thick, crops near the sum- 
mits of the hills on the head of Leafbank run, and also near 
Mt. Zion post-office, coming at the base of a great, coarse, 
brown sandstone with limestone conglomerate frequently at 
the base of the latter. This bed represents the Washington 
coal, coming as it does in the Mt. Zion P. O. section, 220 feet 
over the Uniontown coal. A sample was collected by Mr. 
Reger from an opening in this bed ^ mile northeast of the 
mouth of Dennis fork of Barnes run and 2 miles S. 75° W. of 
Mt. Zion P. O. on the land of Geo. Buck at an elevation of 
HOC feet above tide (aneroid measurement). The following 
data are given by Mr. Reger at this opening : 

Ft. In. 

1. Sandstone, Lower Marietta 

2. Slate 1 3 

3. Coal, good 1 1 

4. Slate 10 

5. Limy shale 

Butts run S. 71° E.; Faces, S. 17° W. Greatest ^ 
rise, S. 7° E. The coal has been mined into the hill 
about 50 feet, and is used for local domestic fuel. 

The composition and calorific value of the sample collect- 
ed here are reported as follows by B. H. Hite, Chief Chemist 
of the Survey: 

Proximate Analysis. Ultimate Analysis. 



Per cent. 

Moisture 4.40 

Volatile Matter 30.99 

Fixed Carbon 52.90 

Ash 11.71 



Total 100.00 

Sulphur 0.77 

Phosphorus . 014 



Per cent. 

Carbon 62.67 

Hydrogen 4.78 

Oxygen 19.18 

Nitrogen 0.89 

Sulphur 0.77 

Ash 11.71 



Total 100.00 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 163 

Calorific value: 

Calorimeter B. T. U 10,816 

Calculated B. T. U 10,628 

Carbon 62.67 

Fuel ratio = = = 2.03. 

Oxygen + Ash 19.18 + 11.71 

A glance at the proximate analysis would lead one to ex- 
pect a higher calorific value for this sample, but the ultimate 
analysis shows the coal very high in oxygen, which has al- 
most the same deteriorating effect on the fuel value of coal 
as ash itself. The high percentage of moisture may be largely 
due to crop conditions. 

The Washington Fire Clay Shale. 

Immediately under the Washington coal in the Wirt- 
Roane-Calhoun area there occurs a greenish yellow, impure 
fire clay, ranging in thickness from 5 to 10 feet. Wherever it 
outcrops along the public highways, its horizon is readily 
recognized owing to the peculiar type of slope and soil it pro- 
duces on weathering. The writer has designated it the Wash- 
ington Fire Clay Shale on account of its association with the 
coal of that name. In the area under discussion it is even 
more persistent than the coal itself, and was an invaluable 
guide in locating the horizon of this coal when the latter was 
absent from the measures. The writer collected a sample of 
this shale for analysis from its outcrop along the turnpike in 
the northwest edge of Spencer, Roane county, the composi- 
tion of which, as reported by Prof. Hite, is as follows: 

Silica (Si O^) 56.70 

Ferric Iron (Fe,0,) 2 . 18 

Alumina (AUG,) 26.28 

Lime (Ca O) 1.04 

Magnesia (Mg O) 1 . 58 « 

Potash (K, O) 3 .01 

Soda (Na, O) 0.40 

Titanium (Ti O,) 0.78 

Loss on ignition 8 . 62 

Total 100.59 

The analysis reveals a clay adapted to the manufacture 
of building brick, having the right percentages of silica and 



164 THE DUNKABD SERIES. 

alumina. In a recent trip across Doddridge and l<.itchie 
counties by the writer, it was found that this same charac- 
teristic shale accompanied the Washington coal wherever its 
outcrop was observed. Its color varies from a greenish yellow 
to a greenish gray, and often a brecciated limestone, 8 to lo 
inches thick, comes near the base of the shale. 

The Mannington Sandstone. 

At lo to 20 feet under the Washington coal in the Wirt- 
Roane-Calhoun area there occurs a great, coarse, gray and 
brown, massive and pebbly sandstone, ranging in thickness 
from 40 to 60 feet, that has been named by G. P. Grimsley^^ 
the Mannington sandstone from its outcrop near the town of 
that name in Marion county, West Virginia, where it has 
been quarried, supplying building stone for the city. His 
original description is as follows : 

"At the west edge of the city of Mannington, J. D. Charlton has 
opened a small quarry which has supplied stone for the city for several 
years. The floor of this quarry is 50 feet above creek level in the city. 
Oil wells at this lower level strike the Pittsburg coal at a depth of 
400 feet, which gives an interval of 450 feet between this coal and the 
sandstone at the quarry. 

" The stone has a greenish, gray color and is finely la- 
minated along planes formed of black mica. The quartz grains are 
very small, giving the rock a close texture and white and black mica 
specks occur all through the stone, though especially abundant along 
the foliation planes. 

"Quarry. The face of the quarry runs N. 40° W. and is 75 feet 
long and is worked back 30 feet. Below the sandstone is a heavy 
shale formation reaching down to the road 20 or 30 feet. A section of 
the quarry shows: 

Ft. 

Shales 4 

Buff, shaly sandstone 15 

Blue and buff sandstone 6 

Shales. 

"The joint planes run N. 60° to 70° W. and N. 40° W. A few 
curved joint planes were observed starting at an angle of N. 12° W. 
and changing to N. 30* W." 

For the reasons given under the discussion of the Wash- 
ington coal, page 157, the^ writer first identified this stratum 



17 W. Va. Geol. Survey, Vol. IV, p. 440, 1906. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 165 

in Wirt county as the Waynesburg rock sandstone, and only 
recently discovered the error by tracing through from Dodd- 
ridge county the overlying coal and proving beyond doubt 
that the latter represented the Washington bed instead of the 
Waynesburg "A". 

In Wirt county the Mannington sandstone is below 
drainage west of Reedy creek and west of the Little Kanawha 
river from the mouth of Reedy down to the Wood county 
line. Eastward, however, it soon rises above drainage on 
Hughes river and Standingstone creek, and north of Sanoma 
P. O. passes out in the air before the crest of the Burning 
Springs anticline is reached. It comes down in the measures 
again in the eastern part of the county, and forms great, 
pebbly cliffs, 50 feet in height, along the Little Kanawha 
river at Creston ; also northwest of the latter point and 
above to the Wirt-Calhoun county line. The famous "Devil's 
Tea Table" rock (see photograph on another page), located 
at the mouth of Rock run on the north side of the Little 
Kanawha, 2^ miles N. io°-i5° E. from Creston, is formed 
from this stratum. The section given for Creston on page 
61, shows its relative position to other strata outcropping 
both above and below it. The axis of the Burning Springs 
anticline flattens down south of the Little Kanawha river, 
and this permits the great Mannington ledge to catch the 
tops of the high hills to the southeast from the mouth of 
Spring creek, forming bold cliffs near the summits of the hills 
along the tributaries of Spring creek from the east and like- 
wise along Peter and Anns run of West Fork river. It is the 
great cliff rock along Spring creek in Wirt from the Roane 
county line down to Evelyn P. O. The section for the latter 
point, page 137, shows it having a thickness of 50 feet. 

In Roane county, the top of the Mannington sandstone 
barely gets above drainage on the waters of Reedy creek, but 
in the northeastern corner of Reedy district and in Spencer 
district this stratum rises rapidly to the east on the western 
flank of the Burning Springs (Volcano) anticline, forming 
great, pebbly cliffs 40 to 50 feet in height along the hillsides 
of Spring creek and its eastern tributaries, as well as along 



166 



THE DXJNKARD SERIES. 



51' 



Rockcamp, Turkey, Barnes, Lee and Triplet runs, and Hen- 
rys fork of West Fork river. The following hand-level sec- 
tion measured by the writer just above the mouth of Left fork 
of Little Spring creek gives the exact interval from the base 
of this sandstone up to the Washington coal : 

Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 

1. Reds, dark, limy, Creston 25 25 

2. Sandstone, green, micaceous. 

Lower iVIarietta 20 45 

3. Concealed 5 50 

4. Fire ciay and yellow shale 

(Washington coal horizon).. 1 51 

5. Gray fire clay shale, Washing- 

ton 5 56 

6. Limestone, brecciated 1 57 

7. Buff sandy shale 10 67 

8. Red shale 5 72 

9. Concealed 15 87 

10. Sandstone, massive, coarse, 

brown and pebbly, Manning- 
ton 37 124 

11. Shale, green and liniy (Waynes- 

burg "A" coal horizon) 5 129 

12. Red shale 8 137 

13. Concealed to Little Spring creek. 7 144 



73' 



20' 



The top portion of the Mannington sandstone was con- 
cealed at this place, but its thickness is about 50 feet. The in- 
terval from the Washington coal to the base of the Manning- 
ton sandstone varies in the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area from 
65 to 75 feet. The relative position of this rock to the other 
strata, as well as its thickness and character in Spencer dis- 
trict, is given in the sections for Barnes Run, Richardson, 
Triplet Run, Tristan, Triplet P. O. and Spencer. It is this 
rock that forms the cliff in front of the residence of L N. Mor- 
ford flush with the level of Triplet run and near the head of 
the latter stream. On down Triplet from this point the Man- 
nington sandstone forms great, vertical cliflfs, 40 to 50 feet in 
height along both hillsides, getting higher and highef above 
the run, partly on account of a slight rise in the rocks, but 
mostly on account of the rapid fall of Triplet. 

At Spencer the foundation of the main building for the 
Second Hospital for the Insane rests on top of this stratum. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 167 

The stone used for the foundation, belt courses, and window 
and door caps of this building, was taken from the Manning- 
ton ledge, directly in front of the building near creek level. 
Southeast of Spencer the Mannington sandstone rises rapidly 
along Left fork of Spring creek, forming high, pebbly cliflfs 
along both hillsides of Left fork and its tributaries, reaching 
finally the summit of the dividing ridge between this stream 
and Rush run of Henrys Fork, and passing out in the air at 
an elevation of 1230 to 1250 feet A. T. near the summit of a 
high knob 34 mile northwest of Roxalana P. O. It is a great 
clifT maker on Pup, Laurel, Island, and Clover runs of Hen- 
rys Fork. The Clover Run section, page 78, shows its 
relative position to other outcropping rocks in this region. On 
main Henrys Fork it is the Mannington sandstone that forms 
the high cliff wall, one mile and three-fourths due north of 
Linden ; also that forms the "Haystack" or "Chimney rocks" 
east of Linden on the north side of Flat run, and also "King 
Rocks" at the summit of a high, sharp pointed knob, one mile 
and three-fourths S. 20° W. of Linden. 

Due south and southwest of Spencer on Right fork of 
Spring creek and across on the 'waters of "Poca" river in the 
vicinity of Rushville, Shamblings Mill, Walton, Harmony, 
Cicerone, and Boyd P. O., the Mannington sandstone appears 
to lose some of its massive character and has a tendency to 
break up into several layers of finer grained sandstone, separ- 
ated by layers of red sandy shale. It passes out in the air a 
short distance southeast from Shamblings' Mill and Walton, 
and misses entirely the southeast portions of Smithfield and 
Walton districts, and all of Geary district. 

In Calhoun county the Mannington sandstone is a very 
prominent topographic feature, forming high, pebbly cliffs in 
the northern portion along Leading and Yellow creeks, the 
Little Kanawha river. West Fork river from its mouth to Ar- 
noldsburg, and the following tributaries of the latter stream 
from north to south : Little creek. Honey, Little Rowles, Big 
Rowles, and Barnes runs ; also along Henrys Fork to the 
Roane county line and on Leatherbark creek. Its tidal ele- 
vation in the above portion of Calhoun can readily be ap- 



168 THE DUNKARD SERIES. 

proximated^ from the structure map which shows the tidal 
elevation of the Washington coal horizon all over the three 
counties. On Steel run at Richardson it is the upper of the 
two cliff rocks at that point, the lower cliff representing the 
Waynesburg sandstone. The several general sections given 
on preceding pages of this report for Calhoun county, show 
its relative position to other outcropping rocks. 

The Waynesburg "A" Coal. 

The Waynesburg "A" coal is the first bed above the 
Waynesburg sandstone. I. C. White has the following to say 
concerning this bed on page ii6, Vol. II of the State Survey 
reports : 

"The only other coal in this group" which is ever of any eco- 
nomic importance is the Waynesburg "A" bed, 80 to 90 feet below the 
Washington coal and the same interval above the Waynesburg, or base 
of the Dunkard series. This bed is quite generally present 10 to 15 
feet above the massive Waynesburg sandstone, through Monongalia, 
Marion, Harrison, Doddridge, and Tyler counties, and occasionally at- 
tains a thickness of 3i/^ feet. The coal contains much ash and other 
impurities, however, and makes only an indifferent fuel. It has been 
mined to a small extent in western Harrison and eastern Doddridge 
for local domestic use. Its presence is generally marked by a line of 
springs which come out of the ground on top of the impermeable clays 
and shales just below, and which, easily disintegrating, give origin to 
very bad roads with deep sticky mudholes along their line of outcrop." 

In the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area this coal bed should 
come at the base of the Mannington sandstone, but its hori- 
zon is generally represented by only a streak of fire clay. 

At only one point in the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area was 

coal observed at this horizon, and that was in the extreme 

northwest point of Smithfield district, Roane county Ys mile 

northeast from Graux P. O., where the following section was 

exposed : 

Ft. In. 

1. Sandstone, massive, coarse and peb- 

bly, Mannington 40 

2. Slate, bituminous 7 

3. Slate, brown OVz 

4. Coal, slaty, Waynesburg "A" 10 

5. Fire clay and blue slate to run 3 

IS Referring to the Dunkard group or series of rocks. — R. V. H. 




PLATE VI. (a) — View of the Mannington Sandstone Passing into tlie Air 
on the East "Wall" of the Burning Springs Anticline. 




PLATE VI. (b) — Bottom Land along the l^ittle Kanawha River, Wirt 
County. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 169 

There this coal comes 65 to 70 feet below the Washington 
coal, and about 60 feet above the base of the Dunkard series. 

The Waynesburg "A" coal in the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun 
area can hardly be considered of commercial value, owing to 
its low thickness and its absence from the measures in a large 
portion of the area. 

The Waynesburg Sandstone. 

At 15 to 20 feet under the Waynesburg "A" coal in north- 
ern West Virginia, there occurs a great massive sandstone 
that has been named by the First Geol. Survey of Pennsyl- 
vania the Waynesburg sandstone from its fine development 
near the town of that name in Greene county, Pa. In Bulle- 
tin 65, page 40, I. C. White has the following to say about 
this stratum : 

"It is one of the most persistent members of the Permo-Carbonl- 
ferous series, since its eastern outcrop can be followed in an almost 
continuous line of cliffs from Greene county, Pa., clear across West Vir- 
ginia to the Big Kanawha river at Winfield." 

"This stratum is the only one of the series" that Is generally 
conglomeratic or contains quartz pebbles larger than coarse sand 
grains. On account of this peculiarity, the rock in question becomes 
a very important guide to the geologist in the interior of West Vir- 
ginia, where so many of the Dunkard coals and limestones have dis- 
appeared, for it retains its pebbly character over a very wide area. 
When at its greatest development, the thickness of this stratum ap- 
proaches 75 to 100 feet. It is usually a grayish white rock, with a yel- 
lowish cast on freshly broken surfaces, and its weathered boulders are 
usually covered with ridges and streaks of harder iron-bearing sand. 
The rock splits readily and frequently furnishes excellent building 
stone, the piers of the Baltimore and Ohio R. R. bridge across the 
Monongahela river near Fairmont having been constructed of it." 

In the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area the Waynesburg sand- 
stone appears to lose its massive and pebbly character at 
many points, being much overshadowed by the great Man- 
nington sandstone and cliff rock 15 to 20 feet above. In fact, 
both the Lower Marietta and Mannington sandstones in this 
portion of the State carry large quartz pebbles, quite frequent- 
ly especially the latter. 

In Wirt county the Waynesburg sandstone is deeply 
buried in the western portion of the area. In eastern Wirt 
and on the east hillside of West Fork river at Creston, the 
Mannington and Waynesburg sandstones make great twin 

19 Referring to the Dunkard series. — R. V. H. 



170 THE DUNKARD SERIES. 

cliffs, 40 to 50 feet high, both coarse, brown and pebbly. The 
approximate outcrop of this stratum is shown on the general 
and economic geology map accompanying this report. There 
it is represented by the base of the Dunkard series, or the 
boundary line between the Dunkard and Monongahela series 
of rocks. 

In Roane county the Waynesburg sandstone is below 
drainage in Reedy and Curtis districts, but the southeastward 
rise of t+ie rocks brings it above water level in eastern Spencer 
district and in Smithfield, Walton, and Harper districts. 
Along Henrys Fork at Rocksdale and Pink post-offices, this 
stratum forms a great pebbly cliff just below the Mannington 
sandstone. The Rocksdale section, page 67, shows its base 
coming iii feet below the Washington coal and 50 feet below 
the Mannington sandstone. Southwestward from the Rocks- 
dale region the Waynesburg sandstone's outcrop is exposed 
across central Roane. The several sections given for this 
region in preceding chapters show its relative position and 
character. Near Cicerone and Boyd P. O. it forms great, 
massive, coarse, pebbly cliffs, 40 to 50 feet high. In this 
region the Mannington sandstone above appears to have lost 
its massive character and broken up into sandy beds and red 
shale. The sections for Cicerone and Boyd, pages 76 and 
75, respectively, show its position with reference to the 
Washington coal. 

In Calhoun county the Waynesburg sandstone is a prom- 
inent cliff maker along Henrys Fork, Leatherbark and Beech 
creeks. The section given for Brooksville, page 97, shows 
it to be 32 feet thick, gray and broken coming 112 feet below 
the Washington coal horizon. The Nighcut Hill section shows 
it coarse and brown, coming 62 feet below the Uniontown 
coal. At Grantsville this stratum crops 350 feet above the 
Little Kanawha river. At Arnoldsburg its base comes about 
1 100' A. T., near the summits of the hills. It caps the sum- 
mits of the high knobs of southern Calhoun. 

The Cassville Plant Shale and Elm Grove Limestone 
were not definitely recognized in the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun 
area, and in this portion of the State appear to have been re- 
placed with dark red shales. 



CHAPTER V. 

THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 



This series of rocks begins at base with the floor of the 
Pittsburg coal and extends up to the Cassville Plant Shale, 
including at its top the Waynesburg coal bed. The thickness 
of the series in the area under discussion varies from 325 feet 
in western Wirt to over 380 feet in northern Calhoun and cen- 
tral Roane. This group of rocks was so named by Prof. H. 
D. Rogers on account of the great development of its coal 
beds along the river of that name in the State of Pennsyl- 
vania. In Vol. II, pp. 124-125, of the West Va. Geol. Survey 
reports, I. C. White gives the following description of the 
Monongahela series : 

"In the northern part of the State nearly one-half of the rock 
material composing the Monongahela series is limestone, red shales 
are unknown, while massive sandstones are seldom found except along 
the eastern side of the Monongahela outcrop. The disintegration of 
these limestones, limy shales and other soft rocks at the north, gives 
origin to a gentle topography and an extremely fertile soil, thus form- 
ing in Monongalia, Marion, Harrison, Lewis, Marshall, Ohio and Brooke 
counties, as well as in portions of Upshur, Barbour and Taylor, the 
finest agricultural and grazing regions in the State. 

"In passing southwest from Harrison, Taylor and Lewis counties, 
however, the limestones practically disappear, along with most all of 
the coal beds, while red shales come in as the limestones go out, ap- 
parently replacing the latter, and the sandstones grow more massive 
than in the northern area, thus giving origin to a rugged topography 
and less fertile soils. 

"These rocks extend over a wide area along the Ohio river and 
for many miles south of it, as far as the Great Kanawha, and in a 
narrow belt from that point to the Big Sandy, where in the center of 
the Appalachian trough, the lowest of these beds passes into the air 
before reaching the Kentucky line. , 

"No marine fossils have ever been discovered in any of the 
limestones of the Monongahela series, and everything indicates that 
the deposits are of fresh water origin. The black slates always con- 
tain fish remains in the shape of scales and teeth, but nothing is 
known of their affinities, because they have never been studied. The 
water may have been estruarine and slightly brackish, but the minute 
Cyprian and Estherian-like forms whose skeletons — mostly broken and 
pulverized — make up the principal mass of the Monongahela lime- 
stones, testify clearly against their marine origin." 



172 



THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 



The most of the names of the formations of the Monon- 
gahela series were taken from localities in Pennsylvania for 
the reason that the first detailed study of these rocks occurred 
in that State. Later names to be added from localities in West 
Va. are Gilboy sandstone, Fulton Green Shale, and Benwood 
limestone. 

I. C. White' measured the following typical section of the 
Monongahela series on Scotts run, Monongalia county, W. 
Va., between Cassville and Osage, and a short distance west 
from the Monongahela river: 



Scott's Run Section. 

coal 2' 0" 

shale, fossiliferous 1' 0" 

Coal, Waynesburg \ coal 1' 4" 

shale, gray 1' 6" 

[ coal 5' 0" 

Black slate l 

Sandy shales, with iron ore 25 

Limestone, Waynesburg 8 

Sandy shales, with limestone layers SO 

Sandstone, massive 20 I 

Limestone and shales 15 J 

Black slate, representing Uniontown coal 



Ft. In. 



10 10 



Y 99 



2 

Limestone, interstratified wiih thin shales, "j 

cement beds near base 105 J- 145 

Sandstone, Sewickley 40 J 

Coal, Sewickley 5 

Shales 5 01 

Sandstone 10 

Limestone 5 

Shales, greenish gray 8 }■ 65 

Concealed 15 

Limestones, steel gray 7 | 

Concealed 15 OJ 



Coal, Redstone 

Limestone, Redstone 18 01 

Shale and fire clay 5 

Slate, black 5 

fcoal 0' 3"! 

Coal, Pittsburg "Roof" I shale 2 | 4 3 

I coal 1 

[clay 1 



28 



1 Bulletin 65, page 47, U. S. Geol. Survey. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



173 



Ft. In. Ft. In. 







[ coal 


....3' 


6" 






slate 


... 


Vz 






coal 


... 


8 


1, Pittsburg, 


Main 


slate 


... 


1 


Bench 




coal 


... 1 


6 






slate 


... 


% 






coal 


... 


6 






^late 


... 


% 






coal 


... 3 


3 



9 7% 



13 lOM: 



Total 372 8H 

The following detailed log of a diamond drill boring, lo- 
cated near Mobley P. O., eastern Wetzel county, W. Va., 
published by the writer" in 1909, shows the Monongahela 
series in many respects to resemble the same as found in 
Wirt, Roane, and Calhoun counties, and to have a thickness 
of 363 feet: 

James Shuman Core Test Well, (W 150) Located on North 

Fork of Fishing Creek, at Mobley P. O., Wetzel 

County, by Fairmont Coal Co. 



Tidal elevation of top=871.39' 



Thickness 
Ft. In. 



Surface 22 

Soft fire clay 13 

Red fire clay 6 

Gray shale 17 

Sandstone 8 

Light shale 22 

Fire clay 13 

Black slate, streaks of coal 8 

Sandy shale 2 

Soft slate . '. 4 

Coal 





8 
6 
8 

5 

Washington 
15 5 

Coal 



Fire clay 8 8 

Sandy shale 23 

Red fire clay 3 7 

Light shale 28 9 

Fire clay 1 8 

Coal, Waynesburg "A" 3 

Fire clay 7 

Red fire clay 7 

Sandstone, Waynesburg 49 

Shale 1 

Coal, Waynesburg 1 



Ft. 
22 
35 
41 
59 
67 
89 
103 

118 



127 
150 
153 
182 
184 
184 

191 
198 
247 
248 
249 



Total 
In. 
0" 

8 
2 
10 
10 \ WV-V 



4 

4 

11 

8 
4 

7 

71 

7 

7 

7 

7 



65'-ll' 



es'-o" 



2 Marshall-Wetzel-Tyler Report, pp. 278-279, W. Va. Geo!. Survey. 



174 



THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 



Thickness. Depth. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

Gray shale 14 263 

Sandstone, Gilboy 10 6 274 

Gray sliale 16 6 290 

Sandstone, Uniontown 59 9 350 

Coal and slate, Uniontown 2 352 

Sandy shale 4 . 356 

Fire clay 12 368 

Sandstone, (Arnoldsburg) 10 378 

Blue shale 11 389 

Limestone 9 398 

Fire clay 11 409 

Limestone 7 416 

Green shale 7 423 

Sandstone, Sewickley 15 438 

Limestone, Benwood 38 6 476 

Fire clay, streaks of lime 17 493 

Limestone 8 6 502 

Slate 2 10 505 

Coal, Sewickley 1 6 506 

Fire clay 6 512 

Limestone 4 516 

Slaty fire clay 12 528 

Black slate 10 3 538 

Limestone 23 561 

Fire clay 4 565 

Limestone 4 569 

Fire clay, streaks of lime 17 5 587 

Limestone 8 595 

Fire clay 6 601 

Dark slate 1 8 603 

Pittsburg coal, top of. 



"^1 
1 

7 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 
10 
10 

4 

2 



11 

11 

11 

11 

4 

4 

4 





102'-9" 



■ 152'-10" 



97'-10" 



"This is another very important boring in that it reveals no 
coal of commercial thickness and purity above the Pittsburg bed in 
this portion of Wetzel county. The Washington, Waynesburg "A", 
Waynesburg, Uniontown, and Sewickley coals have all become thin 
and unimportant. The thickness of the Pittsburg bed was purposely 
omitted from the log furnished the Survey, but according to indirect 
information obtained by the writer there was a good thickness, 7 to 8 
feet, of Pittsburg coal in this boring." 

The Monongahela series extends from 248' 7" down to 
about 610'. The writer has inserted in parentheses the hori- 
zon of the Arnoldsburg sandstone, its base coming 225 feet 
above the Pittsburg coal as against 220 to 235 feet in central 
Roane and Calhoun counties. This section also shows less 
limestone and more shale and sandstone in the Monongahela 
measures than the Scotts Run section above. 

The following log of a diamond drill boring located 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



175 



northwest from Worthington, Marion County, W. Va., pub- 
lished by I. C. White in Vol. II (A), pp. 678-679, of the W. 
Va. Geol. Survey reports, gives valuable detailed information 
concerning the Monongahela series that is specially applicable 
to the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area, particularly the portion be- 
low the Uniontown coal : 



Bore Hole No. 11 (Fairmont Coal Company Series) W. S. 

Parish Farm, Right Fork of Tevebaugh, Marion 

County. Elevation Top, 1081.93 A. T. 



Thickness. 

Ft. In. 

Surface 3 

Sandstone, Gilboy 42 6 

Limestone 4 

Fire clay and limestone 18 6 

Limestone 3 2 

Fire clay 16 

Black slate 9 6 



Coal, 

Uniontown 




Slate, gray 1 6 

Sandstone 18 

Shaly fire clay 14 5 

Limestone 6 

Fire clay 13 

Sandstone (Arnoldsburg) 13 6 

Limestone 18 2 

Slaty fire clay 7 9 

Coal, Lower Uniontown 1 4 

Limestone 26 

Green shale 3 7 

Limestone 21 

Green shale 4 

Shale, sandy 2 9 

Sandstone, Sewickley 5 5 

Slate, dark 9 7 



bone 0' 

coal 3 





^ , o . , , I limestone 
Coal, Sewickley < ^^^^ ^ 



I slate 
[coal 



Depth. 
Ft. In. 



3 

45 
49 
68 
71 
87 
96 



99 



193 
219 
222 
243 
247 
250 
256 
265 



272 



101 


2 


119 


2 


133 


7 


139 


7 


152 


7 


166 


1 


184 


3 


192 






4 
4 

11 

11 

11 

8 

1 

8 



92'- 4' 



72' 



ITfi 



THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 



Fire clay 2 

Limestone 5 

Shale, dark 18 

Sandstone 3 

Limestone 2 

Slate, dark 9 

Fire clay, horizon, Lower Sewlckley 

coal 

Limestone 11 

Fire clay 2 

Sandstone 6 

Fire clay 6 

Limestone 4 

Fire clay 1 

Coal, Redstone 1 

Fire clay 18 

Slate 4 

Shale, gray 10 

Black slate 12 






274 


21 





279 


2 





297 


2 


3 


300 


5}- 


9 


303 


2 


7 


312 


9 J 


9 


313 


6 


2 


324 


8 





326 


8 





332 


8 


8 


338 


4 





342 


4 


5 


343 


9 





344 


9 





362 


9] 





366 


9 





376 


9 


6 


389 


3 







coal, 


roof 


0' 


4" ] 












slate 


(over 
















clay) 





9 












coal 




2 


8% 








Coal, 




slate 







0% 


9 


9 


399 


Pittsburfl 




coal 







61/2 








El. hot. coal, 




slate 







Ohii 








628.93 A. T. 




coal 

slate 

coal 







4 


5 

0% 
10% J 








Fire clay to 


be 


>ttom 








1 





400 



40' 7' 



31' 0" 



44' 6' 



The boring starts just under the Waynesburg coal. The 
name "Arnoldsburg" was inserted by the writer for the sand- 
stone coming 152' 7" from the top. 

The writer recently measured the following hand-level 
section southward down the hill from an old opening in the 
Washington coal bed to the level of Long run a short distance 
east of the second railroad tunnel west of Long Run station, 
Doddridge County, W. Va. : 




PLATE VII.— "Devirs Tea Table" Rock Cliff, GO Feet High. Wirt County. 
2' J Miles North of Creston. Formed from the Outcrop of the Manning- 
ton Sandstone. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



177 



Long Run, Doddridge County, W. Va., Section. 



Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 

1. Coal, Washington (old mine, 

fallen shut) 2 2 

2. Fire clay and green lime shale 7 9 

3. Concealed and sandstone, Man- 

nington 40 49 

4. Concealed (containing Waynes- 

burg "A" coal horizon) 5 54 

5. Concealed and sandstone 26.4 80.4 

6. Concealed and reds 10 90.4 

7. Sandstone, Waynesburg, nodu- 

lar at top, concealed and reds 36 126.4 

8. Fire clay and trace of dark 

shale (Waynesburg coal hor- 
izon) 0.8 127.2 

9. Reds 10 137.2 

10. Sandstone, coarse, brown at 

bottom, Gilboy 31.6 168.8 



Dunkard 

127.2' 
Series. 



11. Fire clay and yellowish shale.. 10 

12. Sandstone, massive, coarse, 

brown and pebbly. Union- 
town 36.8 

13. Shale, gray 1.4 



178.8 



215.6 
217 



41.6' 



48.2' 



14. Coal, good..l' 3" 

15. Slate, gray, 
streaks cOf 
coal 8 

16. Coal, slaty 10 

17. Fire clay and concealed to Long 

run level 5.3 



Uniontown 2.7 219.7 



225 



Mononga- 
hela 97. 
Series. 



Formations Nos. 14-16 (Uniontown coal) were concealed 
at the point where the section was measured, but were sup- 
plied in .the section from their exposure one-half mile west- 
ward on Buckeye run near Sherwood. This is an important 
section, since it shows the Washington-Uniontown coal in- 
terval as 215 feet as against 231 feet for the same interval at 
Mobley. The log of the Whalen No. 2 well just north of Long 
Run station, Doddridge county, gives the same interval (cable 
measurement) as 238 feet. 

The Monongahela Series of rocks is brought above drain- 
age in central and eastern Wirt, eastern and southern Roane, 
and over most of Calhoun county. Wherever they outcrop, 
the great limestones of the northern end of the State have 
been largely replaced by dark limy reds with limestone nug- 
12 



178 



THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 



gets, and heavy sandstone ledges, with two or three thin (12" 
to 30") coal beds. 

WIRT COUNTY SECTIONS, MONONGAHELA SERIES- 

In western Wirt county the log of the Evans Boring (W 
93)' page 50, and the Limestone Ridge section, page 52, 
show the Monongahela series as having a thickne'ss of 360.16 
and 354.25 feet, respectively. Both sections, having been 
made up from a carefully kept log of a test well for coal, show 
the limestones to have been replaced by red and gray shale 
and sandy beds. 

The writer measured the following aneroid section south- 
west down the hill to the Little Kanawha river near the lat- 
ter's intersection with the Burning Springs-Spring Creek dis- 
trict line: 

Section 2 Miles Northwest from Creston, Wirt County. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 
Sandstone, coarse, pebbly and 

brown, Mannington 50 50 

Concealed 25 75 

Sandstone, micaceous, green, 

Waynesburg 20 95 

Concealed 24 119 

Sandstone, green, micaceous 1 120 

Concealed 35 155 

Sandstone, dark, gray, micaceous, 

Uniontown 25 180 

Concealed and shale 20 200 

Sandstone, coarse, gray, Arnolds- 
burg 35 235 

Concealed 20 255 

Dark limy reds 10 265 

Limestone, silicious and yellow. . . 5 270 
Sandstone, shaly and green to old 

Wabash R. R. grade 20 290 

Concealed to public road 30 320 

Concealed to Little Kanawha river, 

just south of the Burning 

Springs-Spring Creek district 

line 30 350 



50' 



70' 



60' 



55' 



Dunkard 
120' 
Series. 



115' 



Mononga- 
hela 230' 
Series. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SUBVEY. 



179 



About one-half mile farther southeast from the place 
where the above section was obtained, Mr. Reger measured 
another aneroid section southwestward down the hill from the 
great cliff rock (Mannington sandstone) to the Little Ka- 
nawha river as follows: 

Section 1% Mile Northwest of Creston, Spring Creek District. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

Sandstone, Mannington, great cliff 60 60 

Concealed 25 85 

Sandstone, fine, gray and flaggy. . 4 89 

Shale and concealed 16 105 

Sandstone, hard, gray, Waynesburg 15 120 

Concealed 15 135 

Sandstone, fine, flaggy and ] 20 155 

brown \ Gilboy 

Sandstone, coarse and gray J 15 170 

Concealed 10 180 

Sandstone, massive, coarse and 

gray, Uniontown 25 205 

Concealed 30 235 

Red shale 10 245 

Concealed to road 60 305 

Concealed to Little Kanawha river 30 335 



60' 



75' 



70' 



130' 



Dunkard 
135' 
Series, 



Mononga- 
hela 200' 
Series. 



On the east side of West Fork river near its mouth, Mr. 
Reger measured the following aneroid section westward 
down the hill to river level, getting 200 feet of the top portion 
of the Monongahela series as follows: 

West Fork P. O. Section, Wirt County. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

1. Sandstone, coarse and pebbly, 

Mannington 30 30 

2. Concealed 35 65 

3. Sandstone and shale in layers.. 25 90 

4. Green shale 5 95 

5. Limestone 2 97 

6. Sandstone, green, shaly 8 105 

7. Shale, variegated 10 115 

8. Sandstone 2 117 

9. Green shale 8 125 

10. Sandstone, gray, Uniontown... 3C 155 



30' 



125' 



180 



THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 



Thickness. 
Ft. 

11. Shale 25 

12. Sandstone, green 10 

13. Shale, variegated 15 

14. Sandstone, massive, greenish 

gray, Arnoldsburg 25 

15. Concealed, shale, and concealed 38 

16. Sandstone to West Fork river, 

% mile above mouth 2 



Total. 
Ft. 
180 
190 

205 

230 
268 
270 



75' 



40' 



ROANE COUNTY SECTIONS, MONONGAHELA 

SERIES. 

The full thickness of the Monongahela series and the 
thickness and character of its several formations are given in 
the general sections for Spencer, Tristan, Cicerone, Clover 
Run, L. D, Chambers No. i well (R 158), Looneyville, and 
2j4 miles northwest of Cotton P. O. Portions of the Monon- 
gahela series are also shown in the sections given for Barnes 
Run (175' of top portion); Rocksdale (95' of top portion); 
Boyd (no' of top portion) ; Kettle (225' of bottom portion) ; 
"Poca" River, head of (175' of bottom- portion) ; Walton (125' 
of top portion); Cottontree Run (no' of bottom portion); 
One mile southwest of Kester (120' of bottom portion) ; 
Bright (195' of bottom portion) ; Amma (no' of bottom por- 
tion) ; Wierlong Run (145' of bottom portion) ; and Wallback 
(220' of bottom portion). 

In the extreme eastern central portion of Roane county, 
the writer measured the following aneroid section westward 
down a long point to Henrys Fork, j4 mile above the mouth 
of Rush run : 

Section 2 Miles N. W. of Linden P. O.. Smithfield Dist. 



Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 

Massive sandstone, coarse, 
brown and pebbly, capping 
hills with great cliff, Man- 

nington 40 40 

Concealed 60 100 



100' Dunkard Series. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



181 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft Ft. 

3. Concealed 60 160 

4. Sandstone, coarse, brown, form- 

ing great cliff liere (Arnolds- 
burg?) 60 220 

5. Concealed and dark limy reds.. 10 230 

6. Concealed and sandstone 25 255 

7. Concealed 160 415 

8. Sandstone, massive, gray and 

hard, Upper Pittsburg 40 455 

9. Coal, slaty and sandy, Pittsburg 

10" 1 456 

10. Sandstone, massive. Lower 

Pittsburg, to West Fork river 30 486 



120' 



236' 



Mononga- 
hela 356' 
Series. 



30' Conemaugh 
Series. 



Another section measured by the writer with aneroid east- 
ward down the hill to the level of Henrys Fork at I^inden ex- 
hibits the following succession for the Monongahela series: 

Section at Linden P. O., Smithfield Dist. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

1. Concealed and shale from top 

east of Linden 15 15 

1(A). Concealed and shale 25 40 

2. Sandstone, gray, flaggy, Union- 

town 30 70 

3. Concealed 13.8 83.8 

4. Coal (old opening, fallen shut) 

reported 15" thick. Union- 
town 1.2 85 

5. Concealed 5 90 

6. Sandstone, massive, with 3' of 

limy conglomerates at base, 

Arnoldsburg 45 135 

7. Concealed 15 150 

8. Massive sandstone 25 175 

9. Concealed 70 245 

10. i«ias8ive sandstone, Sewickley 30 275 

11. Concealed and massive sand- 

stone 85 360 

12. Shale 10 370 

13. Coal (2"), Pittsburg (815' L-A. T.) 0.2 370.2 

14. Fire clay, shale and concealed 

to West Fork river at Linden 45 415 . 2 



15' Dunkard Series. 



70' 



50' 



Mononga- 
hela 355.2' 
Series. 



236.2' 



45' Conemaugh 
Series. 



182 



THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 



This is an important section in that it shows both the 
Uniontown and Pittsburg coal beds, and the Anoldsburg sand- 
stone to come 235 feet over the latter coal, and its base 50 feet 
below the Uniontown coal. 

The writer measured the following aneroid section from 
the summit of a high knob, Y^ mile northwest of Roxalana P. 
O., southwest down Flat fork of "Poca" river: 

Roxalana Section, Smithfield Dist. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

1. Sandstone, Mannington, coarse 

and pebbly, capping knob, Yz 

mile N. W. of Roxalana P. O. 60 50 

2. Concealed and sandstone 25 75 

3. Concealed 35 110 

4. Concealed to cross-roads y^ mi. 

N. W. of Roxalana 20 130 

5. Concealed along road down 

Flat Fork 35 165 

6. Sandstone, coarse, gray. Union- 

town 40 205 

7. Dark limy reds 5 210 

8. Unrecorded 110 320 . 

9. Sandstone, massive (Base 912' 

L-A. T.) 10 330 

10. Shale, red and sandy 20 350 

11. Sandstone, coarse, gray, large 

quartz pebbles, Sewlckley . . 50 400 

12. Interval 65 465 

13. Pittsburg coal horizon 465 



110' Dunkard Series. 



95' 



195' 



65' 



Mononga- 
hela 355' 
Series. 



Nos. II, 12, and 13 of this section were supplied by the 
writer from exposures near Looneyville, by carrying the sand- 
stone (No. 9 of section) down Flat fork to the latter place. 
This is a very important section in that it shows that the 
great, coarse, gray, massive and pebbly cliff rock of Looney- 
ville, Johnsons creek, McKown and Rock creeks, comes 300 
feet below the Mannington sandstone and 65 feet over the 
Pittsburg coal. 

About 5 miles southwest from Roxalana the writer meas- 
ured the following aneroid section southwest down a hill road 
to "Poca" river at Hlammack : 



WEST VIRGINIA OEOLOOICAL SURVEY. 



183 



Hammack P. O. Section. Smithfield Dist. 



Thickness. 
Ft. 

1. Sandstone and concealed from 

top of knob % mile N. E. of 
Hammack P. 25 

2. Sandstone, green, micaceous... 20 

3. Concealed and reds 20 

4. Sandstone, dark green, shaly 

and broken 30 

5. Reds, shale, and thin sand- 

stones 35 

6A. Reds, shale, and thin sand- 
stones 20 

6. Limestone, nodular, brecciated 

(thickness not exposed) 

7. Concealed and reds 15 

8. Sandstone, green, micaceous, 

Gilboy 10 

9. Concealed 10 

10. Reds 5 

11. Sandstone, nodular, limy 5 

12. Reds 10 

13. Buff, sandy shale 5 

14. Sandstone, shaly top, massive 

at bottom, Uniontown 20 

15. Dark limy reds 10 

16. Concealed 10 

17. Reds 10 

18. Sandstone, dark green, mica- 

ceous, slialy, Arnoldsburg. . . 25 

19. Concealed 5 

20. Dark limy reds 30 

21. Gray shale 5 

22. Sandstone, flaggy, coarse 25 

23. Concealed and reds 10 

24. Concealed (Base=733' L-A.T.). 30 



Total. 
Ft. 



25 
45 
65 

95 

130 

150 

150 
165 



175 

185 
190 
195 

205 
210 

230 

240 
250 
260 

285 

290 
320 
325 
350 
360 
390 



130' Dunkard Series. 



35' 



65' 



55' 



105' 



26. 
27. 



Mononga- 
hela 380* 
Series. 



25. Sandstone, hard, massive, Se- 

wickley, to Poca. river at 

Hammack P. 10 40') 120' 

Interval 110 510 

Pittsburg coal horizon 510 

Four miles southwest of Hammack the writer mcasure'l 
the following aneroid section northward down a hill road to 
McKown creek, i mile southeast of Walton. 



184 



THE MONONGAHELA SERIES, 



McKown Creek Section, Walton Dist. 



^Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 
1, Concealed and sandstone, green, 
micaceous, from top of knob 

1.5 mi. S. E. of Walton 35 35 

lA. Concealed 15 50 



2. Concealed 25 

3. Reds 15 

4. Concealed 5 

5. Sandstone, shaly at bottom, 

Gilboy 20 

6. Reds 10 

7. Sandstone, green, micaceous, Un- 

iontown 20 



Concealed 5 

Dark reds with limestone nug- 
gets 10 

Sandstone, green, micaceous.. 10 
Dark limy reds with limestone 

nuggets 15 

Concealed, mostly red shale ... 10 
Sandstone, nodular, shaly top, 
Arnoldsburg 20 



10. 
11. 

12. 
13. 

14. 
15. 
16. 

17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 

22. 



Red sandy shale 15 

Concealed 5 

Dark reds with limestone nug- 
gets 5 

Concealed 10 

Reds, limy 4 

Green shale and fire clay 1 

Reds 10 

Sandstone, with red shale lay- 
ers 25 

Variegated and red shale 45 



23. Sewickley sandstone, coarse, 

gray and pebbly to McKown 
Creek 50 

24. Interval . 65 

25. Pittsburg coal horizon 



75 
90 
95 



115 
125 

145 

150 

160 
170 

185 
195 

215 

230 
235 

240 
250 
254 
255 
265 

290 
335 



385 
450 
450 



50' Dunkard Series. 



45' 



50' 



70' 



120' 



115' 



Mononga- 
hela 400' 
Series. 



CALHOUN COUNTY SECTIONS, MONONGAHELA 

SERIES. 

In a preceding chapter on the general geology of the th/ee 
counties, sections given for the following points show the en- 
tire thickness and character of the Monongahela series in Cal- 
houn county : 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



185 



Place. Thickness. 

Feetv 

Purdy P. 350 

Leafbank Run 392 

Whitepine P. 380 

Stumptown 405 

Nicut P. 345 

In the same chapter several sections were given that in- 
cluded only a portion of the Monongahela series as follows: 
Brooksville (163' of top portion) ; Nighcut Hill (256' of top 
portion) ; Grantsville (365' of top portion) ; Big Springs (135' 
of top portion) ; Hattie (325' of top portion) ; Arnoldsburg, 
ij4*mile south of, (227' of top portion) ; Minnora (220' of bot- 
tom portion) ; Stinson, i^ mile southwest of, (130' of bottom 
portion) ; and Oka, i mile north of (225' of bottom portion.) 

In addition to those mentioned above several other scat- 
tered sections in Calhoun, showing the Monongahela series in 
part, will now be given: 

The following section was measured by Mr. Reger east 
down the hill to Little Kanawha river level, J4 mile due south 
of Industry, along the northwest edge of Calhoun County: 



70' 



Section J4 Mile South of Industry P. O., Sheridan Dist 

Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

1. Sandstone — — 

2. Shale 52 52 

3. Sandstone, massive 3 55 

4. Sandstone, shaly and concealed 15 70 

5. Coal blossom, Washington 70 

6. Shale, green and concealed .... 15 85 

7. Sandstone, green 2 87 

8. Concealed and shale 5 92 

9. Sandstone, shaly 13 105 

10. Limestone 1 106 

11. Shale and concealed 8 114 

12. Coal, slaty, Waynesburg "A" 

(835' B-A. T.) 1 115 

13. Shale, green and hard 5 120 

14. Sandstone, green, fine and hard 5 125 

15. Sandstone, shaly 10 135 

16. Concealed 10 145 

17. Red shale 5 150 

18. Sandstone, greenish gray, mica- 

ceous, massive 10 160 

19. Shale, green, slaty 10 170 

20. Sandstone, green, fine 3 173 



45' 



58' 



(880'B-A.T.) 



Dunkard 
173' 
Series. 



186 



THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 



Thickness. 
Ft. 

21. Red shale ." 12 

22. Sandstone, grayish green, fine 

and hard 5 

23. Shale, gray and concealed 5 

24. Sandstone, green and fine 5 

25. Shale and concealed 5 

26. Sandstone, coarse and gray, 

Gilboy 25 

27. Concealed to Little, Kanawha 

River 65 



Total. 
Ft 

185 

190 
195 

200 
205 

230 



295 



57' 



65' 



Mononga- 
hela 122' 
Series. 



This section includes only 122 feet of the top portion of 
the Monongahela series, the Dunkard rocks being given here 
to fix the true top of the former. 

The writer measured the following hand-level section 
westward down hill to Steer creek, ^4 mile below the mouth 
of Rush run: 



Steer Creek Section, Sherman Dist. 



Thickness. 
Ft. 

1. Sandstone, coarse and pebbly, 

forms cliff, Arnoldsburg 

2. Concealed with reds 

3. Sandstone, coarse, gray, mas- 

sive, large quartz pebbles, 

Sewickley 

Base=760' B-AT. 

4. Concealed to Steer creek, i/^ 

mile above Laurel run 



40 
90 



35 



85 



Total. 
Ft. 

40 
130 



165 



250 



The interval from the base of the Arnoldsburg sandstone 
down to the top of the Sewickley, 90 feet, is practically the 
same as found at Arnoldsburg, 7 to 8 miles to the southwest- 
ward. 

One mile and a quarter due east of Arnoldsburg, the writ- 
er measured the following aneroid section southward from 
the summit of a high knob down to Mushroom run : 

Mushroom Run Section, Lee Dist. 



Thickness. 
Ft. 
Sandstone, massive, Manning- 
ton, coarse, brown, pebbly, 
capping knob 1 J/4 mile west 

of Arnoldsburg 35 

Concealed 60 



Total. 
Ft. 



35 
95 



95' Dunkard Series. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



187 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

3. Concealed 35 130 

4. Sandstone, massive, Uniontown 35 165 

5. Concealed 45 210 

6. Sandstone, Arnoldsburg, coarse, 

gray and pebbly, forms cliff.. 35 245 

7. Concealed 92 337 

g. Black slate with streaks of coal 

and fossil plants (Upper Se- 

wickley coal) 3 340 

(Base=:805' L-A. T.) 

9. Sandstone, massive, coarse, 
brown and pebbly. Rock creek 
(Sewickley) 10 350 



70' 



80' 



95' 



10' 



Mononga- 
hela 256' 
Series. 



This section as well as the following section for Arnolds- 
burg is important in that it gives the relative position of the 
Arnoldsburg sandstone at its type locality to the Uniontown, 
Mannington, and Rock Creek (Sewickley) sandstones. For- 
mation No. 8 appears to represent the horizon of the Upper 
Sewickley coal, coming as it does about no to 115 feet over 
the Pittsburg coal, and about 240 feet below the Mannington 
sandstone. Hence it would appear that the great, coarse, 
brown pebbly sandstone ledge of southern Roane and central 
Calhoun does not represent the true Sewickley sandstone of 
northern West Virginia, but a lower ledge, coming imme- 
diately under, and not over, the Sewickley coal, and for that 
reason might be called the Lower Sewickley sandstone. 

The writer measured the following aneroid section south- 
ward down the hill road to West Fork river level at 
Arnoldsburg: 

Arnoldsburg Section, Lee Dist. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

1. Sandstone, friable, micaceous 

Waynesburg 30 30 

2. Concealed (some reds) 40 70 

3. Sandstone, coarse, brown, fria- 

ble, Uniontown 25 95 



30' Dunkard Serie& 



65' 



188 



THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 



Thickness. Total. 



Ft. 

4. Concealed and red and buff 

shale 45 

5. Sandstone, massive, coarse and 

gray, Arnoldsburg 45 

6. Concealed 35 

7. Dark limy reds 20 

8. Concealed 40 

9. Sandstone, Sewicl<ley to river 

level at Arnoldsburg (River 
= 712' L-AT.) 30 



10. Interval 



70 



11. Interval 1580 

12. Big Injun sand (A. Mace No. 1 

well, C 352) 30 



Ft. 
140 

185 

220 
240 
280 

310 

380 

1960 

1990 



90' 



125' 



70' 



Mononga 
hela 350' 
Series. 



The Uniontown and Arnoldsburc^ sandstones are separ- 
ated in this region by 40 to 50 feet of dark limy reds. A sim- 
ilar band of dark limy reds comes immediately under the Ar- 
noldsburg sandstone. 

The writer measured the following aneroid section ^ mile 
due east from Millstone P. O. southward from the turnpike 
down a trail leading along- Trace fork of Bear fork of Steer 
creek : 



Millstone P. O., Section ^ Mile N. E. of, Sherman Dist. 



Thickness. TotaJ. 

Ft. Ft. 

1. Concealed from turnpike, % 

mile N. E. of Millstone P. O. 5 5 

2. Sandstone, massive, coarse, 

friable, Mannington 40 45 

3. Sandy shale 15 60 

4. Red shale 10 70 

5. Concealed 30 100 

6. Sandstone, massive, coarse and 

yellow, forms cliffs, Waynes- 
burg 20 120 

7. Concealed 60 180 

8. Sandstone, massive, coarse and 

yellow, forms cliffs, Union- 

toWn 20 200 

9. Concealed 10 210 

10. Coal (old opening) (1040' B-A. 

T.), fallen in, Uniontown.... 210 

11. Concealed and massive sand- 

stone to Trace Fork 110 320 



45' 



75' 



Dunkard 

120' 
Series. 



90' 



110' 



Mononga- 
hela 200' 
Series. 




PLATE VIII. — View Showing Outcrop of the Arnoldsburg Sandstone at its 
Type Locality, V4, Mile Northeast of Arnoldsburg, Calhoun Couaty. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



189 



About three miles northeast of Arnoldsburg the writer 
measured the following aneroid section from the summit of 
a high knob used as a U. S. G. S. triangulation point, west- 
ward along the road leading down Millstone Creek: 

Section at Head of Millstone Creek, Lee Dist. 

Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 

. Sandstone, Upper Marietta, 
massive, brown, capping l<nob 
used as triangulation point, 
and concealed 45 45 



45' 



2. Concealed to road 50 

3. Concealed and shale 25 

4. Sandstone, coarse and friable, 

flaggy, Mannington 35 

5. Buff sandy shale 20 

6. Sandstone, forming cliff, Waynes- 

burg 50 

7. Concealed 20 

8. Reds 5 

9. Sandstone, nodular 5 

10. Concealed and reds 27 

11. Sandstone, nodular and limy... 3 

12. Buff shale 7 

13. Reds 5 

14. Limestone, brecciated, nodular. 3 



95 
120 

155 

175 

225 

245 

250 
255 
282 
285 
292 
297 
300 

315 



110' 



-70' 



75' 



Dunkard 
225' 
Series. 



15. Buff sandy shale 15 

16. Sandstone, coarse, pebbly and 

gray, Arnoldsburg 39.5 354.! 

17. Coal (6"), Lower Uniontown 0.5 355 



55' 



Mononga- 
hela 130' 
Series. 



In this region the Waynesburg sandstone has thickened 
up and forms great cliffs along the hillsides. 

About 3 miles and a half northeast from Millstorte P. O., 
Mr. Robt. D. Hennen measured the following aneroid section 
eastward down the hill road to Rush run level at Dodrill 
O.: 



Dodrill P. O. Section, Sherman Dist. 

Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 
Concealed from top of hill west 

of Dodrill P. 30 30 gQ, 

Sandstone, massive, friable top, 

Mannington 30 60 



190 



THE MONONQAHELA SERIES. 



Thickness. 
Ft. 

3. Brown shale 30 

4. Marly sandstone and brown 

shale 15 

5. Limy shale 10 

6. Yellow shale 15 

7. Massive sandstone, Waynesburg 20 

8. Brown and yellow shale 20 

9. Limy shale 30 

10. Yellow shale and concealed 25 

11. Coal blossom, Uniontown (925' 

B-A. T.) (4") 

12. Concealed and yellow shale 45 

13. Limy shale 35 

14. Sandstone, flaggy, concealed, 

sandstone and shale 65 

15. Concealed 5 

16. Coal blossom, Upper Sewickley 

17. Concealed to Rush run at Dod- 

rill P. O : 10 



Total. 
Ft. 

90 

105 
115 

130 
150 

170 
200 
225 

225 

270 
305 

370 
375 
375 

385 



90' 



Dunkard 

150' 
Series. 



75' 



150' 



Mononga- 
hela 225' 
Series. 



The writer measured the following section with aneroid 
southward from the top of a high hill down to the level of 
Left fork of West Fork river at Euclid P. O., opposite the 
mouth of Lower Nicut run : 



Section at Euclid P. O., Washington Dist., Calhoun County 





Thickness. 


Total. 






Ft. 


Ft. 


1. 


Sandstone, massive, coarse and 
pebbly, gray and brown. 








forms cliffs, Arnoldsburg 


40 


.40 


2. 


Concealed with reds 


80 


120 


3. 


Sandstone, massive, coarse and 
pebbly, ^ray and brown, form- 








ing cliffs. Rock Creek 


50 


170 


4. 


Fire clay (spring water), coal 








horizon 





170 


5. 


Concealed 


95 


265 


6. 


Sandstone, massive, coarse and 
pebbly, gray, forming cliff, 








Upper Pittsburg 


40 


305 


7. 


Coal blossom, Pittsburg 





305 


8 


. Concealed to creek level 


125 


430 



40' 



130' 



135' 



Mononga- 
hela 305' 
Series. 



Conemaugh Series. 
The foregoing sections of the Monongahela series of 
rocks in Wirt, Roane and Calhoun counties show these meas- 
ures to vary in thickness from 350 to 405 feet. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



191 



DESCRIPTION OF THE FORMATIONS OF THE 
MONONGAHELA SERIES. 

The following formations are included in the Mononj^^a- 
hela series both in northern West Virginia and in the Wirt- 
Roane-Calhoun area : 



Wirt-Roane-Calhoun Area. 

Waynesburg Coal. 
Gilboy Sandstone. 
Uniontown Sandstone. 
Uniontown Coal. 
Uniontown Limestone. 
Arnoldsburg Sandstone. 
Lower Uniontown Coal. 
Upper Sewickley Coal, 
Sewickley Sandstone. 
Lower Sewickley Coal. 
Upper Pittsburg Sandstone. 
Pittsburg Coal. 



Northern West Virginia 

Waynesburg Coal. 
Little Waynesburg Coal. 
Waynesburg Limestone. 
Gilboy Sandstone. 
Uniontown Sandstone. 
Uniontown Coal. 
Uniontown Limestone. 
Fulton Green Shale. 
Benwood Limestone. 
Sewickley Sandstone. 
Upper Sewickley Coal. 
Lower Sewickley Coal. 
Sewickley Limestone. 
Redstone Coal. 
Upper Pittsburg Sandstone. 
Pittsburg Coal. 

The Waynesburg Coal. 

The Waynesburg coal is the highest formation of the 
Monongahela series and received its name from Waynesburg, 
Greene county, Pa-, east of which place its crop is exposed 
along Tenmile creek. It is No. ii seam in the former coal 
nomenclature of the State of Ohio. I. C. White^ gives the fol- 
lowing description of this bed in the northern end of the State : 

"The seam Is always multiple bedded, being generally separated 
Into a 'roof, 'upper' and 'lower' divisions by shale and fire clay part- 
ings, the whole often nine to ten feet in thickness. This coal appears 
to attain its maximum thickness and importance in Marion and Mon- 
ongalia counties, and the adjoining region of Greene county, Pennsyl- 
vania, since it thins down in every direction when traced away from 
these regions. 

"The coal is always high in ash and moisture, and hence is a poor 



3 Vol. IT. p. 147. W. Va. Geol. Survey: 1903. 



192 THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 

steam coal, and is used for that purpose only when nothing better is 
accessible. Of course, there is always some good coal in the bed, but 
it is generally mixed up with the poorer quality in mining and the 
resultant fuel is never of first-class grade. 

"The following section of this coal at David L. Meyers' mine on 
Scotts run, Cass district, Monongalia county, made by Mr. John M. 
Gregg, will reveal the usual structure of the coal when thick: 

> Ft. In. 

Coal 4' 5"] 

Impure fire clay 0' 8" J- 9 4 

Coal 4' 3" J 

This bed appears to thin away southward from the Mon- 
ongalia county region, and in the Long Run, Doddridge 
county, section, measured by the writer, page 177, its horizon 
is represented by only 9 inches of fire clay with a trace of dark 
shale, coming 125 feet under the Washington coal. In the 
Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area the coal appears to be quite gen- 
erally absent wherever its horizon is exposed by outcrop. 

The Gilboy Sandstone. 

In the northern end of the State there occurs a massive 
rock, coming 5 to 10 feet under the Waynesburg coal, that has 
been designated the Gilboy sandstone by I. C. White*. The 
latter has the following to say concerning this sandstone near 
its type locality : 

"Very frequently, and especially along the eastern crop of the 
Waynesburg coal, a great sandstone mass comes into the section at 
five to ten feet below that coal, cutting out the Little Waynesburg 
coal and its underlying limestone completely. This stratum is very 
prominent in what is known as 'Gilboy' cut on the B. & O. R. R., just 
east from Mannington, and has been designated from that locality. It 
was formerly termed the Brownstown sandstone from a locality in 
Harrison county, where it is very massive, but as there is a Bpowns- 
town sandstone in Kanawha county, it was concluded best to change 
the name of this one to Gilboy. 

"The stratum in question is a very hard, rather fine-grained, gray- 
ish white rock, seldom containing any pebbles, and when present 
forms a bold cliff or bluff below that of the Waynesburg pebbly sand- 
stone above. It is especially prominent in Marion, Lewis and Gilmer 
counties." 

In the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area this rock is frequently 



4 Vol. II, p. 150, W. Va. Geol. Survey; 1903. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 193 

quite massive, coming lo to 15 feet under the Waynesburg 
sandstone from which it is generally separated by fire clay and 
red and sandy shale. 

In Wirt county its outcrop is exposed along both flanks of 
the Burning Springs (Volcano) anticline, but is deeply buried 
below drainage west of Elizabeth, Its crop is exposed along 
the hill road leading east down to Creston. There it is a dark 
gray in color, quite massive, and 25 feet thick, coming 20 feet 
below the base of the Waynesburg sandstone. At Munday 
P. O. the Gilboy sandstone is 55 feet tWck, coarse and pebbly, 
coming no feet below the Washington coal. 

In Roane county the Gilboy sandstone outcrops along 
West Fork river, Henrys Fork, the extreme headwaters of 
Spring creek, and along "Poca" river from Roxalana to Cice- 
rone at the Jackson county line. In the section measured at 
Walton, page 86, this sandstone is reported 30 feet thick, 
coming 130 feet below the Washington coal. 

In Calhoun county the Gilboy sandstone is quite massive 
and at Grantsville this stratum comes about 315 feet above 
the Little Kanawha river. It is quite a massive rock near the 
summits of the hills in the vicinity of Arnoldsburg. In the 
section measured one mile and a quarter south of Arnoldsburg, 
the Gilboy sandstone is reported 50 feet thick, coming 75 feet 
below the base of the Mannington sandstone. ,j 

j 
The Uniontown Sandstone. 

At 10 to 20 feet below the Gilboy sandstone there fre- 
quently occurs another very massive rock in the Monongahela 
series that has been named the Uniontown sandstone by I. C. 
White". He gives the following description of this stratum 
from its outcrop in southwestern Pennsylvania : 

"At 60 to 75 feet below the top of the series' there frequently oc- 
curs a massive, gray sandstone whose horizon comes immediately 
above the Uniontown coal; and hence, although the stratum in ques- 
tion is not prominent at Uniontown, it has been designated from Its 
relations to the underlying coal. 

5 Bui. 65, pp. 58 and 59, U. S. Geol. Survey; 1891. 

6 Referring to the Monongahela series.^— R. V. H. 
• 13 



194 THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 

"The rock has occasionally been mistaken for the Waynesburg 
sandstone, which belongs nearly 100 feet above. It is well exposed at 
Bobtown, Greene county, Pennsylvania, where it crowns the summit 
of the hill overlooking Dunkard creek as a bold cliff." 

It is thought that the Uniontown sandstone is the same 
as the "shallow oil sand" of Ritchie county, operated on the 
Carroll farm by the Clark Oil Co. at Cairo, W. Va., the high- 
est known oil sand geologically in the State. 

In the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area the Uniontown sand- 
stone is a prominent cliff maker and is very persistent. 

In Wirt county it outcrops along both flanks of the Burn- 
ing Springs anticline. West of Elizabeth it is deeply buried 
below drainage. At Freeport on the north bank of Hughes 
river it forms a great cliff, light gray in color, coming lOO 
feet above Hughes river, and 5 feet over 2 to 3 inches of dark 
shale that appears to represent the Uniontown coal horizon. 
In eastern Wirt county where it outcrops along the hill road 
leading east from Creston, it is 25 feet thick, coming 195 feet 
below the Washington coal and 80 feet above the Little Kana- 
wha river. 

In Roane county the Uniontown sandstone outcrops 
along West Fork river, Henrys Fork, and on the extreme 
head of Spring creek; then southwest from Pink P. O. across 
central Roane along the waters of "Poca" river to the Roane- 
Jackson county line. In the Barnes Run section, page 64, 
it has a visible thickness of 35 feet, 195 feet below the Wash- 
ington coal. It is the Uniontown sandstone that forms the 
great cliffs on Mud fork of "Poca", slightly over a mile east 
of Looneyville, coming there about 260 feet over the Pitts- 
burg coal bed opened up near the level of Mud fork. It is al- 
so the Uniontown sandstone that forms the great rocky cliff 
capping the summit of Nichols Knob, ^ mile northeast from 
Kester P. O., and other high knobs along the dividing ridge 
near the Geary-Walton district line. At Nichols Knob its 
base is 1269' L-A. T., coming about 275 feet over the Pitts- 
burg coal bed. The Uniontown sandstone also forms the local- 
ly famous "Jackson Rocks" on the top of a high knob about 2 
miles southwest from Kester P. O. South and southeast of the 
latter point this rock soon passes into the air. In the sections 



WEST VIEGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 195 

at Boyd and Cicerone, pages 75 and 76, along the Jack- 
son county line, it has a thickness of 20 and 50 feet, coming 
195 and 175 feet, respectively, below^ the Washington coal. 
It is also noted in both the Looneyville and Shamblings Mill 
sections, pages 83 and 85, having a thickness of 20 and 25 
feet, respectively. Its horizon is concealed at Walton, but its 
base should come 40 to 50 feet above "Poca" river. 

In Calhoun county the Uniontown sandstone is generally 
quite massive, ranging frorri 30 to 40 feet in thickness. At 
Brooksville it outcrops 70 to 80 feet above river level. It is 
noted in the Grantsville section, page lOi, coming there 
about 275 feet above the river. 

Southwest of the Little Kanawha river along Left fork of 
Sycamore, and Little Bear fork, the Uniontown sandstone 
forms great vertical cliffs along the hillsides. In the Mill- 
stone P. O. section, page 188, this sandstone is reported 20 
feet thick, coming 180 to 190 feet below the horizon of the 
Washington coal. At Arnoldsburg this stratum forms steep 
bluffs a short distance above the great Arnoldsburg sand- 
stone. At Richardson on West Fork river, the Uniontown 
sandstone forms a cliff 20 to 25 feet high, bluish gray in color, 
coming 10 feet above the river level at the old dam site and 
directly over 3" of bituminous shale that represents the Union- 
town coal horizon. 

. The Uniontown Coal. 

In northern West Virginia there comes a fairly persistent 
coal at 75 to 125 feet below the Waynesburg bed that has 
been named by the First Geol. Survey of Pennsylvania the 
Uniontown coal from its occurrence near the town of that 
name in Pennsylvania. According to Dr. I. C. White (Vol. 
II, page 150, W. Va. Geol. Survey), it hardly ever exceeds 3 
feet in thickness, often only 2, and frequently is represented 
only by black slate. This coal appears to reach its best de- 
velopment in central and western Wetzel county, as revealed 
by several diamond drill borings in that region. The writer ob- 
tained a fine section of this bed where it reaches its best de- 



196 THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 

velopment from a diamond drill boring on the Ed. Wagner 
farm on Coal Fork of Doolin run, Wetzel county, 23^^ miles 
northeast from New Martinsville, as follows^: 

Ft. In. 

1. Slate, black 4 

2. Coal 2' 11" 



3. Bone 0% 

4. Coal 8 

5. Bone 0^^ 

G. Coal 10^ 

7. Fire clay 



Uniontown 4 



It differs from both the Washington and Waynesburg 
coals in that the best coal appears to be in the top portion of 
the bed. This is true where this coal is mined at Sherwood 
P. O., along Buckeye creek, i mile northwest from Long Run 
station, Doddridge county. 

In the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area this coal has frequently 
been stripped by farmers for local domestic fuel and smithing 
purposes. 

In Wirt county, the section measured at Freeport, page 
56, shows this bed represented by 2 to 3 inches of bitumi- 
nous shale, coming 5 feet below the great Uniontown sand- 
stone, and 95 feet above Hughes river. It has been opened up 
on a small branch of Little creek, y^ mile southeast from Cres- 
ton, where the writer measured the following section 
descending: 

Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 

1. Sandstone, massive, coarse, brown and 

pebbly, Mannington r... 50 50 

2. Concealed and shale 30 80 130' 

3. Sandstone, massive, coarsf, brown and 

pebbly, Waynesburg 50 - 130 

4. Concealed (steep bluff) 60 190 

5. Shale, sandy 10 200 71.5' 

6. Coal, Uniontown (reported 18" thick)... 1.5 201.5 

The opening had fallen shut so that it was not possible to 
verify the thickness of the coal which was reported as 18". 
In Roane county the Uniontown coal outcrops over the 



7 Marshall-Wetzel-Tyler Report p. 290, W. Va. Geol. Survey; 1909. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 197 

same area as given above for the Uniontown sandstone. In 
the vicinity of Richardson this coal has been mined on the 
south side of Lee run, J4 mile up from its mouth by M. L. 
Butcher. The follovvim^ section is exposed there : 

Ft. In. 

1. Sandstone, massive, fine grained, Uniontown 30 

2. Slate, bluish, soft 3 

3. Coal, good, no partings, 10" to 1 4 

4. Slate 8 

Mr. Butcher is authority for the thickness of the coal. 
The mine had fallen shut, but he says it has been mined back 
into the hill 50 feet or more. Its outcrop is exposed along the 
hill road west of the mouth of Henrys Fork, having there a 
thickness of 10 inches, and coming 65 feet below the Waynes- 
burg sandstone and 30 feet above Henrys Fork (See Rocks- 
dale section, page 67). The coal has been opened up near 
Linden P. O. on Henrys Fork, near the summit of the hills at 
an elevation of iioo' B-A. T. The Linden P. O. section, page 
181, shows this coal 15" thick, coming 285 feet above the 
Pittsburg coal, 5 feet above the Arnoldsburg sandstone, and 
330 feet above .Henrys Fork at Linden. The Uniontown coal 
has been opened up on the ridge between Flat and Duck runs 
of Henrys Fork, ;^ mile southeast of Linden P. O. at an eleva- 
tion of 1055' B-A. T. on the land of Bailey Young. Consider- 
able coal has been taken out here by Mr. Young for domestic 
fuel. It was not possible to get a section of the bed at this 
point. 

In Calhoun county the Uniontown coal appears to be 
more persistent than in either Wirt or Roane. In the Purdy P. 
O. section, page 99, it is reported 2" thick, coming 190' be- 
low the Washington coal, 70' below the Waynesburg sand- 
stone, and 755' B-A. T. It outcrops at several places along 
Yellow creek, and at the mouth of Spring run of Yellow creek 
the writer measured the following section descending: 

Ft. In. 

1. Coal, Uniontown 1 

2. Shale and sandstone 10 

3. Limestone, friable, Uniontown 4 

4. Shale, limy and red, with limestone nuggets 20 

5. Shale, sandy and limy to bed of run 15 



198 



THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 



Mr. Reger obtained a sample of this bed from coal that 
had been mined on the R. H. Rogers land at an elevation of 
about 800' A. T. This mine is located almost 2 miles northwest 
from the Hardman opening above, or 2 miles south of Brooks- 
ville and ^ mile west of the Little Kanawha river. The mine 
had been abandoned, but the coal was reported 10 to 12 inches 
thick. The sample was collected from a box of coal in a coal 
house on the farm, and its composition and calorific value re- 
ported as follows by Prof. Hite : 



Proxfrnate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Moisture 2.38 

Volatile Matter 31.18 

Fixed Carbon 48 . 86 

Ash 17.58 



Total 100.00 

Sulphur 7.04 

Phosphorus 0.12 



Ultimate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Carbon 59.85 

Hydrogen 4.32 

Oxygen 10.25 

Nitrogen 0.96 

Sulphur 7.04 

Ash 17.58 



Total 100.00 



Calorimeter B. T. U 10,971 

Calculated B. T. U 10,875 



Carbon 



59.85' 



Fuel Ratio = 



Oxygen + Ash 



= 2.15 



10.25 + 17.58 



The coal did not give satisfaction for smithing purposes 
on account of being too high in sulphur. 

In the vicinity of Whitepine, Sherman district, Calhoun 
county, Mr. Reger measured the following exposure of the 
Uniontown coal (see Whitepine P. O. section, page 113. 



Ft, 

1. Coal 0.3 

2. Shale 1.5 

3. Slate and coal 0.2 



Ft. 

2.0 
(Elevation =8 00' 



B-A. T.) 



Its blossom, 4" thick, is exposed along the hill road lead- 
ing west from Dodrill P.^O., as shown by the section at the 
latter place, page 189, coming there 75' below the Waynes- 
burg sandstone, 160 feet above Rush run, and 925' B-A. T. 

The coal crops at the forks of the road on Sycamore 
creek, ^ mile northeast from Sycamore P. O. at an elevation 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. lUi) 

of 770' B-A. T. There it is only 4" thick. On a branch of Left 
fork of Sycamore, one mile and a half N. 75° E. of Sycamore 
P. O. this coal outcrops at an elevation of 855' B-A. T. There 
the writer obtained the following section : 

Ft. In. 

1. Sandstone, massive, coarse and brown, 

Uniontown 35 

2. Gray shale, soft, 2' to 5 

3. Coal, Uniontown 6 

About ^ mile due east of Millstone P. O. this coal was 
once opened on the head of Trace fork of Bear fork on Bishop 
Marks land. The section for ^ mile east of Millstone P. O., 
page 188, gives its relative position to other rocks in this 
region. Its thickness was not exposed there. 

In the western part of Calhoun county, the coal has been 
mined near Richardson on the east bank of West Fork, 300 
yards below the mouth of Little Rowles run at an elevation 
of 680' B-A. T. It is 12" to 18" thick there and comes at the 
base of bluish gray sandstone 30 feet in thickness, represent- 
ing the Uniontown. Three miles east of this point the coal 
crops at the forks of the road on Big Rowles run at an eleva- 
tion of 780' L-A. T. There the writer measured the following 
section : 

Ft. In. 

1. Sandy shale 8 

2. Coal, Uniontown 6 

3. Shale, bright yellow 1 

4. Fire clay and green shale 4 

5. Sandstone, limy 2 

6. Shale, buff and sandy, to creek 6 

This shows a rise in the rocks from Richardson eastward 
of 100 feet. 

The Uniontown coal has been opened up on the John 
Wagner farm on the head of a branch of Jesse run of West 
Fork river, located 2.2 miles southeast of Rocksdale P. O. and 
the same distance northeast of Tristan P. O. There Mr. Re- 
ger collected a sample for analysis and measured the follow- 
ing section descending: 



200 



THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 



Ft. 

1. Sandstone, shaly 

2. Slate and fire clay mixed 1 

3. Coal, slaty 0' 2" | , , . . _ , ^ 

4. Coal, good 6 | Un.ontown Coal 

5. Slate, hard 

6. Fire clay, soft and white 2 

7. Sandstone 

(Elevation of coal=875' B-A. T.) 



In. 



The coal was mined here by stripping. Prof. Hite report- 
ed the following for the composition afid calorific value of the 
sample collected here by Mr. Reger : 



Proximate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Moisture 1.18 

Volatile Matter 35.76 

Fixed Carbon 49.07 

Ash 13.99 



Total 100.00 

Sulphur 4.57 

Phosphorus . 13 



Ultimate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Carbon 62.69 

Hydrogen 5.84 

Oxygen 12.02 

Nitrogen 0.89 

Sulphur 4.57 

Ash 13.99 



Total 100.00 



Calorimeter B. T. U 12,434 

Calculated B. T. U 11,982 



Carbon 



62.69 



Fuel Ratio 



Oxygen + Ash 



12.02 + 13.99 



2.41 



The coal is used some for smithing purposes, but is evi- 
dently too high in sulphur to give satisfactory results. 

South of the Little Kanawha river in Calhoun county, an 
attempt was once made to open up a coal on the head of Pine 
run, Yi mile north of Mt. Zion P. O., on the Ijand of Samuel 
Wilson, that appears to represent the Uniontown bed. It was 
reported only 6 inches thick and comes at an elevation of 872' 
A. T. 

Mr. Robert D. Hennen measured the following section 
at the Wilson opening : 

Ft. 

1. Shale 

2. Coal 

3. Shale 5 

4. Coal, good 

5. Fire clay 



In. 

1 

7 
6 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL. SURVEY. 



201 



He also collected a sample from the lower bench, the 
composition and calorific value of which were reported by 
Prof. Hite as follows i 



Proximate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Moisture 1.20 

Volatile Matter 34.10 

Fixed Carbon 49.78 

Ash 14.92 



Total 100.00 

Sulphur 6.35 

Phosphorus 0.089 



Ultimate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Carbon 65.33 

Hydrogen 5 . 04 

Oxygen 7.58 

Nitrogen 0.78 

Sulphur 6.35 

Ash 14.92 



Total 100.00 



Calorimeter B. T. U 12,378 

Calculated B. T. U 12,295 



Carbon 



65.33 



Fuel Ratio = 



Oxygen + Ash 



= 2.90 



7.58 + 14.92 



Its position with reference to the outcropping strata 
above it is shown in the Mt. Zion P. O. section on page 141. 

The Uniontown coal is too thin and variable in its nature, 
as can readily be seen from the foregoing data, to be reckoned 
as an economic resource for the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area. 

The Uniontown Limestone. 



In southwestern Pennsylvania the interval between the 
Uniontown and Sewickley coals is occupied by a limestone 
that was named the Great Limestone by the First Geol. Sur- 
vey of Pennsylvania. Later it was divided by Prof. J. J. Stev- 
enson into two divisions : the Upper, 6 to 18 feet thick, having 
there a bright color, coming immediately under the Union- 
town coal, was designated the Uniontown limestone from its 
relation to the coal bed. * 

In the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area this limestonfe has been 
largely replaced with dark limy reds with limestone nuggets, 
and at only a few points was limestone observed at this hori- 
zon. In the section given above for the Uniontown coal at the 



202 THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 

mouth of Spring run of Yellow creek, this limestone is 4 feet 
thick, coming 10 feet under the Uniontown coal. Its horizon 
was recognized at several points along Yellow creek. 

The Arnoldsburg Sandstone. 

At 40 to 50 feet below the Uniontown sandstone in the 
vicinity of Arnoldsburg, Calhoun county, there occurs a great, 
coarse, gray, pebbly sandstone, 35 to 45 feet in thickness, com- 
ing 125 feet above the level of West Fork river at Arnolds- 
burg, that has been much quarried for building purposes. Just 
north of the mouth of Millstone run, ^ mile northeast of Ar- 
noldsburg, is located an old abandoned quarry in this stratum, 
its base coming 855' L-A. T. At this place the rock was ob- 
tained for erecting the foundation of the court house building 
in 1859 and i860. Although this foundation has been stand- 
ing exposed to the weather for 50 years (since the building 
was never erected)", yet it is in a good state of preservation. 
Hence, it is evidently a fine building stone. The writer has 
named this stratum, for the reasons given above, the Arnolds- 
burg sandstone. In the northern part of the State this sand- 
stone hasjts equivalent, as is shown by the log of Bore Hole 
No, II on the W. S. Parish farm on Tevebaugh run, Marion 
county, W, Va., page 175. There 13^ feet of sandstone oc- 
curs, coming 53' below the Uniontown coal, 99' above the 
Sewickley coal, and 26' over the Lower Uniontown coal. A 
thin streak of slaty coal, probably corresponding to the Lower 
Uniontown, frequently occurs at the base of the Arnoldsburg 
sandstone in Calhoun county. 

In Wirt county the Arnoldsburg sandstone outcrops 
along both flanks of the Burning vSprings anticline north of 
the Little Kanawha river. In the section given at Freeport 
in northern Wirt, page 56, on the west side of the structural 
arch, this sandstone is 25' thick, coming 45' below the Union- 
town coal and 25' above Hughes river. In western Wirt 
it has dipped far below drainage. In the section measured 
down the river hill, 2 miles northwest from Creston, page 
178, this stratum is a coarse, gray rock, 35 feet thick, coming 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 203 

150 feet below^ the Mannington sandstone, and 115 feet above 
the Little Kanawha river. One-eighth mile above Creston 
this sandstone is 25 feet thick, only 40 feet above the level of 
West Fork river. 

In Roane county the Arnoldsburg sandstone outcrops 
along the waters of Henrys Fork, and along "Poca" river 
southwest from Roxalana to Cicerone P. O. at the Jackson 
county line. It forms a great cliff about half way up the hill- 
sides of Henrys Fork, 2 miles below Linden, and the section 
there, page 180, shows it to be 60 feet thick, coarse and 
brown, 235 feet above the Pittsburg coal bed and 266 feet 
above the level of West Fork river. The section at Linden P. 
O., page 181, gives it a thickness of 45 feet with three feet of 
limestone conglomerate at base, coming 5 feet under the 
Uniontown coal and 235 feet above the Pittsburg coal bed. 

Southwest on "Poca" river the Hammack P. O. section., 
page 183, shows it to be 25 feet thick, 30 feet under the 
Uniontown sandstone, and 105 feet above the great, pebbly 
Rock Creek (Sewickley?) sandstone. It outcrops along the 
first hill road on McKown creek leading south, 45 feet below 
the Uniontown sandstone and 120 feet above the Rock Creek 
(Sewickley?) sandstone. It outcrops along the hillside at Ci- 
cerone P. O., 105 feet above the top of the Rock Creek (Se- 
wickley?) sandstone and 130 feet below the Waynesburg cliff 
rock. 

In Calhoun county the Arnoldsburg sandstone outcrops 
along Steer creek. West Fork river, and Beech fork of Henrys 
Fork. At Grantsville this sandstone is about 200 feet above 
river level. One-eighth mile above the mouth of Laurel run 
of Steer creek, this sandstone forms a great, coarse, pebbly 
cliff, 40 feet high, 90 feet bvev the great, coarse, gray, pebbly 
Rock Creek (Sewickley?) sandstone and 200 feet above Steer 
creek. In the northeast edge of Calhoun, the Hattie P. O. 
section, page iii, shows this sandstone 10 feet in thickness, 
coming directly over the Lower Uniontown coal, and 125 feet 
above the Little Kanawha river. 

In the vicinity of Arnoldsburg this stratum reaches its 
best development. The three sections for that region. Mush- 



204 THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 

room Run, Arnoldsburg and i mile and a quarter south of 
Arnoldsburg, on pages i86, 187 and 117, respectively, show 
its relative position to other outcropping rocks. This sand- 
stone forms high pebbly cliflfs along Millstone creek and comes 
at the base of the section given for the head of the latter 
stream on page 189, having there a thickness of 40 feet, the 
stream probably getting its name from the "millstone" char- 
acter of this rock. 

The Lower Uniontown Coal. 

In the No. 11 W. S. Parish farm boring of the Fairmont 
Coal Co. in Marion county, W. Va., page 175, there occurs a 
coal bed, 16" in thickness, coming 92 feet 4 inches below the 
regular Uniontown coal, 78 feet 10 inches above the bottom of 
the Sewickley coal, and 205 feet 8 inches above the bottom of 
the Pittsburg coal bed. Mr. Frank Haas, of the Fairmont Coal 
Co., according to I. C. White*, has named this the Lower 
Uniontown coal from its relation to the long established 
Uniontown bed. 

In the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area, there frequently occurs 
a thin coal at the base of the Arnoldsburg sandstone that cor- 
relates with the Lower Uniontown coal of the Parish boring, 
coming as it does in the area under discussion 80 to 90 feet 
below the Uniontown coal and 235 feet above the Pittsburg 
bed. The crop of this coal is well exposed on Whiteoak run 
in the edge of Jackson county, about one mile due west of 
Cicerone P. O. There the writer measured the following sec- 
tion descending: 

Ft. In. 

1. Sandstone, flaggy, Arnoldsburg 30 

2. Coal, slaty 0' 21/2"] • 

3. Sandy slate with ( Lover Uniontown 2 814 

streak coal ..2 j" (Elev. = 760' B-A. T.) 

4. Coal, slaty 6 J 

5. Shale 1 

6. Limestone, gray and hard 1 8 

7. Shale and concealed to Whiteoak creek 10 

There this coal comes about no feet above the Rock 



8 Vol. 11(A), p. 680, W. Va. Geol. Survey; 1908. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



205 



Creek (Sewickley?) sandstone, and 150 feet below the 
Waynesburg sandstone. 

It appears to be this coal that is exposed along the Nigh- 
cut Hill road, 2 miles northwest of Grantsville (see Nighcut 
Hill section, page 100, where it has the following section: 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

1. Coal, slaty 1 ] 

2. Fire clay 3 [ 4 6 

3. Coal, slaty 6 J (.Elevation=808' L-A. T.) 

There it comes 40 feet below the Washington coal and 67 
feet above the base of another sandstone. 

It seems to be this coal that has been mined on the land 
of Geo. Hardman by Emory Kerby, 3/2 rnile southeast of the 
mouth of Bee run, and one mile and a half southwest from its 
outcrop on the Nighcut Hill road mentioned above. There, 
Mr. Reger obtained the following section : 

Ft. In. 

1. Sandstone, slaty 

2. Slate 3 

3. Coal, good. Lower Unlontown 1 5 

4. Slate (Elevation=810' B-A. T.) 

The coal had been used for one year for domestic fuel 
and smithing purposes. Mr. Reger collected a sample here 
for analysis, the composition and calorific value of which are 
reported by Rrof. Hite as follows : 



Proximate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Moisture 0.81 

Volatile Matter 32.53 

Fixed Carbon 51.35 

Ash 15.31 



Total 100.00 

Sulphur 5.68 

Phosphorus 0.17 



Ultimate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Carbon 66.14 

Hydrogen 4.83 

Oxygen 6.98 

Nitrogen 1.06 

Sulphur 5.68 

Ash 15.31 



Total 100.00 



Calorimeter B. T. U 12,248 

Calculated B. T. U 12,099 



Carbon 



66.14 



Fuel Ratio = 



= 2.97 



Oxygen + Ash 6,98 + 15.31 

Like the Uniontown coal above, this bed is too thin and 
irregular to have any economic value. 



206 THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 

The Upper Sewickley? Coal. 

The next 90 to 100 feet of measures immediately below 
the Arnoldsburg sandstone is largely made up of dark, limy 
reds, sandy beds, and sometimes a massive sandstone with a 
thin coal near the base. This coal is shown in the Mushroom 
Run, Calhoun county, section, page 186, coming there 92 feet 
below the Arnoldsburg sandstone and immediately over the 
Rock Creek (Sewickley) sandstone. It appears to correlate 
with the Upper Sewickley coal of the Parish boring, Marion 
county, page 175, but owing to its lack of persistence, its 
identity can hardly be established until the detailed geology 
of Gilmer county has been studied. 

In Wirt county this coal's horizon outcrops along both 
flanks of the Burning Springs anticline north of the Little 
Kanawha river. On Standingstone creek, a short distance (^ 
mile) above the mouth of Horse run, the writer recognized 
the blossom of this coal coming directly over the great pebbly 
Rock Creek (Sewickley) sandstone. 

In Roane county it should outcrop in Smithfield, Walton, 
Geary and Harper districts. No coal, however, was observed 
at this horizon in the county. In the Spencer section, page 
69, a trace of coal was noted that appears to represent -the 
Upper Sewickley coal, coming as it does 300 feet below the 
Washington coal and 142 feet above the Pittsburg coal 
horizon. 

In Calhoun county the coal, when present, should outcrop 
along Steer creek. West Fork river from Geho P. O. south- 
east to its head, and on Beech Fork of Henrys Fork from its 
mouth to its head. In the Dodrill P. O. section, page 1S9, 
its blossom is noted, coming 150 feet below the Uniontown 
coal and 10 feet above the level of Rush run at Dodrill P. O. 

The Sewickley Sandstone. 

At 90 to 100 feet below the base of the Arnoldsburg sand- 
stone, 370 feet below the Washington coal, and 65 to 70 feet 
above the Pittsburg coal in southern Roane and Calhoun 
counties, there occurs a great, coarse, gray, massive, pebbly 



WEST VIEGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 207 

sandstone, ranging in thickness from 50 to 75 feet. It forms 
immense cliffs just above stream level all along Rock creek 
of "Poca" river, from its mouth to its head, and when pene- 
trated by the drillers of the numerous oil wells in this vi- 
cinity, it is frequently referred to as the "Rock Creek sand." 
It appears to occupy the horizon of the Sewickley sandstone. 

In Wirt county this sandstone outcrops in great pebbly 
cliffs along both the east and west "walls" of the Burning 
Springs anticline north of the Little Kanawha river, ranging 
there from 40 to 50 feet in thickness. Hence, its outcrop in 
Wirt is confined to a narrow belt i^ to 23/^ miles wide and 
10 to 12 miles long. It is this stratum that forms the cliff 
extending 25 to 30 feet above Standingstone creek y^ mile 
above the mouth of Horse run and opposite the residence of 
Austin Pickering. There it is a massive, coarse, and gray 
sandstone, carrying large rounded quartz pebbles, some of 
which are ^ inch in diameter. The very rapid eastward rise 
of the rocks on the "west wall" of the arch carries it to the 
summit of the high dividing ridge between Standingstone and 
Deaver fork at an elevation of 1225' B-A. T. The Burning 
Springs section, page 60, shows it near the summit of a high 
knob, 37 feet in thickness (visible), coming 1349 feet above 
the Big Lime (Greenbrier Limestone). In western Wirt this 
stratum lies deeply buried below drainage. 

In Roane county the Sewickley sandstone outcrops 
along the waters of Henrys Fork from Pink P. O. 
southward and over that portion of the county south 
of the "Poca" river. It lies deeply buried below drainage in 
other portions of this area. It is this sandstone that forms 
the "Hay Stack Rocks" capping the summits of the 
high hills on the southeast side of Gamer branch 
of Big Sandy, one mile and a half northeast of Os- 
bornes Mills. It is the great cliff rock capping the summits 
of the hills in all directions from Cotton P. O. on Gabes, Left- 
hand and Hurricane creeks. Along all these streams it forms 
great vertical cliffs 40 to 60 feet high along both hillsides to 
their head-waters. It is this stratum that forms the high cliffs 
along the dividing ridge from Vineyard Gap southwest via 



208 THE MOiSrONGAHELxV SERIES. 

Nichols Knob and Kester P. O. to the cross-roads at the low 
gap between Beelick run of Johnson creek and Hardcamp run 
of Cottontree run. There it is gray and brown in color, coarse 
and massive, carrying large rounded quartz pebbles, some of 
which exceed ^" in diameter, and ranging in thickness from 
45 to 60 feet. Along this dividing ridge between Vineyard 
Gap and the other low gap referred to above, the elevation 
of its base approximates 1050' A. T., coming 65 feet (hand- 
level measurement) above a coal bed that has been mined 
quite extensively for local domestic fuel on Shaver Fork and 
Lefthand runs of Big Sandy creek. This coal appears to cor- 
relate with the Pittsburg bed. 

The Sewickley sandstone forms a deep canyon-like gorge 
along McKown creek from near its head to y^ mile above its 
mouth, the rapid northwest dip carrying it below drainage at 
the latter point. 

In conjunction with the Lower Pittsburg sandstone, 75 
feet lower in the measures, the Sewickley sandstone forms 
great twin cliffs along Green creek of "Poca" river, y^ mile 
southeast of Kettle P. 0-, a photograph of which is shown on 
another page of this report. At Cicerone P. O. its base comes 
at 655' B-A. T., or 10 to 15 feet above "Poca" river. About 2" 
miles due west of Walton it passes under "Poca" and does not 
appear again on this stream until Hammack P. O. is reached 
where its top emerges above stream level. From this point 
it rises rapidly eastward and forms the falls of Flat fork of 
"Poca" at Looneyville. In the extreme southeastern edge of 
Roane county what appears to be this sandstone comes near 
the summit of a high knob, y^ mile northwest from Wallback 
P. O., having there a visible thickness of 45 feet, and coming 
65 feet below the top of the knob and 500 feet above the Bak- 
erstown coal. 

The several detailed sections given for Roxalana, Looney- 
ville, Hammack, Cicerone, Kettle, McKown Creek, Kester, 
Linden, Amma, Cottontree Run, 2^ miles N. W. of Cotton, 
Wierlong Run, and Wallback show its general character, 
thickness and relative position to other outcropping strata in 
southern Roane. 








^^B,N . ' 




1 


lUSH 


• )l'*-l 





PLATE IX.— Sewickley Sandstone on the "East Wall" of the Burning Springs 
Arch. Near the Head of Two Run, Wirt County. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 209 

In Calhoun county the Sewickley sandstone outcrops 
along Steer creek, West Fork river, and its main branches from 
the mouth of Barnes run southeastward, and along Beech 
fork from its head to its mouth. In this county it still remains 
a great, coarse and brown, massive, pebbly rock, forming cliflfs 
and very steep slopes along the hillsides. The Steer Creek 
section, page i86, shows this sandstone 35 feet in thickness, 
coarse, gray and massive, carryng large quartz pebbles, com- 
ing 90 feet (hand-level measurement) below the Arnoldsburg 
sandstone, and 85 feet above the level of Steer creek. It dips 
rapidly southeast from this point and passes below the level 
of the Little Kanawha river near the mouth of Steer creek. 

Three miles southwest of Stumptown the writer measured 

the following section on Little Bear fork near the residence o£ 

H. C. Lockney: 

Thickness. 
Ft. 

1. Sandstone, massive, coarse and 

pebbly, forming cliff, Uniontown 45 

2. Coal, Uniontown (Eley.=1010' 

B-A. T.) 

3. Concealed 165 

4. Sandstone, massive, coarse, brown 

and pebbly, (Rock Creek) Se- 
wickley) to Little Bear Fork level 40 

Southwest of this point it outcrops near the head of Crum- 
mis creek at 890' B-A. T. and from there forms the bed of the 
latter stream down to its mouth, at some places forming cliffs 
25 to 30 feet above stream level. Passing up West Fork river 
from Rocksdale P. O. at the mouth of Henrys Fork, the rapid 
rise of the rocks to the east on the western flank of the Arches 
Fork anticline brings the Sewickley (Rock Creek) sandstone 
above river level a short distance above the mouth of Barnes 
run, forming great pebbly cliflFs along the public road. At Ar- 
noldsburg, it has dipped down again into the Robinson syn- 
cline passing through Arnoldsburg, and there its top comes 
only 30 feet above the river. The several sections given for 
Minnora, Nicut P. O., Stinson, and Oka show its character, 
thickness and relation to other outcropping strata in southern 
Calhoun. 



14 



)SS. 


Total. 


[n. 


Ft. 


In. 





45 


a 


3 


45 


3 





210 


3. 
1 





250 


'S 



210 THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 

The (Rock Creek) Lower Sewickley Coal. 

Immediately under the great Sewickley sandstone at Ci- 
cerone P. O., Roane county, W. Va., there occurs, lo inches of 
coal. The coal appears to correlate with the Lower Sewickley 
bed of the Parish Boring of Marion county, page 175, and 
may possibly be the same as the Pomeroy coal of Ohio, since 
the latter bed is overlaid with a great pebbly sandstone similar 
to the Rock Creek stratum. The writer has, however, ten- 
tatively identified this bed at Cicerone with the Lower Se- 
wickley coal on account of its association with the sandstone 
above. In the Cicerone P. O. section, page 76, the log of 
the J. R. Johnson No. i well (R. 252), located on Redoak run, 
y^ mile northwest from Cicerone, reported this coal 4 feet 
thick, coming 62 feet below the top of the Rock Creek sand- 
stone, which here ranges from 50 to 60 feet thick. At the 
mouth of Whiteoak creek of "Poca" river, slightly over a mile 
due south of Cicerone P. O., the blossom of this coal shows 
along the public road leading up the former stream. There it 
is only 4" thick. The above data show it to be quite vari- 
able in thickness even when present. Though often exposed, 
no coal was observed at this horizon at any other points in 
Roane county, but a trace of fire clay was frequently seen 
where the coal belonged. 

In Wirt county its horizon outcrops along both flanks of 
the Burning Springs arch north of the Little Kanawha river, 
but no coal was recognized at its horizon there. 

In Calhoun county the horizon of the Lower Sewickley 
coal outcrops over the same area as outlined above for the 
overlying sandstone. No coal was recognized, however, and 
it is apparently represented there only by fire clay. 

The Upper Pittsburg Sandstone. 

The interval between the Sewickley and Pittsburg coals 
is quite variable when studied in different portions of the 
State. In the northern "panhandle" it is largely made up of 
limestone. But very often a massive sandstone occurs, com- 
ing directly over the Pittsburg coal. This stratum has been 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 211 

named by H. D. Rogers the Pittsburg sandstone from its re- 
lation to the coal bed of that name. I. C. White® gives the 
following description of this sandstone where it reaches its 
l">vt development: 

"In the Fairmont region and especially along the eastern crop 
of the Pittsburg coal, there is often found a thick, coarse, gray sand- 
stone, usually very soft, and readily disintegrating when exposed to 
the weather. When this sandstone is present in a massive condition 
the overlying Redstone coal and limestone are nearly always absent. 
• « i» 4< * When massive, the sandstone contains much felds- 
pathic material and easily disintegrates into a bed of coarse sand 
where exposed along the roads, etc. It has been quarried to some ex- 
tent for building stone in the Fairmont region, but it furnishes a poor 
quality which stains badly and will not long endure the action of the 
elements." 

In Wirt county the Upper Pittsburg sandstone should 
uuLcrop along both "walls" of the Burning Springs anticline 
north from the Little Kanawha river, but it was not definitely 
recognized in that county by the writer. 

In Roane county the Upper Pittsburg sandstone outcrops 
on the headwaters of Henrys Fork, near the head of "Poca" 
river, and on the waters of Big Sandy creek. In the Clover 
Run section, page 78, in the northern edge of Smithfield dis- 
trict, it is reported 35 feet thick, coming 23 feet over the Pitts- 
burg coal. In the same region the log of the L. D. Chambers 
No. I well (R 158), page 80, shows this sandstone to be 30 
feet thick, coming 18 feet over the Pittsburg coal bed. 

In the southeast corner of Smithfield district the writer 
measured the following section at the forks of the road at 
Tariff P. O.: 

Tariff P. O. Section. 

Ft. In. 

1. Sandstone, massive, Upper Pittsburg 30 

2. Concealed 8 38' 6' 

3. Dark shale and fire clay (Redstone coal horizon) 6 

4. Red shale 5 

5. Reds, dark limy 5 

6. Limestone, brecciated, friable, ferriferous, Red- 

stone 2 

7. Shale, limy, to road (Elev.=810' L-A. T.) 4 

8. Interval (concealed), estimated 5 

9. Coal, Pittsburg 2 2' 0' 



21' 0" 



9 Vol. II, page 163, W. Va. Geol. Survey; 1903. 



212 THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 

This is a very important section in that it shows the Red- 
stone coal horizon, the Redstone limestone, and the Pittsburg 
coal, in addition to the Upper Pittsburg sandstone. The lat- 
ter has not cut away the Redstone coal and limestone as it 
frequently does. The Pittsburg coal is mined ^ mile south- 
west of Tariff at an elevation of 815' A. T. (aneroid) and the 
rocks dip slightly to the northeast; hence the authority for 
supplying the latter coal bed in the above section. Frequently 
in Roane and Calhoun counties the Upper Pittsburg sandstone 
appears to occupy almost the entire interval from the Sewick- 
ley sandstone down to the Pittsburg coal bed. The Amma P. 
O. section, page 92, shows it 25 feet thick, coming only 10 
feet above the horizon of the Pittsburg coal, 30 feet below the 
Sewickley sandstone, and 75 feet below the hill top. About 
3 miles east of Newton the Weedy Knob section, page 95, 
shows this sandstone 55 feet thick, coming 270 feet below the 
summit of the knob and 170 feet below the Lower Uniontown 
coal horizon. About 3 miles southeast of Newton the section 
at Wallback P. O., page 96, shows this sandstone having a 
visible thickness of 45 feet, coming 10 feet below the Sewick- 
ley sandstone and 65 feet below the summit of the knob. In 
the southern portion of Walton district, the section given 2^ 
miles N. W. of Cotton P. O., page 89, shows 35 feet of this 
stratum visible, coming there 290 feet above Lefthand creek. 

In Calhoun county the Upper Pittsburg sandstone out- 
crops along Beech fork of Henrys fork from its mouth to its 
head, and along West Fork river and its branches southward 
from Orma P. O. at the mouth of Left fork. In southern Cal- 
houn county the Sewickley and the Upper and Lower Pitts- 
burg sandstones form a peculiar type of topography, in that 
the three jointly make a uniform steep slope around the hill- 
sides, 150 to 200 feet in height, with only one narrow bench 
(holding the Pittsburg coal) to break the monotony. The sep- 
arate ledges of sandstone are most generally concealed by 
debris and soil, making it very difficult to work out the struc- 
tural geology. In northern Calhoun the Upper Pittsburg sand- 
stone lies deeply buried below drainage, except at Grantsville 
and Stumptown. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SUBVEY. 213 

The Pittsburg Coal. 

The Pittsburg coal bed is the last and lowest formation 
of the Monongahela series, and, from an economic standpoint, 
is the most valuable coal in the Appalachian field. It was so 
named by J. P. Lesley in 1856 from the city of Pittsburg, Pa., 
where it crops high up in the river. hills. I. C. White gives the 
following account of this coal in Vol. II, page 164, of the 
State Survey reports: 

"Among the rich mineral deposits of the great Appalachian 
field, the Pittsburg coal bed stands preeminent. Other coal beds may 
cover a wider area, or extend with greater persistence, but none sur- 
passes the Pittsburg seam in economic importance and value. It was 
well named by Rogers (H. D.) and his able assistants of the First 
Geological Survey of Pennsylvania in honor of the city to whose indus- 
trial growth and supremacy it has contributed so much. Whether or 
not the prophetic eye of that able geologist ever comprehended fully 
the part which this coal bed was to play in the future history of the 
city which gave it a name, we do not know; but certain it is that the 
seven feet of fossil fuel which in Rogers' time circled in a long black 
band around the hills, and overlooking the site of Pittsburg from an 
elevation of 400 feet above the waters of the Allegheny and Mononga- 
hela, extended up the latter stream in an unbroken sheet for a dis- 
tance of 200 miles, has been the most potent factor in that wonderful 
modern growth which has made the Pittsburg district the manufactur- 
ing center of the world. 

"That this claim for the supremacy of the Pittsburg district (in- 
cluding Wheeling and the Monongahela river region) is valid can 
hardly be doubted, when we see its iron, steel, glass and other products 
going to every part of the western continent, and even invading the 
long established manufacturing dynasties of Europe." 

The structure of this bed along the Monongahela river in 
northern West Virginia is well illustrated by the following 
section of the coal at the Opekiska^" mine ten miles below 
Fairmont: 



Roof coal 






Ft 




In. 
11 


Black slate 









5 


f Coal . 
Breast coal •{ Bone 


...r 

...0 
...1 
...0 
...0 
...0 


8" 
iA 


3 


4^ 


\ Coal . . 
[ Bone . 
Bands .... -j Coal 


8 

5 





6V 


[ Bone . 
Bottom coal 


% 


4 


1 












Total 


9 


4 













10 Vol. n, p. 174, W. Va. Geo!. Survey; 1903. 



214 THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 

The following typical section, illustrating the structure of 
the Pittsburg coal along the Ohio river front of W. Va., was 
measured by the writer^^ in the Hosack mine of the Hitchman 
Coal & Coke Co., at Benwood, Marshall county : 

Ft. In. 

Roof coal 1 6 

Over clay (draw slate) 1 

Coal, "breast," 2 

f Slate ....0' 0W\ 

Bands \ Coal 4 5 

[slate ....0 0% 

Coal, "brick" 1 6 

Sulphur band, "wedge bench" 0*4 

Coal with sulphur band near bottom 1 6 



Total 7 111/4 

In Wirt county the Pittsburg coal horizon outcrops in a 
narrow belt along both "walls" of the Burning Springs anti- 
cline north from the Little Kanawha river, as shown by the 
economic geology map accompanying this report. No coal, 
however, was recognized along this outcrop by the writer, 
hence the bed is evidently very thin if present at all in this 
portion of the area. In western Wirt county, the log of the 
Gilbert boring (W 95), used in connection with the Limestone 
Ridge section, page 52, shows 6 inches of coal that appears 
to represent the Pittsburg bed, coming as it does 351 feet be- 
low the Waynesburg coal. 

In Roane county the Pittsburg coal bed outcrops 10 to 50 
feet above water level along Henrys Fork from the mouth of 
Beech Fork southward to the mouth of Wolf run, one mile 
and a half north of Tariff P. O. It also outcrops a short dis- 
tance above water level along Hayes and Canoe runs and 
Sycamore fork, all branches of Henrys Fork, putting in from 
the west. Also on the headwaters of "Poca" river southeast 
from Looneyville. It outcrops on the waters of Big Sandy 
creek, as shown on the economic geology map. In central and 
northwestern Roane, its horizon lies deeply buried below 
drainage. 

Where this coal comes above water level on Henrys Fork, 



11 Marshall-Wetzel-Tyler Report, page 318, W. Va. Geol. Survey; 
1909. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 215 

2 miles below Linden, it is only lo inches thick, and quite 
slaty, belonging there between two great sandstone ledges, as 
shown by the section at that point, page i8o. At Linden P. 
O. this coal is exposed on the west side of Henrys Fork, 45 
feet above stream level and having a thickness of only 2 to 3 
inches. It was once dug into just north of the mouth of 
Wolf run ot Henrys Fork, but was reported only 3 to 4 inches 
thick. There its elevation is 786' L-A. T. From this point 
Henrys Fork veers more to tWe southward, and the Pittsburg 
coal passes a few feet below stream level, but emerges again 
J/i mile southwest from Tariff P. O. at an elevation of 815' A. 
T. where it has been mined for local domestic fuel on the land 
of Presley C. Snodgrass. There it was reported 18 inches 
thick. The opening had fallen shut when visited by the 
writer. 

One mile and a third west of Tariff, this coal has been 
mined considerably for domestic fuel on Canoe run. There the 
writer measured the following section at an opening along the 
east bank of Canoe run on the land of Ira Starcher: 

Ft. In. 

1. Sandstone, shaly 5 

2. Gray fire clay shale » 4 

3. Coal, slaty 0' 2W ] 

4. Shale, gray 1 I Pittsburg coal 2 4 

5. Slate, black ...0 2^^ ( (Elevation=867' L-A. T.) 

6. Coal, good 1 10 J 

A sample of the bottom coal was collected by Danial 
Starcher and sent to the writer, the composition and calorific 
value of which are reported by Prof. Hite ag follows: 



Proximate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Moisture 1.25 

Volatile Matter 36.90 

Fixed Carbon 54 . 04 

Ash 7.81 



Total 100.00 

Sulphur 3.75 

Phosphorus 0.037 



Ultimate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Carbon T . . 73 . 05 

Hydrogen 5 . 24 

Oxygen 9 . 01 

Nitrogen 1.14 

Sulphur 3.75. 

Ash 7.81 



Total 100.00 



Calorimeter B. T. U 13,506 

Calculated B. T. U 13,331 

Carbon 73.05 

Fuel Ratio = = = 4.34 

Oxygen + Ash 9.01 + 7.81 



216 THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 

Although fairly high in sulphur, the analysis shows the 
sample to be an excellent coal, its fuel ratio (4.34) comparing 
favorably with results obtained from samples of the same bed 
along the Ohio river front of Marshall county, W. Va. 

About 4 miles south of Tariff and i mile southeast of 

Bright P. O. on Ashley Camp run, the writer measured the 

following section descending at an opening in the Pittsburg 

bed on the north edge of the public road on the head of Dog 

run: ^ 

Ft. In. 

^. Concealed 

2. Coal 2 

3. Gray fire clay shale 4 

4. Coal, good 2 6 

(Elevation=980' B-A. T.) 

This section of the Pittsburg coal does not look much like 
those for the same bed given on a preceding page for the Mo- 
nongahela and Ohio river regions. In the above section the 2" 
of coal may correspond to the "roof" division of this bed in 
the northern end of the State. 

This coal has been mined farther soifth from this point 
at an elevation of iioo' A. T. on the east hillside of Dog run, 
I mile and ^ N. W- of Newton. The opening is on the land 
of P. Sheridan Naylor. The coal is clean and free from part- 
ings and runs from 24 to 30 inches in thickness, coming direct- 
ly over the great Lower Pittsburg sandstone, 75 feet in thick- 
ness. The writer collected a sample here for analysis, the 
composition and calorific value of which are reported by Prof. 
Hite as follows: 



Proximate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Moisture 1 . 02 

Volatile Matter 38.82 

Fixed Carbon 56 . 31 

Ash 3.85 



Total 100.00 

Sulphur 1.58 

Phosphorus 0. 018 



Ultimate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Carbon 78.38 

Hydrogen 5.17 

Oxygen 9 . 75 

Nitrogen 1.27 

Sulphur 1.58 

Ash 3.85 



Total 100.00 



Calorimeter B. T. U 13,958 

Calculated B. T. U 13,913 

Carbon 78.38 

Fuel Ratio = = = 5.76 

Oxygen + Ash 9.75 + 3.85 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



217 



This sample shows a very high grade coal for smithing, 
domestic fuel and steam purposes, and is better yet than the 
Canoe run^sample. 

In the northern edge of Geary district near Bright P. O. 
there occurs an old abandoned opening in the Pittsburg bed. 
There the coal comes 60 feet above the top of the A. B. Cald- 
well No. I oil well (R 173). In this well the top of the Big 
Lime was struck at a depth of 1705 feet, thus giving 1765 
feet as the Pittsburg coal-Big Lime interval in this portion 
of Roane county. This same interval in eastern Wirt county is 
shown by the Straight Creek section, page 62, to be only 
1278 feet. Hence the intervening measures have thickened 
up 487 feet in the 25 miles air line distance due southward 
from the Straight creek region, and nearly all this thickening 
has taken place in the Pottsville series, as is well shown by 
the several sections given in Chapter III. 

Northwest from Bright P. O. the Pittsburg coal has been 
opened up by farmers at several points along Lefthand run 
and Shavers fork. It has also been mined quite extensively 
for domestic fuel by farmers on the head of "Poca" river, 
2% miles southeast of Looneyville. The writer measured 
the following section of this bed there at the mine of J. P. 
Hershberger : 



Ft 

1. Slate, gray 2 

2. Coal, blocky 0' 3") 

3. Coal 1 10 5 2 

4. Fire clay 



In. 





A sample was collected here for analysis, the composi- 
tion and calorific value of which are reported by Prof. Hite 
as follows: 



Proximate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Moisture 1.14 

Volatile Matter 37.01 

Fixed Carbon 54 . 38 

Ash 7.47 

Total 100.00 

Sulphur 1.75 

Phosphorus 0.089 



Ultimate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Carbon 73.95 

Hydrogen 5.53 

Oxygen 10.09 

Nitrogen 1.21 

Sulphur 1.76 

Ash 7.47 

Total 100.00 



218 THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 

Calorimeter B. T. U 13,508 

Calculated B. T. U 13,474 

Carbon 73.95 

Fuel Ratio = = = 4.21 

Oxygen + Ash 10.09 + 7.47 

Several openings have been made in this bed along Mud 
fork of "Poca", slightly over a mile southeast of Looneyville. 
One of these occurs on the G. W. Adams farm, i mile up from 
the mouth of Mud. There the coal runs from 22 to 26 inches 
thick; according to Mr. Adams, coming 15 feet below the base 
of a gray, coarse and massive sandstone (Upper Pittsburg), 
30 feet in thickness. On the head of Little Lefthand run, ^ 
mile southeast of Nichols Knob, the Pittsburg coal comes 65 
feet (hand-level measurement) below the base of the great 
Sewickley sandstone cliff. It comes the same interval below 
this sandstone on the head of Shaver fork. Passing down 
"Poca" river from the Looneyville region, the coal goes below 
drainage i mile southwest of the latter point, and its horizon 
does not emerge above the level of "Poca" again until near 
the point where this stream intersects the Roane-Kanawha 
county line. 

Although its horizon outcrops in the southeastern and 
southern portions of Walton district on Cottontree run. Left- 
hand and Green creeks, yet no coal was recognized where it 
belongs. 

In the northern portion of Smithfield district the Oppen- 
heimer & Kaufman No- i well (R 156) used in connection 
with the Clover Run section, page 78, and the L. D. Cham- 
bers No. I well (R 158); page 80, report the Pittsburg coal 
3 feet and 2 feet in thickness, coming 478 and 480 feet below 
the Washington coal and 1484 and 1480 feet above the top of 
the Big Lime, respectively. Mr. Chas. Hieasley kindly sent 
the writer a sample of this coal for analysis, through his con- 
tractor, W. L. Stephens, from the L. D. Chambers No. 2 well, 
located a short distance west from L. D. Chambers No. i. Mr. 
Stephens reports this coal in Chambers No. 2 as 4 feet thick, 
coming 1479 feet above the top of the Big Lime. The compo- 
sition and calorific value of this sample as brought up by the 
"bailer" are reported by Prof. Hite as follows : 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



219 



Proximate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Moisture 1.12 

Volatile Matter 35.36 

Fixed Carbon 54.99 

Ash 8.53 



Total 100.00 

Sulphur 0.95 

Phosphorus 0.033 



Ultimate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Carbon 74.91 

Hydrogen 5 . 01 

Oxygen 9.30 

Nitrogen 1.30 

Sulphur 0.95 

Ash 8.53 



Total 100.00 



Calorimeter B. T. U 13,233 

Calculated B. T. U 13,321 



Carbon 



74.91 



Fuel Ratio = 



Oxygen + Ash 



9.30 + 8.53 



= 4.20 



The fuel ratio (4.20) is almost the same as that for the 
last sample (4.21) of this coal taken from outcrop on the 
Hershberger farm at the head of "Poca", page 217. The re- 
sult shows that this method of obtaining samples for analysis 
of deeply buried coals is not always bad. In fact, a very fair 
idea of the quality and character of these deep coals can be 
ascertained in this way without the expense of a special dia- 
mond drill core test. 

The Pittsburg coal horizon lies deeply buried below drain- 
age in Reedy, Curtis, and Spencer districts and northwest 
Walton and Harper districts, and the records of several wells 
scattered over this portion of Roane county seem to reveal its 
absence as a valuable bed. As a commercial coal in Roane it 
appears to be confined to Smithfield and Walton districts, 
and varies in thickness from o" to 30". 

In Calhoun county the Pittsburg coal horizon outcrops 30 
to 40 feet above the level of Steer creek at Stumptown, along 
West Fork river south of Orma P. O. and along Beech Fork 
of Henrys Fork. It emerges above water level on Henrys 
Fork near the mouth of Beech, and is only 4 inches thick where 
it crops along the north edge of the public road, a short dis- 
tance (200 to 300 yards) east of the latter point. Its elevation 
there is 720' A. T. (aneroid.) One-half mile southwest of this 
place it crops close the bed of Henrys Fork just below the 
mouth of Cove run at an elevation of 705' A. T. (aneroid V 
One-half mile east of the mouth of Beech fork the writer 



220 



THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 



measured the following section in a ravine just north of the 
residence of Wm. M. Wilson : 

Ft. In. 

1. Sandstone, shaly, fine grained, green, Upper 

Pittsburg 20 

2. Concealed 15 

3. Coal, Pittsburg ( Elevation = 745' B-A. T.) 1 

There the coal comes 395 feet below the base of the Man- 
nington sandstone, or 465 feet below the Washington coal 
horizon, and 1610 feet above the top of the Big Lime, as shown 
by the Beech P. O. section on a subsequent page of this 
report. 

Passing up Beech fork to the head of Sang run, 2 miles 
northwest of Oka P. O., we find a mine in this bed on the 
land of Geo. Tucker. There Mr. Reger collected a sample for 
analysis and measured the following section descending: 



Ft. In. 

1. Sandstone, massive, coarse, gray, Upper 

Pittsburg 40 

2. Concealed 40 

3. Fire clay shale, bluish gray 6 

4. Coal 1' 10" ] 

5. Slate O1/2 }■ Pittsburg coal 2 6^^ 



6. Coal 

7. Fire clay 



.0 



(Elevation=935' B-A. T.) 



The sample was collected from (4) and (6) of the sec- 
tion, the composition and calorific value of which are reported 
by Prof. Hite as follows : 



Proximate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Moisture 1.38 

Volatile Matter 34 . 28 

Fixed Carbon 55 . 09 

Ash 9.25 



Total 100.00 

Sulphur 4.34 

Phosphorus 0.004 



Ultimate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Carbon 71.34 

Hydrogen 5 . 35 

Oxygen 8 . 62 

Nitrogen 1.10 

Sulphur 4.34 



Ash 



9.25 



Total 100.00 



Calorimeter B. T. U 13,379 

Calculated B. T. U 13,200 



Carbon 



Fuel Ratio = 



71.34 



Oxygen + Ash 



8.62 + 9.25 



= 3.99 



WEST VIBGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 221 

The coal has been mined into the hill about lOO feet. This 
sample is much higher in sulphur than those already given for 
the Pittsburg bed in Roane county, but compares favorably 
with them in calorific value. 

About 2 miles due east of the Sang run mine above, what 
appears to be the Pittsburg coal has been opened up near the 
head of the right hand fork of a branch of Whiteoak run, 2^ 
miles S. 20°-25° W. of Minnora, on the land of Herman Miller 
at an elevation of 1075' B-A. T. There Mr. Reger measured 
the following section: 

Ft. In. 

1. Sandstone, brown 

2. Slate, gray, with iron* nodules and streaks 

of fire clay 5 

3. Coal, Pittsburg 1 6 

This was a new mine and extended only 10 feet into the 
hill. 

An attempt was made to open this bed on the Isenhart 
land, one mile west of Minnora, on the head of right hand 
fork of Hardway run at an elevation of 995' B-A. T. The bed 
was only i to 3 feet thick, and no good. An attempt was also 
made to open this same bed on the land of A. W. Douglas on 
the east side of Meadow run, i mile southwest of Minnora, 
but Mr. Reger reports no success there. 

In the southeastern edge of Calhoun, and i mile south of 
Douglas P. O., there occurs an opening in the Pittsburg bed 
near the head of a small branch of Walker creek on the land 
of Wm. M. Metheney. There Robt. D. Hennen collected a 
sample for analysis and obtained the following section and 
data: 

Ft. In. 

1. Fire clay slate, hard 4 

2. Coal, Pittsburg 1 6 

3. Concealed 

"This bank was opened up some years ago and abandoned. Mr. 
Metheney Is now reopening it and expects to get 3 feet of coal. Mine 
full of water and not able to get full thickness." 

The composition and calorific value of the sample collect- 
ed here are reported as follows by Prof. Hite: 



222 



THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 



Proximate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Moisture 1 . 00 

Volatile Matter 35.50 

Fixed Carbon 58.81 

Ash 4.69 



Total 100.00 

Sulphur 2.48 

Phosphorus 0.015 



Ultimate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Carbon 77.04 

Hydrogen 5.87 

Oxygen 8 . 88 

Nitrogen 1 . 04 

Sulphur 2.48 

Ash 4.69 



Total 100.00. 



Calorimeter B. T. U 14,108 

Calculated B. T. U 14,257 



Carbon 



77.04 



Fuel Ratio = 



Oxygen + Ash 



= 5.67 



+ 4.69 



This sample shows the highest calorific value and fuel 
ratio of any given thus far for the Pittsburg bed in the Wirt- 
Roane-Calhoun area, but it is probably not representative of 
the entire thickness. 

Just across the Calhoun county line in the edge of Gilmer 
2 miles due south of Stumptown, a coal that appears to repre- 
sent the Pittsburg bed has been mined quite extensively for 
domestic fuel to supply the surrounding country. C. M. 
Stump has opened up what is known as the "Bear Kork 
Mine" on the east side of Bear fork on the Louis Bennett land. 
Mr. Robt. D. Hennen obtained the following section and data 
at this mine: 

Ft. In. 

1. Sandstone (roof) 6 

2. Coal, good 1' 11"] 

3. Slate binder 1 [ 5 3 

4. Coal 3 3 J 

"Butts run S. 80° E.; Faces S. 10° W. Capacity about 300 bushels 
per day and 3 to 4 men employed. Coal used for local domestic and 
smithing purposes. This mine is now abandoned. The sample was 
taken 200 feet in from the mine mouth. Sample includes Nos. 2, 3, and 
4 of the section. This country bank has been supplying coal for the 
last 20 years. Farmers come for many miles, as this is the only coal 
opening in this section. In recent attempts to open up other mines in 
this region, the prospectors have not been able to find more than 
18" of this coal elsewhere." 

Prof. Hite reports the following as the composition and 
calorific value of the sample collected by Mr. Hennen at this 
mine: 



WEST VraOINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



223 



Proximate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Moisture 1.28 

Volatile Matter 34.23 

Fixed Carbon 53 . 84 

Ash 10.65 



Total 100.00 

Sulphur 2.73 

Phosphorus 0.017 



Ultimate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Carbon 71.15 

Hydrogen 5 . 55 

Oxygen 8 . 74 

Nitrogen 1 . 18 

Sulphur 2.73 

Ash 10.65 



Total 100.00 



Calorimeter B. T. U 13,207 

Calculated B. T. U 13,225 



Carbon 



71.15 



Fuel Ratio = 



Oxygen + Ash. 



8.74 + 10.65 



3.67 



Mr. Hennen, by including the slate parting in the sample 
collected, evidently raised the ash content, and consequently 
lowered the calorific value and fuel ratio. The section is not 
typical of the Pittsburg bed along the Monongahela and Ohio 
rivers of northern West Virginia, and it may be possible that 
this coal represents the Little Pittsburg coal, coming as it 
does at the mouth of Standingstone run of Bear fork, 130 feet 
below the great pebbly Sewickle> sandstone cliff, 40 to 50 
feet high. The "Bear Fork" mine appears to represent a local 
thickening up of this coal, as it seems to thin away in every 
direction, and is not reported in the log of the H. C. Lockney 
No. I well (C 369), located two miles westward on Little Bear 
fork. 

The area, distribution, and quality of the Pittsburg coal 
will be taken up in a subsequent chapter of this report. 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 



The next group of stratified rocks in descending order be- 
low the Monongahela series is what was formerly known as 
the Ivower Barren Measures, and later as the Elk River series. 
The earliest name given to this series was Conemaugh, by 
Franklin Piatt in 1875, from its outcrop along a stream of 
that name in Cambria county, Pennsylvania. 

The Conemaugh series as now limited includes all the 
strata from the floor of the Pittsburg coal down to the roof 
or top of the Upper Freeport coal bed, the whole having a 
thickness varying from 550 to 600 feet in the Wirt-Roane-Cal- 
houn area. This series is exposed at its outcrop in Wirt 
county along the crest of the Burning Springs arch north of 
the Little Kanawh^ river; in Roane county along the head- 
waters of Henrys Fork, on the waters of Big Sandy creek, 
and on the head of "Poca" and on Green creek of "Poca" ; and 
in Calhoun county along Bear fork of Steer creek, and the 
southern portion of the county south of Beech and Rilla post- 
offices. In all other portions of the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area 
the Conemaugh series of rocks lies deeply buried below 
drainage. 

In Vol. II, page 225, of the W. Va. Geol. Survey reports, 
I. C. White gives the following interesting account of this 
group of rocks: 

"The series as thus limited below, consists of two widely differ- 
ent members, lithologically considered, the upper composed largely of 
soft, red and marly shales, the lower of massive, pebbly sandstones. 
The difference in the rock type is so marked, and especially in the 
character of the topography made by each, that the First Geol. Survey 
of Pennsylvania and Virginia placed them in two different series, the 
massive sandstones, at the base of the Conemaugh, being classed with 
the underlying Allegheny. That assignment, based primarily upon 
difference of rock type, was more philosophical than the present lim- 
itations, but the fact that no definite boundary (a sandstone always 



WEST VIEGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 225 

being subject to sQdden and rapid changes in both thickness and char- 
acter) could be assigned to either the lower limits of the upper one, 
or the upper limits of the lower one, led Profs. Stevenson, Lesley, and 
other Pennsylvania geolgists to extend the limits of the "Lower Bar- 
ren Measures" of Rogers down to the horizon of the Upper Freeport 
coal, a well marked and widely persistent stratum. This arrangement 
gives definiteness to classification, a great desideratum, but it has the 
fault of bringing together rocks of very different type, and hence, while 
apparently preferable to the old and indefinite dividing line between 
tha two series, is yet not altogether satisfactory. Hence, it is possible 
that a future and more detailed study of the series in West Virginia, 
may reveal some more desirable dividing plane between the Cone- 
maugh series and the underlying Allegheny than the present one, (U. 
F. coal), which will retain all of the desirable features of the Rogers 
classification and at the same time relieve it of indefiniteness. 

"Viewed from the standpoint of change in physical conditions 
the proper place for such a dividing plane between the Conemaugh and 
Allegheny beds, would be the first general appearance of red rocks, 
near the horizon of the Bakerstown coal about 100 feet under the 
Ames or Crinoidal limestone horizon. That a great physical change 
took place soon after the deposition of the Mahoning sandstone rocks, 
the present basal members of the Conemaugh series, must be conceded, 
since no red beds whatever are found from the base of the Pottsville 
up to the top of the Allegheny, and none worth considering until after 
the epoch of the Upper Mahoning sandstone. 

"The sudden appearance or disappearance of red sediments 
after their absence from a great thickness of strata is always accom- 
panied by a great change in life forms, and the present one is no ex- 
ception. In fact, the invasion of red sediments succeeding the Mahon- 
ing sandstone epoch of the Conemaugh may well be considered as the 
'beginning of the end' of the true Coal Measures, both from a litholo- 
gical as well as a biological standpoint, and hence it is possible that 
the best classification aside from the conveniences of the geologist, 
would leave the Mahoning sandstone in the Coal Measures, and place 
the rest of the Conemaugh, as well as the Monongahela series above, 
in the Permo-Carboniferous. This reference is also confirmed by the 
character of the fauna and flora, both of which contain many forms 
that characterize the Permo-Carboniferous beds of Kansas and the 
west as may be seen in the lists published on a subsequent page under 
the detailed description of the principal Conemaugh strata. * * * * 
The lowest 150 feet of these reds is known among oil well drillers as 
the 'Big red cave,' since it gives much trouble to them in drilling for 
gas and oil. The wall of the well through this portion of the columns 
of rocks must be quickly lined with casing, or it will 'cave' and 
crumble into the hole from the pressure of the overlying strata, thus 
often imprisoning the drilling tools and leading to the abandonment 
of the boring. The nuggets of hard limestone scattered through these 
red shales constitute the chief agent in this imprisonment, since they 
readily tumble out from the walls of the hole, and impinging against 
the drilling tools, principally at the "jars," prevent their withdrawal. 

"For these reasons, every oil well driller becomes an expert 
stratigrapher in tracing these red beds, underground, and they have 
been so traced in hundreds of borings entirely across the state, when 
deeply covered by the overlying Monongahela and Dunkard series, so 
that whether at the surface and visible in broad bands of red soil 
around the hills, or buried under 2000 feet of higher sediments, the 
15 



226 THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 

same deep purple and red shales exist in this portion of the geologic 
column along the belt of country west from the mountain region of 
the state. Hence the color is not the result of recent oxidation, but 
is evidently due to the deposit of red sediments derived from the 
erosion of old land areas of pre-carboniferous time." 

The succession and character of the rock material com- 
posing the Conemaugh series in southwestern Pennsylvania 
and along the border line of northern West Virginia are well 
illustrated by the following section measured by I. C. White^ : 

General Section of the Conemaugh Series in Allegheny 
County, Pennsylvania. 

Ft. 
Pittsburg Coal. 

■ Concealed 20 

Upper Pittsburg limestone 2 

Variegated shales 65 

Little Pittsburg coal (wanting) 

Lower Pittsburg limestone 5 

Red shales 20 

Concealed 70 

Morgantown sandstone 45 

Variegated shales 50 

Elk Lick coal to 3 

Elk Lick limestone to 5 

Variegated shales 35 

f Ames Limestone 2 to 3 

i^- Harlem coal to 1% 

Red shales, Pittsburg 30 

Sandy shales and shaly sandstone 50 

Bakerstown (Barton) coal to 4 

Shales and sandstone 40 

Pine Creek limestone 2 

Buffalo sandstone 60 

Brush Creek limestone 1 to 2 

Dark shales 10 to 15 

Brush Creek coal to 2 

Shales 20 

Mahoning sandstone 40 to 80 

Mean height of section, 600 feet. 570 to 630 

The average thickness of the Conemaugh series along the 
Monongahela river in Monongalia county is 575 feet, and on 
the Ohio river just north of Wheeling, 475 feet. In the Wirt- 
Roane-Calhoun area its thickness varies from 475 feet in ex- 
treme western Wirt county to about 600 feet in southeastern 
Roane and Calhoun counties. 



1 Report "Q", p. 24, 2nd Geol. Survey of Penna.; 1876. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



227 



The following table, made up from the general sections 
given in Chapter III, shows the approximate thickness of the 
Conemaugh group of rocks in different portions of the area : 





District 


Conemaugh Series. 
Thickness 




Location of Section. 


Total 
Feet. 


Top portion 
only. 
Feet. 


Page. 


Wirt County: 
Limestone Hill P. 0.. 

Morristown P. 

Limestone Ridge 

Deaver Fork 

Straight Creek 

Roane County: 

Kettle P. 

Cotton P.O., 2% mi. 
N. W. of 


Tucker 
Tucker 
Tucker 
B. Springs 
B. Springs 

Harper 

Walton 

Geary 

Geary 

Geary 

Geary 

Center 
Center 
Sherman 
Washington 


475 
482 

659 
613 

630 
' 674 

608 
690 
667 

R92 


138 .'75 

102 

290 
400 
440 


48 
49 
52 
57 
62 

77 
89 


Amma P. O 

Wierlong Run 

Osbomes Mills 

Weedy Knob 

Calhoun County: 

Leaf bank Run 

Lovada P. 

Whitepine P. 

Nicut P. O 


92 
93 
94 
96 

102 
105 
113 
119 


Oka P. 


Washington 1 602 


121 











In addition to several sections other than those mentioned 
in the table above given in Chapter III, four other scattered 
sections will now be given to show the rock succession of the 
Conemaugh in the three counties under discussion. 

The following section was measured by the writer with 
aneroid near the crest of the Burning Springs anticlinal east- 
ward down the hill road near the head of Flint run along the 
dip of the rocks. This section evidently starts about 125 feet 
below the floor of the Pittsburg coal horizon or top of the 
Conemaugh, and ends about 150 feet above the top of the 
Upper Freeport coal, or base of the series : 



228. 



THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 



Flint Run Section, 2 Miles South of California, Wirt County. 



Thickness. 
Ft. 

Concealed from top of hill 20 

Red shale 2 

Fire clay 1 

Red limy shale, with limestone 

nuggets 25 

Concealed 10 

Red shale, with limestone nuggets 20 

Red shale 13 

Fire clay and red shale 2 

Limestone, brecciated, Elk Lick. . 15 

Red shale 10 

Concealed 5 

Sandstone, green 5 

Concealed 5 

Reds, dark, with limestone nug- 
gets 15 

Limestone, fossiliferous, Ames 

(935' B-A. T.) 0.5 

Sandstone, shaly, yellowish 9.5 

Concealed, mostly red shale 20 

Dark reds, "Pittsburg shale" 25 

Sandstone, shaly, yellowish ..lO 

Concealed, mostly reds 20 

Concealed 35 

Sandstone, yellowish and shaly, to 
top of R. A. Cunningham No. 

2 well, or well (W 25) 5 



Total. 

Ft. 
20 
22 
23 

48 
58 
78 
91 
93 
108 

118 
123 
128 
133 

148 



148.5 

158 

178 

203 

213 

233 

268 



108' 



40' 



273 



125' 



Conemaugh 
Series. 



The writer was unable to obtain the log of the Cunning- 
ham well mentioned in this section. 

The following aneroid section was measured by the writ- 
er from the summit of a high knob one mile and three-tenths 
due south of Newton, northeastward down a trail to Right 
fork of Big Sandy: 

Section 2^4 Miles N. E. of Pigeon P. O., Roane County, 

Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 

Sandstone, capping knob, hard, 
flaggy, micaceous, Arnolds- 
burg 30 30 

Concealed 15 45 

Sandstone, boulders, and concealed 120' 

to bench 20 65 

Concealed, steep bluff 25 90 

Sandstone, green, micaceous, Se- 

wickley (Rock Creek) 30 120 



^^^EST Virginia geological survey. 



229 



Thickness. 
Ft. 

Concealed 5 

Reds 25 

Concealed 20 

Sandstone, green, micaceous, brok- 
en. Upper Pittsburg 20 

Concealed and reds to low gap 15 

Reds and concealed 70 

Concealed 85 

Sandstone, green, micaceous, weath- 
ered white 40 

Concealed 215 

Sandstone (Newton), Buffalo, to 

to Right fork of Big Sandy.. 40 
(Base of section=730' B-A. T.) 



Total. 
Ft. 
125 
150 
170 

190 

205 
275 
360 

400 
615 

655 



70' 



Mononga- 

hela 190' 
Series. 



465' Conemaugh Series 



110' Dunkard Series. 



A section measured with aneroid. 3^ miles S. 70°-75° W. 
of Arnoldsburg, from the summit of a high knob located ys 
mile northeast from the mouth of Panther run of Beech fork 
of Henry Fork, southward down the hill and joined to the log 
of the Geo. Jackson No. i well (C 351) near by, exhibits the 
following succession: 

Section i Mile N. W. of Beech P. O., Lee District. 



Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 

1. Sandstone, massive, coarse, • 

brown and pebbly, forming 
great cliff, capping knob, 
Mannington 50 50 

2. Concealed 15 65 

3. Sandstone, brown, micaceous, 

Waynesburg 10 75 

4. Concealed 35 110 

5. Sandstone, brown, fine, mica- 

ceous, Gilboy 10 120 

6. Concealed and shale 40 160 

7. Sandstone and concealed, form- 

ing steep bluff, Uniontown.. 55 215 

8. Concealed along bench 45 260 

9. Sandstone, gray, medium and 

and flaggy, Arnoldsburg.... 15 275 

10.. Concealed 45 320 

11. Sandstone, green, fine, mica- 

ceous, flaggy, Sewickley 20 340 

12. Concealed 10 350 

13. Sandstone, medium, gray, mica- 

ceous. Lower Sewickley .... 25 375 



105' 



60' 



100' 



Mononga- 
hela 335' 
Series. 



230 



THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

14. Concealed 5 380 

15. Sandstone, massive at top, flag- 

gy at bottom, Upper Pitts- 
burg 50 430 

16. Concealed 15 445 

17. Coal, Pittsburg (4") 445 

18. Concealed to top of Geo. Jack- 

son No. 1 well (C 351) 35 480 

Geo. Jackson No, 1 Well Record. 
(Elevation, top=720' B-A. T.) 

19. Surface gravel 29 509 

20. Sandstone, Lower Pittsburg 41 550 

21. Slate 40 590 

22. Red rock 145 735 

23. Limestone, Ames 25 760 

24. Coal, Harlem 3 763 

25. Lime 7 770 

26. Red rock 165 935 

27. Lime 15 950 

28. Slate, white 75 1025 



29. Sandstone, Upper Freeport 32 

30. Coal, Lower Freeport 3 

31. Slate, white 45 

32. Lime 15 

33. Slate, white 30 

34. Sandstone and shells 60 

35. Coal, Lower Kittanning 3 

36. Sandstone, white, Homewood. .157 

37. Slate and shells 60 

38. Sand 15 

39. Slate, black 160 

40. Slate and shells 123 

41. Sand, (1st salt water), (gas 

show 5' in) 77 

42. Black slate 60 

43. Sand, (gas at top, water 15' in, 

oil show 10' in) 75 

44. Slate 55 

45. Sand, Maxton 30 

46. Lime 5 

47. Black slate 10 

48. Lime, white 10 

49. Slate '. 5 

50. Big Lime, (includes Big Injun 

sand) 140 

51. Slate 338 

52. Unrecorded to bottom 32 

(No Big Injun sand; 

(No Berea sand) 

10" casing 290'; 8^" casing 880'; 



1057 
1060 
1105 
1120 
1150 
1210 
1213 

1370 
1430 
1445 
1605 
1728 

1805 
1865 

1940 

1995 
2025 
2030 
2040 
2050 
2055 

2195 
2533 
2565 



70' 



105' 



213' 



262' 



188' 



Conemaugh 
580' 
Series. 



727' 



Allegheny 

915' 
and Potts- 
ville Series. 



115' Mauch Chunk. 



140' Greenbrier 

Limestone. 

370' Pocono Sand- 
stones. 



6%" casing 1600'. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



231 



Formation No. i at the top of the section undoubtedly re- 
presents the Mannington sandstone, since the writer traced 
it from its outcrop in conjunction with the overlying Wash- 
ington coal eastward from Spencer to this region. It is a very 
important section in that it contains several well known for- 
mations, not only of the Conemaugh series, but of the Dunk- 
ard, Monongahela, and Allegheny. 

The intervals in the above section are slightly less than 
they should be since the section is measured down hill along 
the rise of the strata. 

The writer measured the following section with aneroid 
in the extreme southern portion of Calhoun county from a 
high point eastward down to West Fork river, ^ mile above 
the mouth of Walnut fork: 



Section i% Miles North of Stinson P. O., Washington District. 



Thickness. 
Ft. 

1. Sandstone, coarse, quartz peb- 

bles, forming cliff, Sewickley 50 

2. Concealed 15 

3. Sandstone, flaggy and conceal- 

ed, Upper Pittsburg 45 

4. Concealed along narrow bench 10 

5. Sandstone, coarse, gray and 

pebbly. Lower Pittsburg.... 70 

6. Concealed along bench 50 

7. Sandstone, massive, Morgan- 

town 55 



8. Concealed along bench . . . 

9. Sandstone, pebbly, Grafton 



35 
45 



10. Concealed, reds, and concealed 50 

11. Sandstone, Saltsburg 20 

12. Reds, dark 20 

13. Sandstone and concealed to 

West Fork river 15 



Total. 
Ft. 

50 
65 

110 
120 

190 
240 

295 

330 
375 

425 
445 

465 

480 



50' 



70' 



175' 



80' 



- 70' 



35' 



Mononga- 
hela 120* 
Series. 



Conemaugh 
360* 
Series. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE CONEMAUGH FORMATIONS. 

The following are the principal formations included in the 
Conemaugh series in descending order: 
Lower Pittsburg Sandstone. 
Pittsburg Limestones. 



232 THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 

Little Pittsburg Coal. 
Connellsville Sandstone. 
Little Clarksburg Coal. 
^ Clarksburg Limestone. 

Morgantown Sandstone (Murphy Sand), 

Elk Lick Coal. 

Elk Lick Limestone. 

Birmingham Shale. 

Ames (Crinoidal) Limestone. 

Harlem (Crinoidal) Coal. 

Pittsburg Red Shale. 

Saltsburg Sandstone. 

Bakerstown (Barton) Coal. 

Pine Creek (Cambridge) Limestone. 

Buffalo Sandstone (First Cow Run Sand). 

Brush Creek Limestone. 

Brush Creek Coal. 

Upper Mahoning Sandstone (Big Dunkard Sand). 

Mahoning Coal. 

Lower Mahoning Sandstone. 

Of the several formations given above, the writer failed 
to recognize the following in the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area ; 
Pittsburg Limestones, Little Pittsburg Coal, Clarksburg Lime- 
stone, Elk Lick Coal, Pine Creek Limestone, and the Mahon- 
ing Coal. Detailed descriptions of the formations identified in 
the area will now be given. 

The. Lower Pittsburg Sandstone. 

Immediately under the Pittsburg coal in northern West 
Virginia, there frequently occurs a massive sandstone that has 
been designated the Lower Pittsburg sandstone from its as- 
sociation with the coal bed of that name. 

In Wirt county this stratum outcrops near the crest and 
along both flanks of the Burning Springs anticline north of the 
Little Kanawha river. It was not definitely recognized there, 
however. In other portions of the cofinty it lies deeply buried 
below drainage. 




0) o 



o "i* 



Horn 
< 



I 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 233 

In Roane county the Lower Pittsburg sandstone outcrops 
on the extreme head of "Poca" river southeast from Looney- 
ville, just above drainage (see Head of "Poca" section, page 
84), and along the waters of Big Sandy; also on Little 
Sandy creek and on Green creek of "Poca" river. Along with 
the Sewickley sandstone above, it forms great twin cliflfs along 
Green creek, % mile above Kettle P. O. There the interval 
separating these two great sandstones is 75', as shown by the 
Kettle P. O. section, page 'j'j. It is also a prominent cliff 
rock along Lefthand creek and Cottontree run branch of same. 
There the several sections given for 2^ miles N. W. of Cotton 
P. O., Cottontree run and Kester P. O. in Chapter III, show 
it to be a great, massive and pebbly rock 40 to 50 feet in thick- 
ness, its base usually coming 60 to 75 feet below the Pitts- 
burg coal. One mile southeast of Bright P. O. this stratum 
crops along the public road. There it is a great, coarse, mas- 
sive, pebbly sandstone, 55 feet in thickness, its top 5 feet un- 
der the Pittsburg coal where the latter has been opened up 
for mining purposes. Its relation to other Conemaugh for- 
mations is well shown in the Bright P. O. section on page 90. 
About 4 miles southwest of Bright, the section near Amma P. 
O., page 92, shows this sandstone 65 feet thick, coming 75 
feet below the Sewickley (Rock Creek) sandstone, and 325 
feet above the forks of Lefthand run. It forrris an immense 
cliff 60' feet high at the low gap between the head of Wier- 
long run and Garner branch, about 2 miles northeast from Os- 
bornes Mills, coming there 95 feet below the Sewickley (Rock 
Creek) sandstone cliffs, which cap the high knobs in this vi- 
cinity. In central and northwestern Roane county this sand- 
stone lies deeply buried below drainage. 

In Calhoun county the Lower Pittsburg sandstone out- 
crops along Bear fork of Steer creek, its top coming 20 to 30 
feet aboye stream level, southwest from Stumptown, and 
along the waters of West Fork river and Beech fork of Henry 
fork south of 38° 45' parallel of latitude. In this southern por- 
tion of the county it forms, in conjunction with the Upper 
Pittsburg and Sewickley (Rock Creek) sandstones above, a 
sudden break in the topography, or very steep, fairly uniform 



234 THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 

slopes, 150 to 200 feet in height, around the hillsides, with 
generally a narrow bench holding the Pittsburg coal horizon 
just above the top of the Lower Pittsburg Sandstone. The 
ledge itself is difficult to trace on account of the debris and 
soil on this steep slope concealing its top and bottom limits. 

In extreme southeastern Calhoun it appears to be this 
stratum that forms steep blufifs 50 to 75 feet above Nicut run 
at Nicut P. O. In the section for Stinson and Oka, the Lower 
Pittsburg sandstone is 65 and 60 feet thick, respectively. In 
central and northern Calhoun county this stratum lies deeply 
buried below drainage. 

In the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area the Lower Pittsburg 
sandstone appears to have cut away or replaced the Pittsburg 
limestones of northern West Virginia. 

The Connellsville Sandstone. 

At 60 to 90 feet below the Pittsburg coal in the northern 
end of the State there occurs a coarse, brown, massive sand- 
stone. This stratum rises out of the bed of the Youghiogheny 
river at Connellsville, Pa., and has been named from that place 
the Connellsville sandstone. I. C. White gives the following 
account of this stratum in Vol. II, pages 247-248: 

"When massive, this rock is one of the finest building stones in 
the entire Coal Measures. The sand grains being cemented by silica 
and peroxide of iron, are almost weather-proof, so that for all struc- 
ures like bridge piers, outside walls, etc., it has no superior. The iron 
in the rock often permeates the entire mass so thoroughly as to give 
it a uniform reddish tint, and again it may have a speckled type, much 
resembling gray granite. 

"The Asylum for the Insane at Weston, as also the B. & O. sta- 
tion there, were constructed largely from this rock, obtained at Mt. 
Clare, Harrison county, while the suspension bridge piers at Morgan- 
town, as well as the postoffice building there, are built of the same 
stratum. The suspension bridge piers have stood for more than fifty 
years, and exhibit no tendency to disintegration. 

"The rock splits readily into any desired size and, although 
quite hard to oarve into delicate shapes, yet it 'masons' very readily 
into beautiful forms for natural or imcut 'rock face' work. 

"Being one of the chief rocks in the Conemaugh series, it has 
played a very important part in shaping their topography. It is es- 
pecially hard, massive, and qften pebbly in the Potomac and George's 
Creek basin, and the rounded hills that hold the 'Big' (Pittsburg) 
'vein' rest upon a platform of this Connellsville sandstone w^hich, ow- 
ing to its resistance to erosion, makes a bold terrace far up the moun- 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 235 

tain sides, after tlie Pittsburg coal and all other soft beds above its 
horizon have disappeared. It is this hard bed of pebbly sandstone 
that caps the summits in the center of the Potomac basin southwest 
from Elk Garden forming almost level plateaus over thousands of 
acres where the great Pittsburg coal is missed by only a short in- 
terval. 

"This stratum varies in thickness from twenty to fifty feet 
and may be seen making huge cliffs at many places along the Mo- 
nongahela river between Morgantown and Fairmont. It is also con- 
spicuous near the base of the hills at Berryburg, Barbour county, and 
at many localities along Elk creek in Barbour and Harrison. It forms 
the principal quarry rock in the vicinity of Clarksburg, and is now 
extensively used at Morgantown for all building work, street curb, 
etc." 

In Wirt county the Connellsville sandstone outcrops near 
the crest along both flanks of the Burning Springs anticline 
north of the Little Kanawha river. It makes a prominent 
cliff where the eastern "wall" of this arch in the rocks inter- 
sects the latter stream. The Deaver Fork section, page 57, 
shows 10 feet of this sandstone, coming 170 feet above the 
Ames limestone. Away from the axis of this arch the Con- 
nellsville sandstone lies deeply buried below drainage in other 
portions of Wirt county. 

In Roane county the Connellsville sandstone outcrops in 
the southeastern portion only on the waters of Little and Big 
Sandy creeks. In the extreme eastern edge of Walton district 
it crops at the foot of the hill road on the head of Hardcamp 
run of Cottontree, having there a thickness of 25 feet and com- 
ing 95 feet below the Pittsburg coal horizon and 17 feet above 
the top of the Morgantown sandstone, as shown by the Kester 
P. O- section, page 88. It is given also in the Cotton P. O. 
section, page 89, having there a thickness of 20 feet. In 
northern and central Roane on the waters of Reedy and Spring 
creeks. West and Henry forks, ar^d "Poca" river, the Connells- 
ville sandstone lies deeply buried below drainage. It is noted, 
however, in the logs of the borings for oil and gas used in con- 
nection with the sections for Spencer, Tristan and Clover 
Run. 

In Calhoun county the Connellsville sandstone outcrops 
on the headwaters of Beech and West forks south of Minnora 
P. O. In northern and central Calhoun this stratum lies deep- 
ly buried below drainage. 



236 THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 

The Little Clarksburg Coal. 

Directly under the Connellsville sandstone in northern 
West Virginia there occurs a widely persistent coal bed that 
has been named by I. C. White- the Little Clarksburg coal on 
account of its outcrop near the town of Clarksburg, W. Va. It 
is generally quite slaty and rarely exceeds i^ to 2 feet in 
thickness. 

In the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area it was definitely recog- 
nized at only one point and that was along the hill road on 
Deaver fork of Standingstone creek leading south to Chest- 
nut run north from Burning Springs, Wirt county (See Dea- 
ver Fork section, page 57). There it is 12" thick, coming 
160 feet above the fossiliferous Ames limestone which also 
crops along this road. In western Wirt county the F. Gilbert 
coal test boring (W 95), used in connection with the Lime- 
stone Ridge section, page 52, shows 2 feet of coal that ap- 
pears to correlate with the Little Clarksburg bed, coming as 
it does 134 feet below the Pittsburg seam. 

No coal was recognized either at the outcrop or in the 
logs of the numerous well borings in Roane and Calhoun coun- 
ties, which pass through this horizon. 

The Morgantown Sandstone. 

At a few feet below the Little Clarksburg coal in north- 
ern West Virginia, there occurs a massive rock that has been 
named the Morgantown sandstone by J. J. Stevenson from 
the town of that name where it has been quarried quite ex- 
tensively for building purposes. At its type locality it is 25 
to 40 feet thick, coming slightly over 200 feet below the Pitts- 
burg coal bed and 50 to 60 feet above the Ames limestone. 
There it is yellowish gray in color and splits readily into build- 
ing blocks of any desired size. I. C. White^ gives the follow- 
ing account of this stratum at Morgantown and other portions 
of the State : 



2 Bui. 65, p. 88, U. S. Geol. Survey; 1891. 

3 Vol. II, pages 251-252, W. Va. Geol. Survey; 1903. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 237 

" * * * * The rock contains much feldspathic material, 
and occasionally some lime, and in weathering the rock changes from 
a bluish gray cast to a dirty brown, and frequently decomposes read- 
tily, so that as a building stone for exposed surfaces, it is not a suc- 
cess, some of the stone-work at the State University in Morgantown 
having disintegrated badly within a period of only twenty-five years. 

"Several of the locks along the Monongahela river, between 
Morgantown and Pittsburg, have been constructed of this stone, and 
the disintegration of the lock walls is a constant source of expense. 

"This sandstone is one of the most persistent members of the 
Conemaugh series, and usually forms a line of cliffs or steep bluffs 
wherever its outcrop extends. Although the stratum is usually only 
twenty-five to thirty feet thick, yet occasionally, as on Crooked run 
in Monongalia county, near the West Virginia-Pennsylvania line, Ht 
thickens up to one hundred feet in a solid and massive wall. 

"Through Monongalia, xMarion, Tyler, Preston, Barbour, Up- 
shur, Lewis, Braxton. Clay, Kanawha, Putnam, Mason, Cabell and 
Wayne counties, this stratum can be traced from the Pennsylvania 
line on the north to the Kentucky boundary on the southwest. It is 
well exposed along the Ohio I'iver in the region of Huntington, where 
it makes cliffs fifty to sixty feet high along the hills back from the 
river valley. It is also conspicuous in cliffs along the Guyandot, 
Mud, and Coal rivers, as well as along the Great Kanawha, where it 
has been frequently qaarried and used in building the locks below 
Charleston. 

"This stratum produces oil in the 'Shallow sand' districts of 
Washington, Noble and Monroe counties of Ohio, as well as at some 
localities in Wirt and Ritchie of West Virginia, where it has occasion 
ally been confused by the oil well drillers with the Dunkard or 'First 
Cow Run' sand of Ohio. It also produced oil in one well on Dunkard 
creek, Greene county, rennsj Ivania, at about 200 feet below the 
Pittsburg coal." 

It is the Morgantown sandstone that is frequently re- 
ferred to by the oil well drillers of Marshall and Wetzel coun- 
ties as the "Murphy sand." 

In Wirt county it outcrops near the crest along both 
flanks of the Burning Springs anticline north of Ihe Little 
Kanawha river. 

In Roane county its outcrop is confined entirely to the 
southeastern portion on the waters of Big Sandy creek. In 
the Kester P. O. section, page 88, this sandstone is reported 
53 feet thick, coming 202 feet below the Sewickley (Rock 
Creek) sandstone, or 137 feet below the horizon of the Pitts- 
burg coal bed. Where it outcrops along the hill road leading 
west from Lefthand creek, 2^ miles northwest from Cotton 
P. O., it is a flaggy rock, 30 feet in thickness, coming 205 feet 
below the Uj^per Pittsburg sandstone. In other- portions of 
Roane county its relation to the other Conemaugh formations 



238 THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 

is shown by the sections given for Clover Run, and Bright 
p. O. pages 78 and 90, respectively. 

In Calhoun county the Morgantown sandstone's outcrop 
ts confined to the head-waters of Beech fork, and on West 
Fork waters south of Minnora. On Beech fork its position in 
the rock column is given in the Oka P. O. section, page 121, 
where it comes 175 feet below the Pittsburg coal horizon, and 
has a thickness of 35 feet. In central and northern Calhoun 
this stratum lies deeply buried below drainage, but it is re- 
ported 17 feet in thickness in the W. L. Camden No. i well 
(C 357) (used in connection with the Whitepine section, page 
113), coming 200 feet below the Pittsburg coal. 

The Elk Lick Coal. 

In northern \^'est Virginia there occurs directly under 
the Morgantown sandstone, or separated from it by a few 
feet of shales, a fairly persistent coal bed which frequently 
attains minable thickness. It was named the Elk Lick coal 
by the First Geological Survey of Pennsylvania from a stream 
of that name in Somerset County, Pa., along which it out- 
crops with a thickness of 4 feet. In Monongalia County, W. 
Va., it varies in thickness from 2^ to 4 feet, but contains 
much ash and bony material. 

No actual coal was recognized at the outcrop of its hori- 
zon in the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area, but its blossom was not- 
ed in the section measured by the writer, 2^ miles northwest 
of Cotton P. O. in the extreme southern edge of Roane, page 
89. 

The Elk Lick Limestone. 

At 15 to 25 feet under the coal just described, and 210 
to 225 feet below the Pittsburg coal bed, there is a widely 
persistent limestone in southwestern Pennsylvania and north- 
ern West Virginia that has been named by the Messrs. Piatt* 
the Elk Lick limestone. I. C. White has the following to say 



^ 



4 Report H H H, Second Geol. Survey of Penna. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 239, 

concerning this formation in Vol. II, page 254, W. Var. Geol. 
Survey reports: 

"The stratum is frequently ten to fifteen feet thick in several 
layers, separated by shales. The limestone is of fresh or brackish 
water origin like all of those in the series above it, but some of the 
layers are fairly pure and burn into a good quality of lime for build- 
ing or fertilizing purposes." 

In Wirt county its outcrop is confined to a narrow belt 
north of the Little Kanawha river along both flanks near the 
crest of the Burning Springs anticline. It outcrops along the 
hill road on Deaver fork of Standingstone, leading over on to 
Chestnut run, having there a thickness of 6" to 12", being gray 
in color, fairly pure, and hard, and coming 60 feet above the 
fossiliferous Ames limestone. 

Its horizon outcrops in southeastern Roane county, but 
no limestone was recognized there. 

In southern Calhoun county a limestone outcrops along 
the branches of West Fork river above Chloe P. O. that ap- 
pears to correlate with the Elk Lick. The writer measured 
the following section at the forks of the road on Walnut fork 
of West Fork river, ^ mile south of the summit of Mule 
knob : 

Ft. In. 

1. Sandstone, massive, Morgantown 25 

2. Concealed 40 

3. Shale, red 5 

4. Coaly shale, Elk Lick? 6 

5. Fire clay and limy red shale 4 

6. Limestone, reddish, ferriferous, Elk Lick.... 6 

7. Dark limy reds 5 

(Elevation of base of section=880' B-A. T.) 

The limestone here may possibly represent the Ames, 
but no fossils were recognized. 

The Birmingham Shale. 

Directly under the Elk Lick limestone in the northern 
end of the State there occurs 25 to 50 feet of variegated and 
sandy shales, that have been named by J. J. Stevenson the 
Birmingham shale from their exposure at the town of that 



240 THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 

name on the south side of the Monongahela river near Pitts- 
burg, Pa., where they have a jointed appearance and slip bad- 
ly on the almost vertical face of the hill. 

In the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area their outcrop is confined 
to a narrow belt in Wirt along the flanks of the Burning 
Springs anticline north of the Little Kanawha river; in Roane 
to the southeastern portion of the county on the waters of Big 
Sandy Creek ; and in Calhoun to the extreme southern portion 
of the county along the West Fork river in the vicinity of 
Chloe P. O. In these three counties these shales are reddish 
m color and similar in many respects to the Pittsburg Red 
Shale of northern West Virginia, 20 to 30 feet lower in the 
measures, and add much to the fertility of the soil of southern 
Roane and Calhoun. 

The Grafton Sandstone. 

In the vicinity of Grafton, W. Va., there occurs at the 
base of the Birmingham shale, and 10 to 20 feet over the Ames 
limestone, a massive pebbly sandstone, 20 to 25 feet in thick- 
ness that has been named the Grafton sandstone by I. C. 
White\ The writer recently measured the following section 
in eastern Monongalia county, W. Va., on Whiteday creek 

-/t, mile southeast of Opekiska : 

Ft. In. 

1. Sandstone, coarse, brown, massivs, with 

rounded quartz pebbles, forms cliffs, Grafton 25 

2. Shale, dark 10 

3. Limestone, fossiliferous, Ames 1 6 

4. Shale, limy and dark 3 

S.Coal, Harlem 8 

6. Fire clay 1 

7. Concealed to level of Whiteday creek 20 

In Wirt county the Grafton sandstone where it outcrops, 
makes a steep blufif, 10 to 20 feet high, and 5 to 10 feet over 
the Ames limestone, and resembles very much the Morgan- 
town sandstone above it. 

In Roane county the Grafton sandstone outcrops on the 
waters of Big Sandy along Lefthand, Two, Dog and Holly- 



5 Vol. II, p. 255, W. Va. Geol. Survey; 1903. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 241 

wood runs of Big Sandy. This stratum in conjunction with 
the Morgantown and Connellsville sandstones above makes a 
trio of benches and steep bluffs next below the very steep uni- 
form slope caused by the outcrop of the Lower Pittsburg, 
Upper Pittsburg, and Sewickley (Rock Creek) sandstones. 
In central and northern Roane this sandstone lies deeply bur- 
ied below drainage, but the log of the L. D. Chambers No. i 
well (R 158) and the Oppenheimer & Kaufman No. i well 
(R 156) used in connection with the Clover Run section, 
pages 80 and 78, at the northern point of Smithfield dis- 
trict, show it to be 10 feet thick, coming directly over the 
Pittsburg Red shale and 270 and 289 feet, respectively, below 
the Pittsburg coal bed. 

In Calhoun county it appears to be this stratum that forms 
the clififs 15 to 20 feet high at the fork of the road at Chloe 
P. O. near the mouth of Walnut fork of West Fork river. It 
barely gets above drainage on the crest of the anticline to the 
southeast, but soon passes below drainage towards Losie, 
Douglas and Stinson. In all other portions of Calhoun it lies, 
deeply buried below drainage. 

The Ames, or Crinoidal Limestone. 

At 250 to 300 feet below the Pittsburg coal and 275 to 
300 feet above the base of the Conemaugh series in Wirt 
county, there occurs a very fossiliferous limestone from 6 to 
18 inches in thickness. This is one of the most interesting 
formations from a geological standpoint in the entire Appala- 
chian field, and was named the Ames limestone by Andrews 
and Orton in the Ohio Geological reports, and the "Crinoidal" 
limestone by J. J. Stevenson. I, C. White has frequently called 
attention to the fact that the limestones of the Upper Car- 
boniferous above the Ames in the Appalachian area are of 
fresh or brackish water origin, and that the Ames limestone 
with its overlying limy shales which sometimes extend 20 to 
40 feet higher and contain a well marked fossiliferous lime- 
stone that might be designated the Upper Ames, is the last 
bed found in ascending the Carboniferous column of rocks 
that contains clearly marked marine fossils. The Ames lime- 
16 



242 



THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 



Stone is one of the richest fossil horizons of the Conemaugh 
series. 

The following table of fossils by Percy F. Raymond^ 
taken from a paper entitled "A Preliminary List of the Fauna 
of the Allegheny and Conemaugh Series in Western Pennsyl- 
vania," shows the distribution of species in the Ames limestone 
and five other formations of these two divisions of the Car- 
boniferous ; viz, Vanport limestone of the Allegheny series, 
and Brush Creek, Pine Creek and Woods Run (Ewing) lime- 
stones and Birmngham Shale of the Conemaugh series : 

Distribution of Species. 



_ . .an 

CO 0) ' 0) QJ O r- 

PQO fUO ^tf 



bit 

si 



Fusulinella sp • * 

Lophophyllum profundum (Milne-Edwards 
& Haime) 

Campophyllum torquium (Owen) 

Cyathaxonia distorta Worthen 

Ceriocrinus craigi (Worthen) 

Ceriocrinus sp 

Hydreionocrinus sp 

Columns and plates of crinoids 

Septopora biserialis (Swallow) 

Thamniscus sevillensis Ulrich 

Rhombopora nickelesi TJlrich i 

Lingula umbonata Cox 

Orbiculoidea missouriensis (Shumard) . . . . 

Orbiculoidea convexa (Shumard) 

Orbiculoidea planodisca sp. nov 

Crania modesta White and St. John 

Rhipidomella pecosi (Marcou) 

Derbya crassa (Meek and Hayden) 

Clionetes mesolobus Norwood and Prat- 
ten V •• 

Chonetes verneulianus (Norwood and 

Pratten) ^ 

Clionetes granulifer Owen 

Productus semireticuiatus (Martin) 

Productus cora d'Orbigny 

Productus nebrascensis Owen 

Productus punctatus (Martin) 

Productus nanus Meek and Worthen 

Productus pertenuis Meek 



7 Annals of the Carnegie Museum, pp. 154-156, Vol. VII, No. 1, 1910. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



243 



Distribution of Species. — Continued. 





1 

1 




Pine 
Creek. 

Woods 
Run. 


09 
0) 

1 


s 


iVIarginifera wabashiensis (Norwood and 
Pratten) 




* 


* 




« 




Spirifer rockymontanus Marcou 


* 
* 
* 
* 




Spirifer cameratus Morton 


♦ 


* 


* 


* 
* 




Spiriferina l<entuckiensis (Shumard) 

Squamularia perplexa (McChesney) 

Ambocoelia planoconvexa (Shumard) .... 




* 
* 


* 

* 




* 
* 




Composita subtilita (Hall) 






Composita girtyi sp. nov 




Cleiothyridina orbicularis (McChesney)... 
Dielasma bovidens (Morton) 




* 




* 




Hustedia mormoni (Marcou) 








* 
* 




Pugnax utali (Marcou) 










Deltopecten occidentalis (Shumard) 




* 
* 








Acanthopecten carboniferous (Stevens) . . 


* 


* 




M 


Pseudomonotis hawni (Meek and Hayden) 




* 




Yoidia carbonaria Meek 




* 

* 
* 








Nuculana bellistriata (Stevens) 




* 
* 
* 
* 








Nucula ventricosa Hall 






* 
* 
* 




Edmondia aspenwallensis Meek 




« 


^Ilorisma subcuneatum Meek and Hayden 
Allorisma costatum Meek and Worthen., 




* 


* 
* 


Scliizodus cuneatus Meek 




* 


* 








Macrodon sangamonensis Worthen 

Macrodon tenuistriatus Meek and Wor- 
then 


* 










* 








Macrodon obsoietus Meek 








* 




Astartella varica McChesney 


* 










Astartella vera Hall 


* 






* 




Cardiomorpha missouriensis Shumard.... 








* 


Platyceras parvum (Swallow) 


* 
* 
* 
* 
* 
* 


* 
* 
* 


* 




* 




Platyceras spinigerum Worthen 




Euomphalus catilloides (Conrad) 

Naticopsis altonensis McChesney 


4> 




* 




Naticopsis torta Meek 












Trachydomia wheeler! (Swallow) ^ 












Buiimorpha nitidula (Meek and Worthen) 
Trepospira illinoisensis (Worthen) 


* 
* 
* 

* 


*. 
* 














Worthenia tabulata (Conrad) 










Phanerotrema grayvlliensis (Norwood 
and Pratten) 












Euconispira bicarinata (McChesney) 

Pieurotomaria spironema Meek and 
Worthen ; 


* 
* 




















Pieurotomaria carbonaria Norwood and 
Pratten 


* 






* 




Pieurotomaria granulostriata Meek and 
Worthen 


• 








Pieurotomaria perhumerosa Meek 




* 










Murchispnia terebra White 


* 























244 



THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 



Distribution of Species. — Continued. 





o 

p. 


Brush 
Creek. 

Pine 
Creek. 


CO 

o ^ 


03 

0) 

a 
< 


in 

w 


Eupliemus carbonarius (Cox) 




* 
* 






* 

* 
* 




Patellostium montfortanum (Norwood 
and Pratten) 


* 


* 

* 






Beiierophon percarinatus Conrad 




Belierophon stevensanus McChesney 


* 


Bucanopsis marcouana (Geinitz) 




* 










Dentalium ineekanum Geinitz 












Soleniscus fusiformis (Hall) . . 


* 










Soleniscus ventricosus (Hall) 








* 




Soleniscus paludinoeformis (Hall) 












Sphoerodoma primogenia (Conrad) 




* 








Sphoerodoma texana (Shumard) 








* 




Loxonema scitulum Meek and Worth'en. . 


« 










Loxonema plicatum Whitfield 








* 




Strophostylus remex (White) 












Anomphalus rotulus Meek & Worthen 

Porcellia peoriensis Worthen 
















.... 






Glaphurochiton carboniferous (Stevens).. 




* 








Glaphurochiton simplex sp. nov 


* 










Orthoceras rushense McChe*sney 


* 


* 
* 




* 




Orthoceras lasallense Worthen 






Endobolus missouriensis (Swallow) 

Metacoceras sangamonense (Meek and 
Worthen) 


* 

* 
* 




















Domatoceras highlandense (Worthen).... 
Cyrtoceras curtum Meek and Worthen... 












* 
* 










Temnocheilus crassus Hyatt 




* 
* 




* 
* 




Temnocheilus winslowi Meek and Worthen 






Solenocheilus collectus Meek and Worthen 




* 




Tainoceras occidentale (Swallow) 






* 


* 


Goniatites lunatus Miller and Gurley 




* 
* 
* 

* 


* 
* 
* 

* 






Griffithides scitula Meek and Worthen... 










Petaiodus ohioensis Safford 




* 


* 

* 

* 
* 

* 




Deltodus angularis Newberry and Wor- 
then 






Diplodus compressus Newberry 




* 


Fissodus inaequalis (St. John & Worthen) 
Cladodus occidentalis Leidy 




















Agassizodus variabilis (Newberry and 
Worthen) S 

























Interesting- accounts of the fauna of the Ames limestone 
at Morgantown and in the Pan Handle area of West Virginia 
are found in the following publications of the State Geological 
Survey : 

Vol. II, pp. 256-260; 1903, by I. C. White. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, 245 

Ohio-Brooke-Hancock Report, pp. 128-130; 1907, by G. P. 
Grimsley. 

The writer collected the list of fossils below from the out- 
crop of the Ames limestone along the Burning Springs anti- 
cline in Wirt county on Flint run of Hughes river, Deaver 
fork of Standingstone, and Burning Springs run of Little Ka- 
nawha river. The specimens were identified by Dr. J. W. 
Beede, of the University of Indiana, who writes as follows 
concerning them : 

"Ames Limestone, Burning Springs, Wirt Co., West Virginia. 

Myalina, sp. Specimen (beak and part of margin missing) has 
somewhat the form of M. recurvirostris M. & W., but the anterior side 
seems rather short for that species, though it may be a young speci- 
men of it. 

Productus nebrasl<ensis, Owen. 

Ostracod, elliptical with end broken away. 

Pseudomonotis liawni M. & W.? (Identification based on sur- 
face marks of fragment). 

Hexagonal crinoid plates. 

Aviculopecten occidentalis (Shumard). 

Rliombopora sp. 

Derbya crassa M. & H.? 

Fistulipora? sp. 

Fenesteila? sp. Tiny fragment. 

"Many of these specimens are exceedingly fragmentary and do 
not admit of determination. 

"Ames Limestone, Flint Run, Wirt Co., W. Va. 

Derbya cf. robusta, Hall. Species ranges from Bethany Falls 
limestone to Neosho formation in Kansas. 

Productus cora d'Orb. 

Productus nebrasl<ensis, Owen. Many specimens all of the small, 
sinuate type, common between the Oread and Topeka limestones of 
the Kansas section. 

Rhombopora iepidodendroides Meek? Poorly preserved. Found 
nearly throughout the Kansas Pennsylvanian. 

Gastropod, sp. Mere fragment. 

Crinoid segments with peculiar hollow ends. 

Limopteria cf. marian White. Forms much like this common at 
Lawrence,. Kans., in the Kickapoo limestone. L. marian ranges from 
the Drum limestone to the Kickapoo limestone or higher, but is very 
common in the latter place. 
"Ames Limestone, Deaver Fork of Standingstone, Wirt Co., W. Va. 

Gastropod, sp. (Mere fragment.) 

Crinoid segments like those from Flint Run. 

Derbya sp. (Small fragment of a valve.) 

Fish teeth. Several fragments of heavy, stubby triangular fish 
teeth. More collecting should be done here. 

"The fossils from Wirt County add four forms to the lists of the 
Ames limestone as summarized in the geology of Ohio, Brooke and 
Hancock Counties, 190G, pp. 127-129. They are: 

Rhombopora, probably Iepidodendroides. 

Fenesteila? sp., 



246 THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 

Derbya, probably robusta, and 
Limopteria cf. marian. 

"So far as the correlation with the Kansas rocks is concerned 
these four species seem to be in full harmony with those already 
found in the Ames limestone of West Virginia. The most important 
of these fossils is the Limopteria, of which there are many somewhat 
similar to it in the Kickapoo limestone at Lawrence, Kansas. These 
localities should be more fully collected. They bid fair to add much 
important data to our knowledge of the fauna of the Ames limestone 
and to offer much more conclusive evidence as to its precise correla- 
tion w'ith the western deposits. 

"The block from Standingstone contains, almost exclusively, a 
vertebrate fauna and should be carefully and fully looked into and 
much additional material secured. The specimens in the rock sent 
were parts of stubby fish teeth, black, with ridges radiating from a 
distance below the crown, 0.25 in. diam." 

In Wirt county the outcrop of the Ames limestone is con- 
fined to a narrow belt north of the Little Kanawha stretching 
along both flanks of the Burning Springs anticline near the 
axis of the arch. Its elevation along the crest of this fold from 
north to south is as follows : 

Approximate 
Tidal Elevation. 
Feet. 
Hughes river : looo 

Parish fork, i mile north of 935 

Parish fork 860 

Oil Rock run 820 

Standingstone creek 725 

Deaver fork 850 

Deaver fork, y^ mile south of 895 

' Chestnut run 860 

Nettle run 860 

Burning Springs, i mile north of 740 

Burning Springs run • 740 

Burning Springs run, y^ mile south of 740 

Little Kanawha river, y^ mile north of 630 

Little Kanawha river 570 

This limestone's crop is well exposed along the road lead- 
ing east from the head of Flint run, 2 miles south of Cali- 
fornia, having there a thickness of 6 inches and coming 40 feet 
below the Elk Lick limestone which crops also along the road, 
about 935 feet above tide (aneroid). At this point the Ames 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 247 

is very fossiliferous and specimens for identification were col- 
lected. Where it crops along the hill road on Deaver fork it 
is 8 to 12 inches thick, having a tidal elevation of 826' A. T. 
The Deaver Fork section on page 57 shows its relation to 
other strata there. It also outcrops along Burning Springs 
run, a few feet over the Harlem coal. At this place it is full 
of fossils and runs 12 to 18 inches in thickness. Southward it 
passes below the level of the Little Kanawha river, and lies 
deeply buried below drainage in all other portions of the 
county with the exceptions above stated. 

In Roane county the horizon of the Ames limestone crops 
in Geary district and southern Walton on the waters of Big 
Sandy creek. It, however, was not definitely recognized in the 
county. 

In Calhoun county the outcrop of the Ames limestone is 
confined to a small area in Washington district along the 
West Fork river near Chloe P. O. On the south bank of 
Walnut fork of West Fork river, the writer measured the fol- 
lowing section, 3^ mile above Chloe P. O. : 

Ft. In. 

1. Sandstone, massive, Grafton 10 

2. Shale, red 5 

3. Limestone, trace of fossils, Ames? 1 

4. Shale, limy 6 

5. Limestone, silicious, 1" to 4 

6. Shale, red 2 

7. Dark shale and fire clay (Harlem? coal 

horizon) 6 

8. Red limy shale to level of Walnut fork 13 

It may be that the limestone, (3) of section, represents 
the Elk Lick, but the dark shale and fire clay, 8' 4" lower, 
seem to make it correlate with the Ames. It is characteristic 
of this stratum to lose its marine type of fossils as you pass 
southeastward in this State and approach the mouths of the 
ancient rivers that filled up the Appalachian gulf, the water 
then becoming too fresh to permit the existence of marine life- 

The Harlem (Crinoidal) Coal. 

At a few inches to 10 feet below the Ames limestone there 
occurs a fairly persistent coal in Wirt county. It was named 



248 , THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 

the Crinoidal coal by the Pennsylvania Geol. Survey, and 
later the Friendsville by G. C. Martin of the Maryland Geol. 
Survey from its excellent exposure near a town of that name 
in Garrett county, Md. J. J. Stevenson has recently called at- 
tention to the fact that it was first named the Harlem coal in 
Ohio by J, S. Newberry, from a town of that name in Carroll 
county, where the coal, 26 to 30 inches thick, was worked in 
shafts^^ 

At its type locality it varies from a semicannel open-burn- 
ing variety to a slaty coal of little value. It has been mined 
in West Virginia by farmers for local domestic fuel near 
Newburg, Clarksburg, and P>urning Springs. I, C. White" 
has the following to say about this coal : 

"The sudden transition from peat bogs to marine limestone, mak- 
ing conditions whicli recur several times in the history of the Ap- 
palachian field, is finely illustrated by the thin coal which frequently 
underlies the Ames limestone without any intervening shale or other 
rock whatever. In fact, large unbroken shells of Allorisma, Myalina 
and other forms, are frequently found partly imbedded in the upper 
part of the coal itself, although still in contact with the overlying 
limestone. This is especially noticeable in the vicinity of Burning 
Springs, Wirt county, where the coal has been mined for use in drill- 
ing for oil, although only eighteen to twenty inches thick." 

In Wirt county the outcrop of the Harlem coal is confined 
to the same region as that outlined above' for the Ames lime- 
stone. It has been mined some by stripping along Deaver 
fork. Chestnut and Burning Springs runs, where it ranges in 
thickness from 12 to 20 inches- All of these old openings had 
fallen shut when visited by the writer during the field season 
of 1909. 

In Roane county the Harlem coal horizon crops in south- 
ern Walton district along Cottontree run. Hurricane creek, 
and other branches of Big Sandy creek in Geary district. In 
all other portions of Roane it lies deeply buried below drain- 
age, and its horizon is not noted in the logs of the numerous 
wells drilled for oil and gas. 

In Calhoun county the outcrop of the Harlem coal is 



12 Bull. Geol. Soc. of Amer., Vol. 17, p. 156, 1906. 
13. Vol. II, p. 261, W. Va. Geol. Survey; 1903. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 249 

confined to narrow strips along the West Fork river waters 
southeast from Chloe P. O. The section given under the dis- 
cussion of the Ames Limestone in Calhoun, page 247, show- 
ing 6 inches of dark shale and fire clay, probably represents 
this bed, coming as it does 8' 4" below what appears to be the 
Ames limestone. No actual coal was recognized at this hori- 
zon in the county. 

The Pittsburg Red Shale. 

Immediately under the Harlem coal in northern West 
Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, there occurs a soft, 
red or purple and variegated shale with marly clays, ranging 
in thickness from 30 to 100 feet, that has been named the 
Pittsburg Red shale from its outcrop near the city of that 
name in Pennsylvania. This band of red shale extends entire- 
ly across the State from Pennsylvania on the north to the 
Kentucky border on the Big Sandy river, and is known to the 
oil well drillers as the "Big Red Cave." Particular care has 
to be exercised in drilling through these redsto prevent losing 
the tools from caves, etc., as mentioned at the beginning of 
this chapter. 

In Wirt county the outcrop of the Pittsburg Red shale is 
confined to a narrow belt along the crest of the Burning 
Springs anticline north of Burning Springs run. 

In Roane county its outcrop is confined to the waters 
of Big Sandy creek in southern Walton and Geary districts, 
and adds fertile strips of soil around the hillsides in this por- 
tion of the county. The fertility of the farms along Lefthand, 
Two, Dog, and Hollywood runs and Left fork of Big Sandy 
creek, is mostly due to this belt of limy red shales. 

In Calhoun county its outcrop is confined to narrow belts 
along the waters of West Fork river southeast from Chloe P. 
O., and along with the reds of the Birmingham shale makes a 
fine soil adapted to grazing, etc., as reported in a subsequent 
chapter on Soils. 

In all other portions of the three counties other than 



250 THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 

those mentioned above, the Pittsburg Red shale lies deeply 
buried below drainage, but its horizon is noted in the several 
sections given in Chapter III for Limestone Hill, Richardson, 
Clover Run, Kester, Bright, Wierlong Run, and Leafbank 
Run. 

The Saltsburg Sandstone. 

The lower portion of the Pittsburg Red shale is frequent- 
ly replaced by a very massive sandstone that reaches a thick- 
ness of lOO feet near Saltsburg, Pa., from which place it has 
been named by J. J. Stevenson the Saltsburg sandstone. Ge- 
ologists have heretofore reported this stratum to represent 
the First Cow Run oil sand on Cow run, Washington county, 
Ohio, coming there 300 to 315 feet below the Pittsburg coal, 
according to J. A. Bownocker^^, present State Geologist of 
Ohio. The writer, however, is inclined to place the First Cow 
Run sand of Ohio at the horizon of the Buffalo sandstone for 
reasons given under the discussion of the First Cow Run sand 
on a subsequent page. 

In Wirt county the outcrop of the Saltsburg sandstone is 
confined to a very small area where the axis of the Burning > 
Springs anticline crosses Hughes river, and brings it about 
300 feet above the level of the latter stream. The fall of the 
axis of this anticline southward from Hughes river carries 
this stratum barely below Parish fork. Oil Rock run and 
Standingstone creek. The rise of the axis southward from 
Standingstone creek brings the Saltsburg sandstone nearly to 
the level of Burning Springs run where the axis intersects the 
latter stream. In all other portions of Wirt county it lies 
deeply buried below drainage. 

In Roane county the outcrop of the Saltsburg sandstone 
is confined to the southeast portion of Walton district and the 
southern portion of Geary district along the waters of Big 
Sandy creek. It is this sandstone, 30 to 40 feet in thickness, 
that comes immediately over the coal mined along Left Fork 
of Big Sandy between Newton and Uler. The several sections 
published in Chapter III for Spencer, Wierlong Run, Os- 



15 Bull. No. 1, pp. 168-169, Geol. Survey of Ohio; 1903. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, 251 

bornes Mills, and Wallback show^ its relation to the other 
strata at scattered points in the county. At the latter point 
it appears to be this sandstone that forms the cliffs just above 
water levd at the mouth of Summers fork of Right fork of Big 
Sandy on the Roane-Clay county line. 

In Calhoun county the Saltsburg sandstone lies below 
drainage, but its horizon is called for in the sections given for 
Leafbank Run and Whitepine. 

The Bakerstown (Barton) Coal. 

At a few feet below the Saltsburg sandstone, and 75 to 
100 feet below the Ames limestone in northern West Virginia 
and western Pennsylvania, there occurs a coal bed that fre- 
quently reaches minable thickness. This stratum has been 
named the Bakerstown coal by I. C. White^® from the town 
of that name in Allegheny county, Pa., near which it has been 
mined. There Dr. White* reports it 3 feet thick and rather 
slaty. 

In Wirt county the outcrop of this coal is confined to a 
small area along the crest of the Burning Springs anticline on 
Hughes river and the head of Little Island run. Mr. Reger 
obtained a sample for analysis and measured the following 
section at' a coal opening on the Vernon, Ashley, and Hall 
lands near the head of the latter stream, that appears to re- 
present the Bakerstown bed : 

Ft. In. 

1. Slate, gray 5 

2. Slate, black 6 

3. Coal, bony 0' 6") „ « 

4. Coal, good 2 } ^ 

5. Slate, gray 



"Elevation of coal = 750' A. T. (aneroid). Strata so distorted that 
section is only approximate. The coal is used for domestic fuel and 
smithing purposes." 

The sample includes both (3) and (4) of section, the com- 
position and calorific value of which are reported by Prof. 
Kite as follows : 



16 Bull. No. 65. p. 92, U. S. Geo!. Survey; 1891. 



252 



THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 



Proximate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Moisture 0.81 

Volatile Matter 33 .43 

Fixed Carbon 42 . 75 

Ash 23 . 01 



Total 100.00 

Sulphur 3,31 

Phosphorus . 039 



Ultimate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Carbon 5S.S6 

Hydrogen 4.77 

Oxygen 8.22 

Nitrogen 0.83 

Sulphur 3.31 

Ash 23.01 



Total 100.00 



Calorimeter B. T. U 11,167 

Calculated B. T. U 11,159 



Carbon 



Fuel Ratio = - 



59.86 



Oxygen + Ash 



8.22 + 23.01 



1.91 



The high ash content and the consequent low calorific 
value and fuel ratio is no doubt due in a large measure to the 
6" of bone coal included in sample. 

The blossom of the Bakerstown coal is exposed near the 
well mouth of the Simpson well (W 43), used in connection 
with the section for Deaver Fork, page 57. In all other por- 
tions of Wirt county the Bakerstown coal horizon lies deeply 
buried below drainage, and it is not reported by the drillers 
in the logs of the numerous borings for oil and gas over its 
area. 

In Roane county the outcrop of the Bakerstown coal is 
confined to the southern portion of Geary district along Big 
Sandy creek waters. It appears to be this bed that is mined 
along both sides of Sandy from the mouth of Granny creek 
up to Uler P. O. At the latter point it comes 1460 feet above 
the Big Lime (Greenbrier Lrmestone), according to the log 
of the W. F. Wilson No. i well (R 167) used in connection 
with the Weedy Knob section on page 95. 

The writer measured the following section on the south 
side of Left fork of Big Sandy, at an old opening in this bed, 
14 mile below Uler P. O. : 



Ft. In. 

1. Sandstone, massive, green, micace'ous, Salts- 

burg 40 

2. Shale, sandy, green 6 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, 



253 



Ft. 



In. 



Bakerstown 3 



3. Coal 2' 2' 

4. Slate, gray 5 

5. Coal 5 

6. Slate, gray 4 

7. Coal 4 

8. Fire clay and concealed to creek 10 

Elevation of coal=765'B-A. T. 

The section shoves it to be a slaty bed as at its type lo- 
cality in Pennsylvania. 

One mile and a half belov^ Uler P. O., Jas. E. Linkinnog- 
gor has opened up this coal on the west edge of the public 
road and one-half mile due north of the mouth of Blowntim- 
ber run. There the writer collected a sample for analysis and 
measured the following section : 

Jas. E. Linkinnoggor Mine. 



Ft. In. 

1. Sandstone, flaggy and green, Saltsburg. . . . 

2. Shale, sandy 6 

3. Black slate 11 

i. Coal, slaty C' 6" 

5. Slate, with streaks 

of coal 4 

6. Coal, slaty 1 2 

7. Slate, gray, 2" to 3 

8. Coal 10 

9. Slate, gray, 2" to 3 

10. Coal 1 

11. Slate 

Elevation of opening=780'B-A. T. 
Butts run S. 75° E.; Faces, S. 15° W. Greatest rise southeast. 



Bakerstown 4 



The sample was collected from Nos. 8 and lo of section, 
the composition and calorific value of which are reported by 
Prof. Hite as follows : 



Proximate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Moisture 1 . 04 

Volatile 35.80 

Fixed Carbon 53 .43 

Ash 9.73 

Total 100.00 

Sulphur 2.26 

Phosphorus . 016 



Ultimate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Carbon 73.26 

Hydrogen 5.18 

Oxygen 8.27 

Nitrogen 1.30 

Sulphur 2.26 

Ash 9,73 

Total 100.00 



254 THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 

Calorimeter B. T. U 13,330 

Calculated B. T. U 13,321 

Carbon 73.26 

Fuel Ratio = = = 4.07 

' Oxygen + Ash 8.27 + 9.73 

The results above show the bed to be an excellent coal. 
It is used here by the farmers for domestic fuel and smithing 
purposes. 

One-half mile S. io°-i5° E. of this point this coal has been 
opened on the land of Wesley K. Ellis on the north side of 
Blowntimber run, one-fourth mile up from the mouth of the 
latter. There the writer collected another sample for analysis 
and measured the following section: 

Wesley K. Ellis Mine. 

Ft. In. 

1. Shale 

2. Black slate 6 

3. Gray siale 3 

4. Slate, black, streaks 

of coal 0' 6" 

5. Coal, 12" to 1 4 

6. Coal, slaty 5 

7. Slate, black 2 

8. Coal 1 

9. Slate, dark 2 

Elevation of coal=800'B-A. T. 
Butts run S. 75° E.; Faces, S. 15° W; Greatest rise, southeast. 
Opening worked back into hill 50 feet and 3 men at work. 

The sample for analysis was collected from Nos. 5 and 8 
of section, the composition and calorific value of which are re- 
ported by Prof. Hite as follows : 



Bakerstown 3 



Proximate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Moisture 0.89 

Volatile Matter 35.29 

Fixed Carbon 54 . 42 

Ash 9.40 



Ultimate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Carbon 74.59 

Hydrogen 5.44 

Oxygen 8.70 

Nitrogen 1.29 

Sulphur 0.58 

Ash 9.40 



Total 100.00 

Sulphur 0.58 j 

Phosphorus 0.071 I Total 100.00 

Calorimeter B. T. U 13,735 

Calculated B. T. U 13,570 

Carbon 74.59 

Fuel Ratio = = = 4.12 

Oxygen + Ash 8.70 + 9.40 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 255 

This sample shows about the same results as the Linkin- 
noggor mine, except the coal runs much lower in sulphur than 
at the latter opening. 

An old abandoned mine in this bed occurs on the north 
side of the public road in the northeast edge of the town of 
Newton at an elevation of 795' A. T. (aneroid). Slightly over 
one mile due west of Newton this coal goes under water level 
on Dog run at an elevation of 720' A. T. (aneroid), coming 
there 385 feet (aneroid measurement) below the level of the 
P. Sheridan Naylor mine in the Pittsburg coal, given on a 
subsequent page. The Big Lime, as shown by wells R 173 
and R 170, is rising to the southeast at the rate of 50 feet to 
the mile, and the Naylor mine is located 7-10 mile northwest 
from the point where the Bakerstown coal takes water on 
Dog run. Hence, 35 feet will have to be added to 385 feet to 
get the true Bakerstown-Pittsburg coal interval which is then 
about 420 feet. 

An attempt was made to open the Bakerstown coal on the 
south side of Big Sandy creek, three-fourths mile below the 
mouth of Granny creek, on the land of Nathan Jarvis. There 
the writer measured the following section : 

Ft. In. 

1. Sandstone, flaggy and shaly, Saltsburg 30 

2. Coal, slaty 0' 6"! 

3. Slate, gray 2 \ Bakerstown 1 6 

4. Coal, good, 2" to 10 J 

5. Fire clay ; 6 

6. Coilcealed to Big Sandy creek 45 

(Elevation of coal=735'B-A. T.) 

This opening was abandoned on account of the poor 
showing of the bed. 

An old abandoned opening occurs in the Bakerstown coal 
at Amma P. O. on the land of P. V. Geary. There it is re- 
ported 2 feet thick and slaty, coming at an elevation of 695 
feet above tide. 

In the southeast edge of Geary district, one-third mile 
southeast of Wallback P. O., what appears to be the Bakers- 
town coal crops close to creek level on the Roane-Clay county 
line. There the writer measured the following section: 



256 THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 

Ft. In. 

1. Sandstone, massive, coarse and gray, Salts- 

burg 40 

2. Sandy shale 4 

3. Slate, black 4 

4. Coal, slaty 0' 4"! 

5. Slate, gray 3 j- Bakerstown 11 

6. Coal 4 J (Eleva. = 760'B-A. T.) 

7. Fire clay to level of Charleston fork of 

Right fork 1 

The log of the W. C. TaHman No. i well (R i68) used 
in connection with the Wallback P. O- section, page 96, 
shows this coal at 1555 feet above the Big Lime. The latter 
section also shows it there 389 feet (aneroid measurement) 
below the Pittsburg coal horizon. 

About 41/2 miles northward, the log of the W. F. Wilson 
No. I well (R 167) gives the Bakerstown coal-Big Lime in- 
terval as 1460 feet, or an increase of almost 100 feet from Uler 
p. O. to Wallback, most of which has taken place in the Potts- 
ville series. 

The Bakerstown coal appears to thin away to the north- 
west from Big Sandy creek and is not recorded in the logs 
of the numerous borings for oil and gas scattered over Roane 
county. 

In Calhoun county the Bakerstown coal does not appear 
to get above drainage anywhere. The logs of the numerous 
wells drilled for oil and gas fail to reveal its presence in the 
central and northwestern portion of the county. In the north- 
east portion, however, it apparently attains commercial thick- 
ness, as shown by the logs of the W. L. Camden No. i well 
(C 357) used in connection with the Whitepine P. O. section 
and M. H. Kight No. i well, pages 113 and 115, respectively: 
In the order given, the coal is reported as having a thickness 
of 4 and 5 feet, at 365 feet below the Pittsburg coal. 

The Buffalo Sandstone. 

At 15 to 30 feet below the Bakerstown coal in northern 
West Virginia and western Pennsylvania there occurs a 
coarse, grayish white, pebbly and massive sandstone, varying 
in thickness from 25 to 80 feet, that has been designated the 



WEST vraaiNIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 257 

Buffalo sandstone by I, C. White^^ from a stream of that name 
in eastern Butler county, on account of its great development 
along its waters. At its type locality, according to Dr. White, 
the stratum is very massive and conglomeritic, its top being 
175 feet above the base of the Conemaugh series, and its bot- 
tom 125 feet above the same datum. 

I;i the writer's judgment, this sandstone correlates with 
the First Cow Run sand of Cow Run, Ohio. This conclusion 
has been reached after working out the geologic structure 
along the Burning Springs anticline northward to the Ohio 
river at Belmont, and then tracing the Washington coal by 
outcrop northwest to Cow Run, Ohio, and tying the same to 
the logs of several wells in that vicinity. This is taken up 
more fully on a subsequent page under the discussion of the 
First Cow Run sand. --—«•■ 

In Wirt county the outcrop of the Buffalo sandstone is 
confined to a small area on Hughes river and Flint run along 
the crest of the Burning Springs anticline, and along Goose 
creek in the northern portion of the "pan-handle" of Wirt. 
Opposite the mouth of Ellison run of Goose creek it forms a 
steep bluff over the flint ledge. About three-fourths mile up 
Flint run its outcrop is exposed directly over the flint ledge. 
There it has a thickness of 30 feet, and is brown and flaggy- 
On the head of the right hand branch of Lick run, i mile 
southwest of California, this sandstone is a coarse gray rock, 
30 feet thick, about 10 feet over the flint ledge. 

In Roane county the outcrop of the Buffalo sandstone is 
confined to Geary district along Big Sandy creek and its tri- 
butaries. Pigeon run, Granny creek, and Right fork. It is this 
stratum that crops at creek level at Newton. There it is gray- 
ish white in color, coarse and massive, with large white quartz 
pebbles, and ranges in thickness from 35 to 50 feet. Southeast 
of Newton it forms steep bluffs and cliffs just above the level 
of Right fork. Southwest from Newton it is this stratum that 
forms the pebbly cliffs near the mouth of Granny creek and up 
the latter stream to its head. The top of this sandstone comes 
57 feet above the well mouth of the Davidson Drake No. i 



17 Report Q, Penna. Geol. Survey. 

17 



■258 THE CONEMAUGH SERIES, 

well (R 170) on a branch of Granny creek, 6-10 mile southeast 
of the mouth of the latter stream. The log of this well is pub- 
lished for the section listed as "1.8 mile southwest of New- 
ton", page 91. The Buffalo sandstone is also a prominent 
cliff maker along Pigeon run from its mouth up to Pigeon P. 
O. ; also along Big Sandy to the east from Osbornes Mills. In 
all other portions of Roane county northwest from Big^Sandy 
creek* this stratum lies deeply buried below drainage. 

In Calhoun county the Buffalo sandstone does not get 
above drainage at any point in its entire area. 

The Brush Creek Limestone, or Hughes River Flint. 

Immediately at the base of the Buffalo sandstone in north- 
ern West Virginia and western Pennsylvania there occurs a 
very fossiliferous limestone that has been named the Brush 
Creek limestone by I. C. White from a stream of that name in 
iButler county, Pa. ; Dr. White later called it the Lower Cam- 
bridge, but as Brush Creek has priority, the former is not now 
used. At its type locality it comes 180 to 200 feet below the 
Ames limestone. 

In Wirt county the outcrop of this stratum is confined to 
the same area as that outlined above for the Buffalo sand- 
stone- Along the crest of the Burning Springs arch of north- 
ern Wirt this limestone appears to have been replaced by a 
reddish gray and white ledge of chert or flint, ranging in 
thickness from 5 to 15 feet, coming 200 feet below the fossili- 
ferous Ames limestone, or the same interval as at its type 
locality in Pennsylvania. This flint ledge, when traced north 
from the Hughes river region along the Burning Springs arch, 
undergoes a structural change until it finally becomes a dark, 
fossiliferous limestone before the Ohio river is reached. Where 
the flint outcrops in the Hughes river region, it is underlaid 
with a dark shale full of fossil marine shells, below which 
comes a coal bed that has also been called the Brush creek. It 
is quite evident that this locally famous flint ledge correlates 
with the Brush Creek limestone of western Pennsylvania. 

The writer measured the following section with aneroid 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



259 



northward down the hill to Bull creek, one-fifth mile west of 
the new hotel at Borland, Wood county: 



54.4' 



Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet 

1. Limestone, full of fossil shells, Ames . . 2 2 

2. Concealed 142 144 

3. Sandstone, massive, Buffalo 40 184 186' 

4. Limestone, flinty, fossil shells, black, 

Brush Creek 2 186 

5. Black shale, fossil shells 15 201 

6. Coal, Brush Creek 1 202 

7. Fire clay and dark shale 5 207 

8. Concealed 15 222 

9. Sandstone, massive, Mahoning 15 237 

Coal, good ... 2' 7" ] 

10. Slate, gray.. 1% |- Upper Freeport 3.4 240.4 
Coal, good . . .0 8 J 

11. Fire clay 1 241.4 

12.- Concealed 5 246.4 

13. Sandstone, massive, gray and white, 

pebbly. Upper Freeport to Bull 

Creek level on axis of anticline.. 50 296.4 

Formation No. lo of the above section is typical of the 
Upper Freeport coal bed in northern West Virginia, and is 
additional evidence as to the identity of formation No- 4, 48 
feet above. The flint ledge has been used in times past to fur- 
nish arrow heads for Indians of the Kanawha valley and 
northwestern West Virginia. 

The writer collected a sample for analysis from this ledge 
along the western "wall" of the Burning Springs arch opposite 
the mouth-of Ellison run of Goose creek in the north portion 
of the pan-handle of Wirt county. There it has a thickness of 
5V2 feet, coming 740 feet above tide, and is dipping northwest 
at an angle of almost 45° to the horizontal. The composition 
of the sample collected is reported by Prof. Hite as follows : 



Flint Ledge Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Silica (SiO.) 87 . 20 

Iron (Fe,0,) 0.28 

Alumina (AljO,) 2.80 

Lime (CaO) 3.88 

Magnesia (MgO) 0.78 

Soda (Na.0) 0.40 

Potash (K,0) 0.16 

Loss on ignition 4.40 



260 THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 

The analysis reveals nearly 4 per cent, of lime (Ca O) in 
the chert ledge even where most silicious. 

Mr. Reger measured the following section on the head of 
right hand branch of Lick run of Hughes river : 

Ft. In. 

1. Flint ledge (Brush Creek Limestone) 15 

2. Concealed 20 

3. Sandstone, coarse and gray, Mahoning.... 30 

On the south side of Hughes river, and just below the 
mouth of Flint run, Mr. Reger measured the following sec- 
tion : 

Ft. In. 

1. Sandstone, flaggy, brown, Buffalo 25 

2. Flint (Brush Creek Limestone) 15 

3. Concealed 14 

4. Coal, slaty, Brush Creek (765'B-A. T.) 1 

5. Fire clay 4 

6. Concealed to Hughes river 160 

About three-fourths mile up Flint run and i mile south- 
west of Cisko P. O. at the forks of the private road leading 
west from Flint run, the writer measured the following sec- 
tion at an old abandoned coal opening in the Brush Creek bed : 

Ft. In. 

1. Sandstone, massive, light brown, Buffalo. . 30 

2. Flint, (Brush Creek Limestone) 10 

3. Shale, black, fossil shells 2 

4. Limestone, dark 2 

5. Slate, black, fossil shells 1 

6. Concealed 10 

7. Coal, Brush Creek (thickness not exposed) 

This ledge dips southward from the head of Little Island 
run along the axis of the Burning Springs arch and is below 
drainage on the waters of Standingstone, and where the axis 
of the anticline intersects the Little Kanawha, it is over 200 
feet below the bed of the river. 

The following log of a well located one mile west of where 
the axis of the arch crosses Hughes river notes both the Pitts- 
burg coal and the Flint ledge: 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 261 

George S. Lemon No. i Well Record (W 23), Clay District- 
Located on north bank of Hughes River, one mile southeast of 

Freeport. Authority, Clark Oil Company. 

(Elevation=630'B-A. T.) ' Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

Unrecorded 135 135 

Coal, Pittsburg ? 6 141 

Unrecorded (5%" casing, 115') 112 253 

Sand, Morgantown? (Murphy) (Connellsville?) 27 280 

Unrecorded 368 648 

Flint ledge (Brush Creek Limestone) 

All of the sand shot; 40 quarts. Plugged at 300 feet. 

The dip is very rapid here to the west, so that intervals 
as shown by the log of this well are excessive. The produc- 
ing oil sand appears to represent the Connellsville (Minshall) 
or Morgantown (Murphy). 

In Roane county the horizon of the Brush Creek lime 
stone outcrops only in southern Geary district, on the waters 
of Big Sandy creek, but it was not recognized at any point. 

In Calhoun county this stratum does not get above 
^drainage. 

The Brush Creek Coal. 

At 5 to 10 feet below the Brush Creek limestone and 
separated from it by fossiliferous shales, there occurs a thin 
coal bed that has been named the Brush Creek coal by 1. C. 
White^^ from its outcrop on the stream of that name in west- 
ern Pennsylvania- The outcrop of this coal in Wirt county 
is confined to the same area as that alre.ady outlined for the 
Brush Creek limestone. One of the sections given above un- 
der the discussion of the latter stratum, shows it to be one 
foot thick and slaty. Southward along the crest of the Burn- 
ing Springs anticline this coal soon passes below drainage. It 
is noted, however, in the log of the Simpson boring (W 43) 
used in the Deaver Fork section, page 57, having there a 
thickness of 4 feet, and coming 187 feet below the Ames lime- 
stone and 97 feet above the top of the Upper Freeport coal 
and base of the Conemaugh series. It does not appear to hold 



18 Report Q, Second Geol. Survey of Penna. 



262 



THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 



this thickness in Wirt county away from this region, since the 
logs of numerous wells fail to report any coal at this horizon. 

In Roane county the outcrop of the Brush Creek coal is 
confined to southern Geary district along the main fork of Big 
Sandy between Osbornes Mills and the mouth of Pigeon. It 
also occurs along Pigeon run and Granny creek, both branches 
putting into Big Sandy from the south. 

About 2 miles due east of Osbornes Mills, a coal bed that 
appears. to represent the Brush Creek has been opened on the 
land of J. H. Osborne on the east side of Little Laurel run, 
one-eighth mile above the mouth of the latter. There the 
writer collected a sample for analysis and measured the fol- 
lowing section: 

Ft. In. 

1. Sandstone, massive, coarse, grayish white, 

and pebbly, forming cliff on opposite side 

of run, Buffalo 50 

2. Slate 5 

3. Coal, slaty 0' 6"1 Brush Creek 3 1 

[ (Elev.=765'B-A. T.) 

4. Coal, splinty, bright 2 7 J 

5. Fire clay, massive sandstone, and concealed 90 

6. Shale, dark (Upper Freeport coal horizon) 4 

7. Fire clay 2 

8. Shale, brown and sandy 3 

9. Sandstone to road crossing mouth of Laurel 

run 2 

Greatest rise is southeast. 

The section of coal, (Nos. 3 and 4,) was measured back 
at the working face 30 to 50 feet in the hill. At the mine en- 
trance the coal was 4' 5" thick without partings. This mine 
furnishes the farmers of the neighborhood with domestic fuel. 
The sample for analysis was collected from the bottom por- 
tion, or No. 4 of section, and its composition and calorific 
value as reported by Prof. Hite are as follows: 



Proximate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Moisture 0.94 

Volatile Matter 37.20 

Fixed Carbon 44 . 12 

Ash 17.74 

Total 100.00 

Sulphur 5 . 68 

Phosphorus 0.038 



Ultimate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Carbon 65 . 16 

Hydrogen 4.58 

Oxygen 5.85 

Nitrogen 0.99 

Sulphur 5.68 

Ash 17.74 

Total 100.00 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 263 

Calorimeter B. T. U 12,160 

Calculated B. T. U 12,094 

Carbon 65.16 

Fuel Ratio = = = 2.76 

Oxygen + Ash 5.85 + 17.74 

This sample is quite high in both ash and sulphur and i? 
evidently not very satisfactory for smithing purposes. The 
coal appears to thin away to the northwest, and is not report- 
ed in the logs of the numerous wells drilled for oil and gas in 
Roane county. 

In Calhoun county the Brush Creek coal never gets up 
to drainage level and does not appear to reach commercial 
thickness, since it is not reported by the driller for oil and 
gas in the county. , 

The Mahoning (Dunkard) Sandstone. 

At a varying interval (5 to 25 feet) below the Brush Creek 
coal and at the base of the Conemaugh series there occurs a 
great, grayish white, coarse, pebbly and massive rock that has 
been named the Mahoning sandstone. Sometimes it is separ- 
ated into divisions called the Upper and Lower Mahoning. The 
interval between frequently holds a coal also called Mahoning. 
The Upper Mahoning is usually more massive and thicker 
than the Lower. This stratum has produced oil in eastern 
Greene county, Pa., on Dunkard creek, from which stream it 
has also received the name Dunkard sand by the oil fraternity. 
Very frequently it is erroneously called the Second Cow Run 
sand. 

In Wirt county the outcrop of this stratum is confined to 
that portion along Hughes river at the crest of the Burning 
Springs anticline, and at the mouth of Flint run. It may be 
this stratum that forms the high cliflf at California, one-half 
mile west of the mouth of Flint run. There the cliflf rock is 
grayish white in color, massive and pebbly, and 40 to 50 feet 
thick, coming 30 to 40 feet above the level of Hughes river, 
300 feet below the Ames limestone, and 100 feet below the 
Hughes River Flint (Brush Creek Limestone). This cliff may 
possibly represent the Upper Freeport sandstone (Burning 



264 THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 

Springs Sand), since the interval, 300 feet below the Ames 
limestone, appears too great for the Mahoning. 

In Roane county the outcrop of the Mahoning sandstone 
is confined to the southern portion of Geary district along Big 
Sandy creek east from Osbornes Mills to the mouth of Pigeon 
run and along Granny creek from the mouth of Ashcamp run 
down to near the D. Drake No. i well (R 170). Along with 
the great, pebbly Buffalo sandstone above, the Mahoning 
sandstone forms a very steep and rough topography, with a 
very poor sandy soil. The stream flowing along and over 
their outcrops has been well named Big Sandy creek. 

In Calhoun county this stratum does not get above drain- 
age. The several sections given in Chapter III for Limestone 
Hill, Deaver Fork, Straight Creek, Richardson, Spencer, Tris- 
tan, Rushville, Cottontree Run, Kester, Bright, Leafbank Run, 
Lovada, Whitepine, and Nicut, show its thickness and relative 
position in the rock column where it lies deeply buried below 
drainage over the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area. 



CHAPTER VII. 

GEOLOGIC STRUCTURE. 



Introduction. 



Geologic structure deals with the lay or pitch of the sev- 
eral strata of the area under discussion. Whether formed by- 
sedimentation or lava flows, the original position of the rock 
beds is normally horizontal. Earth movements, however, 
later bring about many modifications of the original attitude 
of the strata, and the rocks composing the earth's crust are 
bent and warped by lateral pressure into a number of approxi- 
mately parallel wrinkles or folds, which, with one exception 
in the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area, have a distinct northeast- 
southwest trend. In describing the structural forms thus 
made, the upward bending arch is called an anticline and the 
downward bending trough a syncline. The axis of a fold is 
the line joining the highest points of an anticline and the low- 
est points of a syncline. The strata dip from the axis of the 
former and to the axis of the latter. The strike is the general 
direction of the horizontal edges of pitching strata, and is 
generally, though not always, parallel to the axis of a fold, 
diverging from it when the axis is not horizontal. The nose 
of an anticline is the term applied to the structural form caused 
by the sudden rise or fall of the axis of the fold. 

Method of Representing Structure. 

There are two methods in general use to represent struc- 
ture on maps. One is by means of cross sections at right angles 
to the line of strike. These sections show how the strata 
would appear if a deep ditch were dug perpendicular to the 
strike line entirely across the area under discussion. This 
method is quite satisfactory where the dip is very rapid and 



266 GEOLOGIC STRUCTURE. 

the folds overturn as they frequently do. In the Wirt-Roane- 
Calhoun area the folds are so slight, with the exception of the 
Burning Springs anticline, that this method would be very un- 
satisfactory without exaggerating the vertical scale of the 
cross section in comparison with the horizontal scale o'f the 
map ; again, the method only gives an idea of the structure 
along the line of the section and does not show the shape of 
the arches or basins, which latter feature is of very great im- 
portance in the three counties as regards the future develop- 
ment of its mineral resources, especially the exploitation of its 
oil and gas fields and the mining of its coal beds. 

A second method of representing geologic structure that 
meets the latter conditions consists in the representation by 
contour lines that show the elevation above tide of some par- 
ticular rock bed. This stratum is generally one that is known 
through its wide exposure in outcrop, its exploitation by mines, 
or its general use as a key rock by the drillers for oil and gas 
in the region to be mapped. 

In the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area the writer has taken the 
Washington coal bed for a key rock as it is the most widely 
known and positively identified stratum outcropping in the 
three counties. It has also been mined for local domestic fuel 
and is frequently noted by the drillers in the logs of oil and 
gas wells. The Pittsburg coal bed, used as a key rock by the 
writer in the Marshall-Wetzel-Tyler area, has here become 
very irregular and patchy and is often absent from the 
measures. 

The altitude of the base of the Washington coal bed over 
a large portion of the area was determined by levels on its out- 
crop, but along the crest of the Burning Springs anticline 
north of the Little Kanawha river, and in southern Roane and 
Calhoun counties, its horizon has passed into the air over the 
summits of the highest hills. Hence its elevation in these por- 
tions of the area had to be determined by adding its interval 
in feet above some known stratum to the tidal elevation of the 
latter. Along the Burning Springs arch north of the Little 
Kanawha river the writer used the base of the Ames limestone 
and the top of the Big Lime (Greenbrier Limestone) for 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 267 

levels. In southern Roane, levels were taken on the base of 
the Sewickley (Rock Creek) sandstone and Pittsburg coal bed 
at their outcrops ; also on numerous wells bored for oil and gas 
and from their logs the elevation of the top of the Big Lime 
was determined. The same plan was pursued in southern Cal- 
houn as in southern Roane, although with much greater diffi- 
culty and with much less assurance of positive identification 
of the Sewickley (Rock Creek) sandstone and Pittsburg coal 
bed owing to the peculiar type of the topography in this re- 
gion. There the writer found it difficult to trace the 'outcrop 
of a stratum for any great distance, due to concealment by 
debris on the steep uniform slopes of the hills. 

In western Wirt and northwestern Roane, the Washing- 
ton coal lies below drainage, but its elevation was approxi- 
mately determined by levels on the Upper Marietta and Hun- 
dred sandstones and the Nineveh limestone. On the structure 
and economic geology map accompanying this report are 
printed contour lines in green that show not only the approxi- 
mate tidal elevation of the base of the Washington coal bed, 
but both the horizontal -contours of the troughs, arches and 
domes, and the dip of the beds. Whether the Washington coal 
is above or below drainage can be readily determined at any 
point on this map by noting the elevation of the land surface 
as shown by the topographic contours and the elevation of the 
coal at the same point as exhibited by the structure contours. 
For instance, suppose the position of the Washington coal 
was desired at Spenter, Roane county. It will be seen by a 
glance at the map that the elevation of Spring creek is there 
about 715' A. T., and that the town is situated between the 775- 
foot and the 800-foot structure contours. Hence, the coal 
should outcrop about 70 feet above drainage in the town. 

In general, these structure contours are only approximate- 
ly correct from the fact that it is assumed that over small areas 
the rocks maintain a uniform thickness, when it has been well 
established that two easily determined strata will vary many 
feet in interval in a short distance. 

Another cause of error is the method of getting the ele- 
vation of the key rock. In many cases these altitudes were de- 



268 GEOLOGIC STRUCTURE. 

termined with spirit level, but the great majority was obtained 
with the aneroid barometer. Of course, the aneroid was 
checked quite frequently on the spirit levels of the U. S- Geol. 
Survey left at conspicuous points along the public highways 
in the preparation of the accurate topographic map of the 
Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area in co-operation with the State of 
West Virginia. In this way the errors were kept down, and 
over most of the area it is believed that their sum is less than 
one contour interval — that is, less than 25 feet. 

Detailed Geologic Structure. 

The Wirt-Roane-Calhoun, area is situated in the central or 
deepest portion of the Appalachian basin or geo-syncline which 
enters West Virginia near the southwest corner of Pennsyl- 
vania. I. C. White^ gives the following description of this 
great trough : 

"The central or deepest portion of the Appalachian basin or 
geo-syncline enters West Virginia from Greene county, Pa., at the 
southwest corner of the latter State, and crossing Western Mononga- 
lia and eastern Wetzel counties continues on through the State in a 
general southwest course across eastern Tyler, western Doddridge, 
central Ritchie, Wirt and Jackson, cutting eastern Mason and west- 
em Putnam, and central Cabell, to enter Kentucky from northern 
Wayne, ten miles above the mouth of the Big Sandy river. Where 
the axis of this great basin enters the State, and on to the southwest 
as far as Doddridge county at least, the Pittsburg coal is buried to a 
depth of 1300 to 1500 feet under the highest summits, or say 100 to 
150 feet above tide, but from Doddridge county on southwestward, 
the basin begins to rise, and at the Kentucky line the Pittsburg coal 
overlooks the Big Sandy waters from an elevation of 800 feet above 
tide in the deepest portion of the trough." 

The three counties lie almost entirely on the eastern side 
of the axis of this great geo-syncline, but the slope of the east- 
ern flank of the latter within the area under discussion is inter- 
rupted by several minor folds, among which are the following: 
Anticlines. Synclines. 

Burning Springs. ^ Spencer- 

Wick. Middlebourne. 

Big Moses. Burchfield. 

Arches Fork. Richardson Basin. 

Flat Fork. Robinson. 

Chestnut Ridge. 

1 W. Va. Geoi; Survey, Vol. II, pp. 84-85; 1903. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. ' 269 

The above structural forms are all noted on the map ac- 
companying this report. A short account will now be given 
of the same, taking them up in order from west to east. 

Burning Springs Anticline. — This great arch in the rocks 
has long been known as the "Oil Break" by the petroleum fra- 
ternity and was so named from the village of Burning Springs 
at the mouth of Burning Springs run, Wirt county. The anti- 
cline enters the State from Ohio at the town of Belmont, 2% 
miles west from St. Marys, and from there it takes an ir- 
regular and southerly course and enters the area under dis- 
cussion at the northern point of Wirt county. However, the 
axis just misses this point and enters the county a short dis- 
tance east of California P. O. The magnitude and shape of 
this fold is graphically shown on the structure map prepared 
by the writer of Wood, Pleasants and Ritchie counties for 
the State Geological Survey, and published under date of De- 
cember ist, 1910. At Sandhill P. O., 2 miles southwest from 
the common corner to the latter counties, the axis of the arch 
reaches the highest point on the fold. There, as shown by the 
structure map above mentioned, the Washington coal horizon 
is thrown up to over 2400 feet above sea level, the whole 
forming a great dome. 

After crossing Hughes river the axis of the anticline 
keeps its southwest course to the head of Wilson fork of Par- 
ish fork of Standingstone creek, where it changes to a course 
slightly east of south until the head of Chestnut run of the 
Little Kanawha river is reached. There it veers to an almost 
due south course for 45^ miles to one-half mile south of the 
latter stream where it changes to a southeast course and final- 
ly dies down at Richardson on the western slope or flank of 
the Arches Fork anticline. 

The axis reaches the highest point in the area under dis- 
cussion where it crosses Hughes river. From there south- 
ward it falls gently to Standingstone creek, then suddenly 
rises to a summit of a dome just north of the head of Chest- 
nut run and 2j^ miles north of Burning Springs P. O. From 
this high point the axis falls slowly to a point one-half mile 
south of Burning Springs run, and then dips rapidly to its 



270 GEOLOGIC STRUCTURE. 

southern terminus near Richardson. A glance at the structure 
map will readily show that the crest of the arch is almost 
flat and varies in width from one-half to one mile and a quart- 
er. The strata dip very rapidly on both sides of this flattened 
crest; so much so that the rocks appear to stand almost ver- 
tically in places and the natives locally speak of the western 
flank as the "west wall" and the eastern flank as the "east 
wall." On the axis of this anticline at Hughes river the Wash- 
ington coal horizon is thrown up to 1700 feet above tide, but 
southward at Standingstone creek it has fallen to about 1450 
feet above tide. On the crest of the dome 2^/^ miles north of 
Burning Springs P. O., the Washington coal is again thrown 
up to 1600 feet above tide, and southward at the Little Kana- 
wha river has fallen to about 1300 feet above tide. The 
structure map shows in graphic form the rise and fall of the 
axis of any fold. 

Wick Anticline — Along the Ritchie-Wirt county line the 
next arch to the east of the fold above described is what has 
been named by the writer^ the Wick anticline from a village 
of that name near which it passes in Tyler county. This arch 
appears to be a spur from the great Burning Springs fold and 
no doubt is responsible for the depression of the axis of the 
latter arch where it crosses Standingstone creek. It enters 
Wirt county on the extreme head of the latter stream from 
the northeast, but soon dies out on the east flank of the 
Burning Springs anticline. 

Middlebourne Syncline. — The next fold or trough on the 
east is the Middlebourne syncline so designated by the writer' 
from the town of Middlebourne, Tyler county, near which it 
passes on its southwest course. Its axis enters the northern 
point of Calhoun county on the head of Cole fork of Leading 
creek, 2^ miles northeast of Freed P. O., and bears south- 
west, crossing the Little Kanawha river about two miles 
above the mouth of the former stream. From the point where 
it enters the county it rises gently to the southwest and 
finally dies out on the northern flank of the Burning Springs 
anticline. 



2 Marshall-Wetzel-Tyler Report, W. Va. Geol. Sur., p. 71; 1909. 

3 Marshall-Wetzel-Tyler Report, W. Va. Geol. Sur., p. 70; 1909. 



WEST vraOINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 271 

Arches Fork Anticline. — The next structural feature to 
the east is the Arches Fork anticline that has been so named 
by the writer* from a stream of that name at the northeast 
terminus of the fold in the southeast corner of Wetzel county. 
The axis of the arch crosses the Gilmer-Calhoun county line 
near the extreme head of Yellow creek, 2^ miles north of 
Whitepine P. O., and bears southwest, crossing the Little 
Kanawha river one mile below Grantsville. From the latter 
point it bears almost due south for 3I/2 miles, then changes to 
a southwest course, crossing Barnes run one mile above the 
mouth of Dennis fork, West Fork river, one-half mile below 
the mouth of Sinking Spring run, and Beech fork of West 
Fork river at Beech P. O. From the latter place it continues 
on its southwest course, crossing Henry fork at Linden P. O. 
and passing through "Vineyard Gap" and "Nichols Knob" on 
the dividing ridge between the waters of "Poca" and Big 
Sandy creeks. The axis finally crosses the Roane-Kanawha 
county line 2^ miles due west from Cotton P. O. It is the 
longest single anticlinal fold within the area under discussion. 
From where the fold enters the area from Gilmer county at 
the northeast its axis rises southwestward and at Lovada P. 
O. has thrown the Washington coal bed up to 11 50 feet above 
tide. From the latter point the axis continues almost hori- 
zontal until a point is reached 2^ miles south of Grantsville, 
where it suddenly dips down to Barnes run, bringing the 
Washington coal to iioo feet above tide. After crossing the 
latter stream the axis rises rapidly southward to Beech P. O., 
forming another nose of the fold. The axis still continues to 
rise to the southwest and at the Roane-Kanawha county line 
has thrown the Washington coal horizon up to slightly over 
1500 feet above tide. 

While in the field gathering data for the report on the 
Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area the writer thought the portion of 
this fold from Barnes run southwestward was merely the ex- 
tension of the Burning Springs anticline passing north of 
Richardson and it was so designated on the May ist, 1910, 
edition of the State Geological map. However, after working 



4 Marshall-Wetzel-Tyler Report, W. Va. Geol. Sur., p. 454; 1909. 



272 GEOLOGIC STRUCTURE. 

up the detailed structure map of the three counties, it appears 
that it is only the extension of the Arches Fork fold, and that 
the Burning Springs anticline really dies out on the western 
slope of the former arch. A glance at the structure map of 
the three counties, accompanying this report, will readily 
show that it would not require a long stretch of the imagina- 
tion to assume the southwest portion of the Arches Fork fold 
to be an extension of the Burning Springs anticline. 

Richardson Basin. — In the vicinity of Richardson, Cal- 
houn county, there occurs a structural basin, covering about 
ten square miles, that appears to have been formed by the 
buckling of the strata evidently brought about by the inter- 
section of the Burning Springs anticline with the steep struc- 
tural slope of the Arches Fork fold. There the Washington 
coal bed has been brought down to almost 825' A. T., or 75 
feet below its level at the lowest point in the surrounding rim 
of the basin on the soutliwest. 

Robinson Syncline. — The next structural fold to the east 
of the Arches Fork anticline was so named by the writer' 
from the town of Robinson near which it passes on its south- 
west course in the southeast corner of Wetzel county. The 
axis of the trough enters Calhoun on the northeast from Gil- 
mer county, one mile northeast from Whitepine P. O. and 
bears S. 30 degrees W. to Arnoldsburg where it changes to 
almost due south for 3 miles to Orient P. O. From there it 
veers to the southwest, passing slightly west of Tariff, Left- 
hand, and Clio post-ofitices ; then changes more to the west 
and crosses the Roane-Kanawha county line about 2 miles 
west of Cotton P. O. At the poiilt where the axis crosses the 
Gilmer-Calhoun line the Washington coal bed has an eleva- 
tion of about 1000 feet above tide, and, southwest along the 
axis of the trough, remains almost horizontal until Sycamore 
P. O. is reached. Following the axis on southwest from the 
latter place, this coal rises rapidly to Arnoldsburg, then re- 
mains almost horizontal until after crossing Beech fork, when 
the coal again rises rapidly along the axis to the Roane-Ka- 



5 Marshall-Wetzel-Tyler Report, W. Va. Geol. Sur., p. 69; 1909. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 273 

navvha county line. This trough is the longest synclinal fold 
within the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area. 

Chestnut Ridge Anticline. — The next structural fold to the 
east is what appears to be an extension of the Chestnut 
Ridge anticline. The arch was so named by I. C. White from 
a ridge of that name in eastern Monongalia county. 
The axis of the fold enters Calhoun from Gilmer 
county, 2^ miles northeast of Euclid P. O., and crosses Left 
fork of West Fork river one mile above the mouth of Frozen 
run and Walnut fork of West Fork river at Walnut P.O. From 
the latter point the axis of the arch bears south 35 degrees west, 
passing one-half mile west of Stinson P. O., and one-fourth mile 
west of the summit of "Weedy Knob," and crosses Right fork 
of Big Sandy creek near the mouth of Cutoff run, and the 
Roane-Kanawha line one-half mile west of the common cor- 
ner to Roane, Kanawha and Clay counties. The Washington 
coal horizon rises rapidly southwest along the crest of the 
arch from where it enters Calhoun from Gilmer to Walnut 
P. O., where it apparently flattens down and rises gently to 
Left fork of Big Sandy creek, one mile and a half northeast 
of Uler P. O. From the latter place it again resumes its rapid 
rise on to the Roane-Kanawha line. 

The writer found it very difficult in the time allotted 
to work out the geologic structure in southeastern Calhoun 
for the reason as heretofore meaitioned that the peculiar type 
of topography, aided by debris, etc., rendered it very hard to 
trace any single stratum for any great distance. However, the 
fold, as outlined on the structure map, is a close approxima- 
tion of its true position and shape. , 

Flat Fork Anticline. — In extreme western Roane there 
occurs a low anticlinal fold that has been named by the writer 
the Flat Fork anticline from a stream of that name along 
which it passes. Its northern terminus is near Hoyt P. O. at 
the most northern point of Roane county. From the latter 
point the axis of the fold bears south about 20 degrees west, 
passing through Antioch P. O. on Right fork of Frozencamp 
creek where it veers to south 45 degrees west to its intersec- 
tion with Left fork of Elk fork. From the latter point it 
18 



274 GEOLOGIC STRUCTURE. 

changes to a southeast course, passing three-fourths mile east 
of Harmony P. O. and crossing "Poca" river three-fourths 
mile southeast of the mouth of Flat fork, finally dies out on 
the waters of Green creek on the western structural slope of 
the Arches Fork anticline. 

From Hoyt P. O. at its northeast terminus the Washing- 
ton coal rises gradually along the axis to a point one mile 
north of Harmony P. O., where it begins to rise rapidly and 
so continues to its southern terminus. 

Spencer Syncline — Immediately on the east of the above 
anticline there occurs a deep trough or structural basin that 
the writer has named the Spencer syncline from the county 
seat of Roane county, near which place it passes on the west 
in its north and south course across Reedy, Curtis and Wal- 
ton districts. The northern terminus of the axis of this fold 
is located about two miles west of the town of Reedy, from 
which point it bears due south for 3 miles to an intersection / 
"with Middle fork of Reedy creek, one-half mile north of the 
mouth of Statts run. At the latter place the syncline appears 
to separate into two branches, the west one of which con- 
tinues on south up Middle fork to its head, and the east or 
main fork bearing southeast to near the common corner to 
Reedy, Spencer and Curtis districts. From there the axis 
bears south 5 to 10 degrees west to an intersection with Sil- 
cott fork of Biglick run, one mile south of Gandeeville, where 
it veers to the southeast, passing through the town of Walton 
and finally dying out on the steep western slope of the Arches 
Fork anticline. 

Along the axis of the Spencer syncline the Washington 
coal bed rises gently from an elevation of about 640' A. T. to 
near Gandeeville where it reaches 800' A. T. From there the 
coal rises rapidly along the axis to the southeast and at Wal- 
ton has been thrown up to an elevation of about 1040' A. T. 

WOOD-RITCHIE-PLEASANTS STRUCTURE MAP. 

During the year 1910 a structure map of Wood, Ritchie 
and Pleasants counties was prepared by the writer, assisted 
in the field by Messrs. C. E. Krebs, D. B. Reger and D. D. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 275 

Teets, Jr. The map was published under date of December 
ist, 1910. The base of the Washington coal bjed was used as 
the datum plane on which to draw the structure contours for 
the same reason as in the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area. The re- 
lief in the three former counties is even greater than in the lat- 
ter, since, in the Wood-Ritchie-Pleasants area, the elevation 
of the key rock varies from 500' A. T., 2 miles west of Rock- 
port in southern Wood, to 2400' A. T. near Sandhill P. O., 2 
miles southwest of the common corner to the three counties, 
on the highest point of the great Burning Springs anticline. 

A glance at this structure map of Wood, Ritchie and 
Pleasants, will show that their area is traversed by the fol- 
lowing prominent structural folds: 

Anticlines. Synclines. 

Burning Springs. Parkersburg. 

Sistersville. Shiloh. 

Wick, Middlebourne. 

Big Moses. Burchfield. 

Arches Fork. Robinson. 

The position, shape, and axis of each of these folds are 
graphically shown on the map in question. The Burning 
Springs arch is by far the most prominent structural feature. 
The only fold in the area that has not previously been named 
is the Parkersburg syncline. The writer has so designated it 
from the city of that name in western Wood county near the 
eastern edge of which it passes on its north and south course 
across the latter county. It also appears that the Sistersville 
anticline is merely a spur from the Burning Springs arch. 

This map emphasizes the fact that structure plays the im- 
portant part in the distribution of the developed oil and gas 
fields scattered over the three counties. 



PART III. 

The Mineral Resources of the 
Wirt-Roane-Calhoun Area. 



CHAPTER VIIL 

PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS. 



Early History. 

The history of the petroleum industry in West Virginia 
began with the opening up of the Burning Springs field of 
Wirt county in i860, one year after the famous Drake well of 
the Oil Creek region of northwestern Pennsylvania was 
drilled, the latter being the oldest well drilled purposely for 
oil in the United States. A brief account of the "oil boom"- at 
that time is given on page 7 along with the description of 
the town of Burning Springs. The following interesting ac- 
count of the early oil operations of Geo, S. Lemon on Hughes 
river in the northern edge of Wirt county is given by I. G 
White^ : 

"The flood plain deposits, or river sands which held the oil, were 
situated on the right bank of the stream, and the first settlers dug 
pits into them, washed out the oil, and collected it with cloths and 
other primitive ways for the markets at Parkersburg, Marietta, Cin- 
cinnati, and elsewhere. One of the early operators engaged in the 
business of collecting and marketing this 'mud oil', as it was called, 
of whom we have an authentic account, was Geo. S. Lemon, who came 
from eastern Virginia in 1835 and settled at the forks of the Hughes 
river. The oil deposits two miles below were well known at that 
time, and Mr. Lemon soon began the business of collecting and sell- 
ing the oil. In his employ was an intelligent mulatto named Hugill, 
or Hugle, who had learned the well-borer's art on the Great Kanaw- 



1 Vol. 1(A), pp. 17 and 18, W. Va. Geol. Survey; 1904. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 27Y 

ha, and being in need of salt, Mr. Lemon concluded to sink a well 
for brine on the left bank of Hughes River, and 300 yards above the 
oil pit diggings, at a locality where he had noticed cattle licking the 
rocks. Aided by the inventive genius of Hugill, Mr. Lemon rigged up 
an arrangement for drilling the well by wlater power (probably the 
first of its kind in the country) and thus the hole was soon drilled 
to a considerable depth, or to something over 100 feet, as remember- 
ed by Mr. Albert Lemon (son of George S.) where a flow of salt 
water, oil and gas was struck. This was in 1844, according to Mr. 
Albert Lemon, and the oil rendering the salt water useless, the in- 
ventive talent of Hugill was again drawn upon. Through his assist- 
ance, Mr. Lemon perfected a siphon arrangement for automatically 
removing the water from the trough into which the well flowed, and 
in this manner about one barrel of oil was daily saved from the well, 
and added to the supply from the sand pits. This was termed 'sand 
oil,' and was found to command a price higher in the markets, by 
five cents per gallon, than the 'mud oil' from the sand diggings. The 
well continued to flow about once daily for a considerable time, but 
whether it was ever pumped for oil or not, after it ceased to flow, 
the accounts are conflicting. It was located about 150 yards from 
the mouth of Flint run, and the old timbers of the dam for water 
power, and the rocks between which the water turned the wheel may 
still be seen in situ, just under a modern well which now obtains its 
supply of oil from the upper portion of the 'Salt Sand' at a depth of 
600 feet." 

Dr. White also gives the follov^ing interesting account of 
the early drilling operations of the Rathbone Bros, at Burn- 
ing Springs, Wirt county, on pages 2i and 22 of Vol. I (A), 
W. Va. Geol. Survey reports: 

"A small stream known as Burning Springs Run enters the right 
bank of the Little Kanawha river, 41 miles above the latter's mouth. 
The run was so named by the first settlers from the fact that natural 
gas came up in a sulphur or chalybeate spring, about one-half mile 
up the stream from its mouth, in such quantity that it could b ; set 
on fire over a space of several feet square. There were two of these 
springs, one known as the 'Big' spring, and the other as the 'Little' 
one. These phenomena early attracted the attention of capitalists, 
and in 1842 the brothers Rathbone came to Parkersburg from New 
York, and soon after purchased a tract of land containing 1,000 acres 
covering the region along Burning Springs run, and including the 
springs themselves. 

"Salt was then one of the articles of commerce which, on ac- 
count of its scarcity, commanded a high price, and there was much 
profit in its manufacture. Because natural gas springs occurred on 
the Great Kanawha, Muskingum and in other localities where good 
brines had been found, the Rathbone brothers concluded it would be 
possible to find good salt producing brines on their 1,000 acre tract. 
Hence, soon after the purchase was consummated, arrangements 
were made to sink a well for salt, and it was located on the left 
bank of the Little Kanawha, 100 yards below the mouth of Burning 
Springs run. At a depth of 250 feet so much oil was obtained (from 
the Cow Run or Dunkard Sand) that further attempts to find salt 
water were abandoned, and since the 'gum' or conductor was left in 
the hole, the oil would rise to the top (as the hole was full of water) 



278 mineraij resources of wirt-roane-calhoun area. 

from which it was skimmed and sold. This old salt well was the 
first in the State to be pumped for oil alone, since soon after Col. 
Drake drilled his famous well near Titusville, Pa., the Rathbone salt 
well was leased and put to pumping. This was late in the Fall of 

1859, and it produced several barrels daily." 

First Well Drilled for Oil in West Virginia. 

"The first well within the boundaries of the State, drilled solely 
for petroleum, was also on the Rathbone tract, and located on Burn- 
ing Springs run, a short distance (one-fourth mile) from its mouth. 
The well was drilled by the Rathbones and others from Parkersburg, 
and was begun late in the year 1859. Since the well was drilled with 
a 'spring pole' it was not completed until about the 1st of May, 1860, 
when at a depth of 303 feet oil was encountered in the Cow Run or 
Dunkard sand, which produced at the rate of 100 barrels daily. The 
Rathbone tract was then sold to the Rathbone Oil Co. for a large 
sum, and the second well, finished by this Company late in the year 

1860, came in at the rate of 40 or 50 barrels per hour at a depth of 
only 300 feet. These two wells brought the West Virginia oil terri- 
tory into great prominence, and the developments followed so rapidly 
that the former village soon had a population of several thousand 
people, repeating the history of gold mining camps, and rich min- 
eral discoveries in other regions." 

In West Virginia all the oil and gas yet discovered has 
been produced from sandstone beds, called "sands" by the 
drillers. These sands have been given various names by the 
oil and gas operators which have gradually come into general 
use in describing the beds. The following table by I. C. 
White^, with some modifications by the writer, shows the po- 
sition of the various sands in the geologic column: 

The Oil and Gas Horizons of West Virginia. 
Monongahela Series Carroll sand (Uniontown). 



Conemaugh Series 



Minshall (Connellsville). 

Murphy (Morgantown). 

Moundsville (Saltsburg). 

First Cow Run (Little Dunkard) sand (Buffalo) 

Big Dunkard sand (Mahoning). 



. „ ^ „ . I Burning Springs (Upper Freeport) sand. 

Allegheny Series | ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ower Freeport). 



Pottsville Series 



Gas sand of Marion and Monongalia counties 

(Homewood), Second Cow Run of Ohio. 
Gas sand of Cairo. 
Salt sand of Cairo. 
Cairo? 



2 Vol. 1(A), p. 506, W. Va. Geol. Survey; 1904. 



WEST vraOINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 279 



Mauch Chunk Red j^^^^^^ Dawson, Cairo. 
Shale 

Greenbrier Limestone "Big Lime"; not generally productive. 



Pocono Sandstones 



Catskill Red Beds 



Keener sand and Beckett sand of Milton. 
Big Injun sand. 
Squaw sand. 
Berea Grit. 

Gantz sand. 
Fifty-foot sand. 
Thirty-foot sand. 
Stray sand. 
Gordon sand. 
Fourth sand. 
McDonald or Fifth sand. 
Bayard or Sixth sand. 

Chemung and Port- I ^^"^^ ^\?^°i" ^r^"^^ Tiona Speechley sand. 
Beds defined oil or gas horizons yet dis- 

^ I covered in West Virginia. 

In the Wirt-Roane- Calhoun area oil and gas in paying 
quantities are found in the Minshall (Connellsville) sand near 
the top of the Conemaugh down through the geologic column 
to the Berea Grit sand at the base of the Carboniferous sys- 
tem. None of the Devonian sands has as yet produced oil or 
gas in paying quantity, the Berea sand being the lowest de- 
veloped productive horizon in the three counties. In addition 
to the Minshall and Berea Grit, the following sands have been 
productive in the area under discussion : Murphy, Big Dunk- 
ard, Burning Springs (Upper Freeport), Gas (Lower Free- 
port), Second Cow Run (Homewood), Salt sand, Maxton, 
Big Lime, Keener, and Big Injun. In the northern end of the 
State these sands are generally referred to the Pittsburg coal 
as a key rock to determine their identity. In the Wirt-Roane- 
Calhoun area the Pittsburg coal bed is absent over a great 
portion of the three counties, but the following table gives a 
general idea of the sequence or order of the beds and the ap- 
proximate distance from the Pittsburg coal horizon down to 
the top of the different sands in the three counties: 



280 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Approximate Distance from Pittsburg Coal to Top of Oil and 

Gas Sands. 



SAND. 



Minshall ( Connellsvill - ) 

sand 

Murphy (Morgantown) 

sand 

First Cow Run (Little 

Dunkard) (Buffalo) sand 
Big Dunkard (Mahoning) 

sand 

Burning Springs (Upper 

Freeport) sand 



Dis- 
tance. 
Feet. 



110 

200 
420 
500 
590 



SAND. 



Gas (Lower Freeport) sand 
Second Cow Run (Home- 
wood) sand 

Salt sand 

Maxton sand 

Big Lime 

Keener sand 

Big Injun sand 

Berea Grit sand 



Dis- 
tance. 
Feet. 

720 

8O0 
900 
1125 
1300 
1375 
1400 
1800 



The above intervals are only approximate, especially for 
the sands below the Homewood, owing to the rapid thicken- 
ing up of the Pottsville series to the south and east. For ex- 
ample, the interval from the top of the Pittsburg coal to the 
top of the Big Lime in the McConaughey No. i well (W 65), 
located on Straight creek in the eastern edge of Wirt county, 
is 1273 feet as opposed to 1798.5 feet for the same interval in 
the W. P. Drake No. i well (R 172), located one mile due 
south of Bright P. O. in southern Roane county, or 1482 feet 
for the L. D. Chambers No. i well (R 158) located on Clover 
run in the northern edge of Smithfield district, Roane county, 
17 miles south of the McConaughey well (W 65) and 9 miles 
north of the Drake well (R 172). Thus it is readily seen that 
no specific figures can be given for depths to these sands be- 
low any key rock that will hold good over the entire area of 
the three counties. 



DESCRIPTION OF SANDS. 

The Minshall Sand. 

At 100 to no feet below the horizon of the Pittsburg coal 
bed on Island run of Hughes river along the Wirt-Ritchie 
county line, there occurs an oil producing stratum that ap- 
pears to correlate with the Connellsville sandstone. The Sand 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 281 

has locally been designated the Minshall Sand in honor of the 
late F. W. Minshall, an eminent geologist from Marietta, 
Ohio, who did considerable prospecting for oil and gas in Wirt 
county in the early 8o's. So far as known to the writer, this 
is the only point in the State where the Connellsville sand- 
stone has produced oil in paying quantity. The discussion 
of this pool is taken up in a subsequent page of this report- 

The Murphy Sand. 

At 175 to 225 feet below the Pittsburg coal bed in north- 
ern West Virginia, there occurs an oil bearing sand that has 
been named the Murphy sand by the oil fraternity. This 
stratum correlates with the Morgantown sandstone of the 
Conemaugh measures, a full account of which is given on 
page 236 under the description of the Conemaus^h forma- 
tions. The Murphy sand has produced oil along the Ohio 
river front of Marshall county, one mile south of the mouth 
of Grave creek at Moundsville, coming there 135 feet below 
the Pittsburg coal. 

In the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area this stratum is the main 
producing horizon at Deems Ferry near the mouth of Lick 
run of Hughes river, one mile west of California, coming 
there, according to the log of the G. W. Lockhart No. i well 
(W 24), 181 feet below the Pittsburg coal bed, the latter be- 
ing reported 6 feet thick at a depth of 82 feet. This is the only 
point in the three counties that the Murphy sand has proved 
productive. 

The First Cow Run Sand. 

At 375 to 425 feet below the Pittsburg coal, and 125 to 
150 feet below the Ames limestone, there occurs an oil and 
gas producing stratum that has been named by the oil well 
driller the First Cow Run sand from a stream of that name in 
Washington county, Ohio, where it comes 315' feet below the 



3 Bull. No. 1, pp. 168-169, Ohio Geol. Survey; 1903. 



282 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Pittsburg coal, and lOO feet below the Ames limestone, ac- 
cording to the late R W. Minshall* of Marietta, Ohio. 

For the purpose of the correlation of the Cow Run sands, 
the writer made a special trip from Belmont, W. Va., to Cow 
Run P. O., Washington County, Ohio, and traced the Wash- 
ington coal to the head of Cow run, and along the ridge road 
running east and west on the south side of the stream. 

A very marked anticline crosses Cow run slightly over a 
mile above its mouth, and the first oil well in the field, drilled 
on the Samuel Dye farm with a spring pole in 1861, was lo- 
cated near the crest of this arch. In this well a good flow of 
oil was encountered in a sand the top of which was struck at 
a depth of 183 feet, according to W. V. Torner of Cow Run, 
Ohio. The sand was named the First Cow Run, and another 
sand coming 400 feet lower in the measures was called the 
Second Cow Run. The Pittsburg coal, locally designated the 
"Limestone Vein," crops in the hills about 120 feet above the 
well. 

The following section was obtained on Cow Run by com- 
bining a section measured with aneroid by the writer down 
the hill with the log of the Centennial No. 6 welP : 

Cow Run, Ohio, Section. 



Thickness. Total. 

Ft. Ft. 

1. Sandstone, massive, coarse, 

brown, friable, Lower Ma- 
rietta 20 20 

2. Coal, Washington 1 21 

3. Fire clay sliale, Washington 

(typical) 15 36 

4. Sandstone, massive, iVianning- 

ton and concealed 110 146 

5. Concealed 54 200 

6. Sandstone, massive, Uniontown 35 235 

7. Coal, Uniontown 1 236 



21' 



125' 



90' 



Dunkard 
146' 
Series. 



4 Production, Technology and Uses of Petroleum and Its Products, 

by S. W. Peckham, Census Office, page 50; 1885. 

5 Bulletin No. 1, pp. 168-169, Ohio Geol. Survey; 1903. 



WEST VraGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



283 



6" 


6 



Union- 
town 

Lime- 
stone 



Thickness. 
Ft. 

8. Fire clay, red shale, and black 

slate 1 

9. Limestone, gray 

and hard 0' 

10. Red shale 6 

11. Limestone, gray 

and hard 1 

12. Red shale, dark and concealed 30 

13. Fire clay (Lower Uniontown 

coal horizon) 5 

14. Shale 10 

15. Concealed 5 

16. Sandstone, massive, coarse, 

brown, Sewlckley 40 

17. Shale 2 

18. Coal, Sewlckley, "Sand Rock 

vein", 2' to 3 



Total. 
Ft. 

237 



245 



275 

280 
290 
295 

335 
337 

340 



104' 



Mononga- 
hela 294' 
Series. 



19. Fire clay, red and variegated 

shale 25 365 

20. Sandstone, massive, medium 

grained f. 15 380 

21. Concealed 48 428 

Centennial Well No. 6 Record. 

22. Conductor (mostly limestone 

outcrops here) 11 439 

23. Pittsburg Coal 1 440 

24. Calcareous ghale 9 449 

25. Lime 10 459 

26. Red soapstone 5 464 

27. Red shale 8 472 

28. White shale 42 514 

29. Lime 10 524 

30. Mixed shale 5 529 

31. Shale and water 19 548 

32. Red shale 10 558 

33. Sand 5 563 

34. White shale 20 583 

35. Red shale 22 605 

36. White shale 23 628 

37. Sand 3 631 

38. Red rock (Pittsburg Red Shale) 32 663 

39. Sand 11 674 

40. White slate 40 714 

41. Sand ] 4 718 

} Saltsburg 

42. Sand J •. . 4 722 

43. Coal, smut rock (Bakerstown) . 1 723 



100' 



223' 



60' 



Conemaugh 
489' 
Series. 



284 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Thickness. Total. 
Ft. Ft. 

44. White slate 4 727 

45. Lime, (Pine Creek) 8 735 

46. Gray shale 2 737 

47. Lime (5) 9 742 

48. Fire clay 4 746 

49. Lime 7 753 

50. First Cow Run Sand (Buffalo) 47 800 

51. Red rock 23 823 

52. White shale 46 869 

53. Dark shale 50 919 

54. Sand (Mahoning) 10 929 

55. White shale 14 943 

56. Pale red shale, very hard 64 1007 

57. Lime 5 ' 1012 

58. Sand 10 1022 

59. Black shale 16 1038 

60. White shale 30 1068 

61. Sand, (Lower Freeport) 10 1078 

62. Coal, (Upper Kittanning) 1 1079 

63. Sand, (Lower Freeport) 39 1118 

64. Dark shale 5 ' 1123 

Q5. Sand, gas 7 1130 

66. White shale 11 1141 

67. Coal, smut rock (Lower Kittan- 

ning) 1 1142 

68. Fire clay ♦. 20 1162 

69. Sand 2 1164 

70. Sandy shale 6 1170 

71. Black shale 4 1174 

72. Slate, black 30 1204 

73. Second Cow Run Sand (Home- 

wood) 64 1268 

74. Black slate 3 1271 

75. Black slate 97 1368 

76. Sand 83 1451 

77. Dark shale 57 1508 

78. Sand 12 1520 

79. Black shale 53 1573 

80. Salt Sand? (no water) 9 1582 

81. Light shale 6 1588 

82. Black shale 23 1611 

83. Big Injun Sand 2 1613 

84. Dark shale 39 1652 

85. Sand 2 1654 

86. Dark shale 7 1661 

87. Sand 7 1668 

88. Sandy shale, hard 22 1690 

89. Dark shale,'hard 63 1753 

90. Dark shale, softer 20 1773 

91. Dark shale 20 1793 

92. Dark shale, hard 10 1803 



30' 



176' 



150' 



63' 



62' 



Allegheny 

275' 
Series. 



247' Pottsville Series. 



160' Mauch Chunk. 



192' Pocono. 



WEST VIEGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 285 

In the portion of the section made from the well record, 
the identifications by the writer are inserted in parentheses. 
In this region the Pittsburg coal-Ames limestone interval is 
only 200 feet, as determined by logs of wells near Belmont, 
W. Va., as opposed to 198 feet in the Glenova", Ohio County, 
W. Va., Boring, 55 miles northeastward. Hence, formation 
No. 43 should represent the Bakerstown coal, coming as it 
does about 80 feet below the horizon of the Ames limestone. 
The First Cow Run sand, coming 30 feet below this coal bed 
and 100 feet below the Ames limestone, according to Ohio 
geologists, Minshall and Bownocker, evidently correlates with 
the Buffalo sandstone of the Conemaugh series. Again where 
the Buffalo sandstone outcrops alorrg the crest of the Burn- 
ing Springs anticline in Pleasants and Wood counties, W. 
Va., it is generally quite massive, pebbly, grayish white in 
color, and resembles an oil and gas bearing horizon, while the 
Saltsburg sandstone is close-grained, buff in color and fre- 
quently quite broken and shaly. Therefore it appears that the 
First Cow Run sand of Ohio correlates with the Little Dun- 
kard Sand of the driller of eastern Greene County, Pa., and 
the Buffalo sandstone of the Conemaugh series. Since the 
name "First Cow Run Sand" is two years older than the Dun- 
kard oil field of Greene County, Pa-, it should replace the name 
"Little Dunkard" for the same horizon. 

The Dunkard Sands. 

The oil well drillers of the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area 
place the Dunkard sand at any point between 300 and 700 feet 
below the Pittsburg coal bed. The true Dunkard sand, how- 
ever, received its name originally from Dunkard creek, Greene 
County, Pa., near the mouth of which some wells produced 
oil from this sand in 1863 where it correlates with the Buffalo 
sandstone near the base of the Conemaugh series, coming 
there 440 feet below the Pittsburg coal and about 150 feet 
below the Ames limestone. It now appears that oil was en- 
countered at this horizon two years earlier, in 1861, on Cow 



6 Introduction, Ohio-Brooke-Hancock Report, W. Va. Geol. Survey; 
1906. 



286 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

run, Washington County, Ohio, and the sand named the 
First Cow Run. However, the term "Dunkard Sand" in east- 
ern Greene County, Pa-, later included both the Buffalo and 
Mahoning sandstones of the Conemaugh series. The Buffalo 
division was there called the Little Dunkard, and the Mahon- 
ing, the Big Dunkard, the latter coming about 500 feet below 
the Pittsburg coal. 

The horizon of the true Big Dunkard sand in Wirt county 
is definitely shown in the Deaver Fork section on page 57, 
coming there 241 feet below the Ames limestone and directly 
over the Upper Freeport coal bed. It was formerly supposed 
that the first oil producing rock at Burning Springs represent- 
ed one of the Dunkard sands, but the Deaver Fork section 
shows the former coming 308 feet below the Ames limestone, 
15 feet below the Upper Freeport coal, and correlating with 
the Upper Freeport or Butler sandstone of the Allegheny 
series. 

It appears to be the top portion of the Big Dunkard sand 
that is the oil producing horizon along the west side of the 
crest of the Burning Springs anticline from the head of Net- 
tle run south to the Little Kanawha river. The log of the 
Rathbone Oil Tract No. 28 well (W 59) on Burning Springs 
run, one-third mile above the mouth of the latter, shows this 
sand 37 feet thick, coming ^6 feet above the top of the Burn- 
ing Springs (Upper Freeport) sand. There it has been called 
quite generally by the drillers the First Cow Run sand. The 
horizon has also produced some oil on Anns run of West 
Fork river, 2 miles southwest from Creston. 

The Burning Springs Sand. 

The first well to be drilled at Burning Springs solely for 
oil, an account of which is given on page 278, obtained its 
production at a depth of 303 feet, or about 350 feet below the 
Ames limestone in a sand that has been erroneously called 
the Dunkard and Cow Run. The log of the Fox & Mueller 
No. 2 well (W 49), published under the name "Roberts Well 
No. i" on page 463 of Vol. I (A) of the W. Va. Geol. Survey 
reports, shows the base of this sand coming 340 feet below the 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 287 

Ames limestone. Likewise the Deaver Fork section, page 
57, shows this same oil horizon coming i6 feet under the 
Upper Freeport coal, and 308 feet below the Ames limestone. 
Hence, this oil bearing stratum correlates with the Upper 
Freeport or Butler sandstone of the Allegheny series and not 
with the Mahoning (Big Dunkard) sandstone of the Cone- 
maugh. The writer has therefore named it the Burning 
Springs sand, since the first well in the Burning Springs field 
was brought in at that horizon. The sand has produced a 
great amount of oil in this region. The Rathbone Tract No. 
I well (W 57), located on the north bank of the Little Kana- 
wha river, one-half mile below the mouth of Burning Springs 
run, has produced oil from the Burning Springs sand since 
i860 and was still making in September, 1909, 30 to 40 bbls. 
a month. The sand also produces oil near the crest of the ex- 
tension of the Burning Springs arch in the southeast corner 
of Spring Creek district, Wirt county, on Anns run, coming 
there about 580 feet below the horizon of the Pittsburg coal, 
as estimated from the outcrop of the great Mannington sand- 
stone cliff in the hills above. This sand is not productive in 
Roane and Calhoun counties, but it is recorded in the logs 
of the numerous borings for oil and gas scattered over their 
area, where it frequently joins with the Mahoning (Dunkard) 
and Buffalo above, making a great mass 140 to 150 feet in 
thickness that the drillers quite often refer to as the Big 
Dunkard sand. 

The Gas Sand. 

The term Gas sand is frequently applied in the northern 
end of the State to a gaseous stratum coming 650 feet below 
the Pittsburg coal bed. As used in the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun 
area, it probably correlates with the lower division of the 
Lower Freeport sandstone (see Deaver Fork section, page 
57. It may be this horizon that produces the oil on Oil- 
rock run, Wirt county, instead of the Second Cow Run. 

The Second Cow Run Sand. 

The Second Cow Run sand was originally designated 
from a stream of that name in Washington county, Ohio, 



288 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



I, Moss Run, O. 

Total. 
Ft. 



18 
20 
21.5 

25.5 

36.5 

38.5 

39. 

45. 

48, 

54, 

58, 



21.5' 



Monongahela 
Series. 



along which it produces oil. There, as shown by the Cow 
Run, Ohio, section, page 282, it is 64 feet thick, coming 404 
feet below the First Cow Run sand and 765 feet below the 
top of the Pittsburg coal. The Deaver Fork section, page 
57, shows it 588 feet below the Ames limestone. 

Mr. W. V. Torner of Cow Run, Ohio, kindly furnished 
the writer the following detailed log of a well kept with great 
care by his brother, J. S. H. Torner. This well is located one 
mile and a third north of Cow Run P. O., Washington coun- 
ty, Ohio, at Moss Run P. O., and was drilled by Torner et al- 
in 1878: 

Big Medicine Well No. 

Thickness 
Ft. 

1. Conductor 8 

2. Limestone, blue, Redstone .... 10 

3. Slate, black 2 

4. Coal, Pittsburg 1.5 

5. Slate 4 

6. Lime, white 11 

7. Shale, white 2 

8. Lime, white 1 

9. Shale, red 6 

10. Lime, blue 3 

11. Lime, bastard, or iron ore 6 

12. Shale, red 4 

13. Lime, bastard, hard 3 

14. Shale, red 7 

15. Sandstone, blue 7 

16. Shale, white, mixed with grit. . 2 

17. Shale, red 6 

18. Shale, white, with niggerhead. 3 

19. Shale, red 5 

20. Shale, white 2 

21. Slate, black 1.5 

22. Coal, Little Clarksburg 1.5 

23. Sandstone, blue and hard 5 

24. Shale, white 2 

25. Shale, red 13 

26. Sandstone, blue and hard 6 

27. Shale, white 3 

28. Shale, red 7 

29. Lime, buff 5 

30. Lime, white, mixed with nigger- 

heads 5 

31. Shale, red 8 

32. Lime, blue and black 8 

33. Shale, red and mixed (should 

contain Ames limestone hori- 
zon near base) 63 



61 

68 
75 
77 
83 
86 
91 
93 
95 
96.5 

101.5 
103.5 
116.5 
122.5 
125.5 
132.5 
137.5 

142.5 
150.5 
158.5 



75' 



221.5 



125' 



Conemaugh 

508.5' 
Series. 



WEST VmOINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



289 



Thickness. 
Ft. 

34. Shale, red and mixed 5.6 

35. Sand, blue and hard 5 

36. Shale, blue 10 

37. Shale, red 8 

38. Shale, blue 3 

39. Sand and lime, black 3 

40. Shale, red 6 

41. Shale, white 5 

42. Sand, blue, lime, etc 13 

43. Shale, white, mixed with lime 15 

44. Lime, gritty 5 

45. Shale, white 6 

46. Coal, Bakerstown 1.5 

47. Shale, white 7.5 

48. Lime, white. Pine Creek 8 

49. Shale, white 4 

50. Shale, red 21 

51. Sand, blue 2 

52. Shale, white and variegated, 

mixed with grit 41 

53. Shale, black, and coal, Brush 

Creek 5 

54. Shale, blue and white 11 

55. Shale, red and variegated, caves 

badly 10 

56. Lime, white 11 

57. Shale, white, with grit 15 

58. Shale, white and black, with 

grit, black, caved badly..... 87 

59. Sand, blue. Upper Freeport.... 10 

60. Shale, white 3 

61. Lime, white and black, Upper 

Freeport 40^ 

62. Coal, Lower Freeport 1 

63. Sandstone, white, Lower Free- 

port ~ 46 

64. Coal, Upper Kittanning 2 

65. Shale, black 16 

66. Sand and lime in layers 52 

67. Black shale 14 

68. Fire clay, white, Lower Kittan- 

ning 3 

69. Sand, white 14 

70. Shale, black 10 

71. Coal and shale. Clarion 3 

72. Lime, white 21 

73. Sand, Second Cow Run (Home- 

wood) 65 



Total. 




Ft. 




227 




232 




242 




250 




253 




256 




262 


86' 


267 




280 




295 




300 




306 




307.5 




315 




323 




327 




348 


88.5' 


350 




391 




396 




407 




417 




428 


134' 


443 




530 




540 




543 






54' 


583 




584 




630 


48' 


632 




648 




700 




714 


85' 


717 




731 




741 


27' 


744 




765 


21' 



Allegheny 
235' 
Series. 



830 



65' Pottsville Series. 



19 



290 mineraIj resources of wirt-roane-calhoun area. 

25' of top very hard and 

black and battered bits. 
1st oil show at 798' 
2nd oil show at 804 
3rd oil show at 808 
4th oil show at 830 
Tools were lost at 830' in depth. 

The above record shows that the Second Cow Run sand 
of Ohio correlates with the Homewood sandstone or top 
member of' the Pottsville series. Several of the oil wells at 
California on Hughes river where the axis of. the arch crosses 
the latter stream, get their production from the true Second 
Cow Run sand, coming as it does about 500 feet below the 
Ames limestone and no feet below the level of Hughes river. 
The oil pool one mile up Oilrock run of Standingstone creek 
also may belong at this horizon- 

The Salt Sand. 

The Salt sand of the drillers in West Virginia usually 
constitutes the main portion of the Pottsville beds, and has 
been so named on account of the large quantity of salt water 
generally encountered therein. It is sometimes divided up 
into three divisions called ist, 2nd, and 3rd Salt sand. It is a 
very important oil and gas horizon in West Virginia. The 
Volcano field of Wood county, part of the Hughes river and 
Burning Springs fields of Wirt, the Flat Fork of "Poca" and 
Stover fork of Reedy fields Of Roane, and the Yellow Creek 
and Steer Creek fields of Calhoun all produce oil at this hori- 
zon. The Thirty-foot and Five Hundred-foot sands of the 
Burning Springs field are simply different divisions of the 
Salt sand or rather of the Pottsville series. 

The Maxton Sand. 

The Maxton sand of Tyler county occurs about midway 
in the Mauch Chunk series. It ranges from 10 to 80 feet in 
thickness. This stratum produces large quantities of oil in 
the vicinity of Burton, Wetzel County. In the Wirt-Roane- 
Calhoun area it frequently lies in direct contact with the Big 
Lime, and is productive only on Island run of Henry fork in 
Roane, and on Yellow creek in Calhoun. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 291 

The Big Injun Sand. 

The Big Injun sand is the easiest stratum to be identified 
by the driller in the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area, coming as it 
does directly under the great Greenbrier limestone, called by 
the oil fraternity the "Big Lime." In northern West Virginia 
the Big Injun sand reaches a thickness of 300 feet. Sometimes 
the uppermost 30 to 40 feet is separated from the main bed 
by 5 to 15 feet of dark slate as in the lower end of the Sisters- 
ville field of Tyler county. This upper portion has there been 
named the Keener sand from a farm of that name on which a 
paying well was found at this horizon. Sometimes the bot- 
tom portion is separated from the main bed by a band of slate 
15 to 25 feet thick. This bottom division of the Big Injun 
has been named the Squaw sand. In the Wirt-Roane-Cal- 
houn area the Big Injun sand seldom reaches 100 feet in 
thickness and is generally only 40 to 50 feet thick. It has pro- 
duced oil all along the crest of the Burning Springs arch in 
Wirt county north of the Little Kanawha river. In Roane 
county the great oil fields of Rock, McKown, and Green 
creeks of "Poca" river, the Tariff-Bright of Lefthand and 
Henry Fork, Clover run of Henry fork, and the great gas 
fields of Geary and eastern Walton districts, all belong in the 
Big Injun sand. 

In Calhoun county it has produced some gas southeast 
of Brooksville, and on Barnes run; also in southern Calhoun 
at Minnora and Nicut. On Rowles run there occur 3 or 4 
small oil wells at the base of the Big Lime in what is prob- 
ably the Keener portion of the Big Injun sand. 

The Berea Grit Sand. 

The first sand generally to be recognized by the drillers 
below the Big Injun is the Berea Grit sand, coming 475 to 
525 feet below the top of the Big Lime. It ranges in thickness 
from 25 to 50 feet, and is the great oil producing stratum of 
Lee run of Roane county, and Rowles run and Yellow creek 
of Calhoun. It is also the great gas horizon just north of the 
town of Spencer and in the southern portion of Curtis district, 



292 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Roane county, on Stover fork of Reedy creek. The Berea ap- 
pears to be the basal member of the Pocono sandstone group 
and has been so classified by the writer in the general sec- 
tions of the rocks in the three counties given in Chapter III. 

OIL AND GAS DEVELOPMENT IN THE WIRT- 
ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Early History. 

A brief account of the early history of the oil and gas 
development in Wirt county was given at the beginning of 
this Chapter in discussing its earliest development in the 
State. In 1897 the Flat Fork of "Poca" gas field was opened 
up by the American Oil & Development Co. This was the 
first paying pool of either oil or gas in Roane county. A num- 
ber of shallow wells were drilled up the Reedy and Spring 
creek valleys, but these were all dry holes. The greatest de- 
velopment in Roane, however, has taken place during the 
last 3 years, since the opening of the Big Injun sand oil field 
southeast from Walton and the extension southwestward of 
the Rowles run field. 

In Calhoun county the Yellow Creek field was opened 
about 10 years ago, the oil being found there in the Salt, Max- 
ton, and Berea Grit sands. In the latter part of 1902 the 
Carter Oil Company opened up the Berea Grit sand pool on 
Rowles run. 

The detailed development of the area will now be taken 
•up by counties and districts. 

WIRT COUNTY WELL RECORDS. 

The only source of information as to the character and 
thickness of the several formations of economic interest where 
they lie deeply buried below drainage is the logs of the 
numerous borings that have been sunk for oil and gas over 
the area of the three counties both by individuals and corpor- 
ations- Through their courtesy the writer has been enabled 
to collect the logs of a large number of wells, on most of 
which levels were taken in the field while gathering data for 
this report. Quite a number of these records are very meagre 




a o 



■■V ■^' 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 293 

in that frequently only the principal oil and gas horizons and 
sometimes one or more coal beds are recorded. The Pittsburg 
coal bed, the great "key rock" of the oil fields in the northern 
end of the State, is quite generally absent in Wirt, Roane and 
Calhoun counties, and for this reason the drillers have con- 
siderable trouble to identify the sands above the Big Lime, 
the latter being the best "key rock" of the area. The import- 
ance from a scientific standpoint of keeping accurate and de- 
tailed logs of all strata passed through cannot be overestimat- 
ed. It is of special importance that the exact depth and thick- 
ness of the horizon be noted at which oil, gas, and water are 
encountered ; also the position, thickness, and character of all 
coals, red beds, limestones, sandstones and dark slates. In 
the Preface to Vol. I (A) of the W. Va. Geol. Survey reports, 
I. C. White has the following to say concerning the import- 
ance and value of such records: 

" * * * The geologic data thus given to the citizens of our 
domain practically free of expense, has cost the operators millions of 
dollars to secure, in their fruitful search with the drill. That they 
will spend many millions more in piercing the rocky cHvelope of the 
State for these treasures of light and fuel, goes without saying. The 
writer has endeavored to enlist the aid of the Carnegie Institution of 
Washington, D. C, in an effort to secure more carefully kept records 
rendered available to geology through this enormous expenditure of 
money in drilling for oil and gas in West Virginia, but as yet the 
officers of that Institution have failed to embrace this opportunity to 
add so immensely to the sum of human knowledge at only a small 
outlay in money. The great oil producing companies would most 
heartily co-operate in any such endeavor by giving facilities for se- 
curing samples of the drillings, making more numerous and accurate 
(steel line) measurements, etc., but they cannot be expected to do 
such purely scientific work at their own expense, and entirely on 
their own initiative. If the Survey could secure the funds to employ 
two men at modest salaries ($60 to $75 per month), one to at- 
tend the drill by day, and the other by night, recording measure- 
ments and securing samples from every sand pumping, the results 
thus obtained would prove of the greatest value, especially in the 
distant future of the State, when the search for oil and gas shall 
have long been ended in their exhaustion, and a knowledge of the 
State's deeply buried coal resources shall prove of great value to her 
citizens. It is hoped that some means of securing and preserving 
such valuable data now rendered possible in so many counties, may 
soon be obtained before the- enormous expenditures required in drill- 
ing operations shall have ended forever." 

The accompanying table contains the abbreviated records 
of over 50 wells in Wirt county as well as the tidal elevations 
of several other wells that either did not reach down to the 



294 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Big Lime, or their records were not obtainable by the writer 
at this time. These wells are numbered consecutively from 
I up to 98, and grouped by magisterial districts, the serial 
number in each case corresponding to the number of the same 
well on the economic geology map accompanying this report 
in a separate cover. Similar tables are found on subsequent 
pages for Roane and Calhoun counties, and in most cases 
where one of these tabulated wells is mentioned in the body 
of the text, the serial number of the well along with the in- 
itial letter of the county in which it is found is added in pa- 
rentheses. Thus (W 96) refers to the serial number of a 
tabulated well in the Wirt county list, or the W. J. McPher- 
son No. I well, located in Tucker district, Wirt county, one 
mile and a half south 5°-io° west of Morristown P. O. In a 
similar manner (R 100) and (C 330) refer to the serial num- 
bers of wells given in the Roane and Calhoun tables respec- 
tively. 

Under the column headed "Owner" in the table of well 
records for Wirt county, the following abbreviations are 
used : 

Big Island Big Island Run Oil Company. 

Bills O. & G Bills Oil & Gas Company. 

Carter O. Co Carter Oil Company. 

Clark-Hines Clark-Hines Oil & Gas Company. 

Clark O. Co Clark Oil Company. 

Donoho O. Co. Donoho Oil Company. 

East & West East & West Oil Company. 

Eliz. O. & G Elizabeth Oil & Gas Company. 

Kef er O. Co Kef er Oil Company. 

Midnight O. Co Midnight Oil Company. 

Rathbone O. Co Rathbone Oil Company. 

Roberts O. Co Roberts Oil Company. 

South Penn South Penn Oil Company. 

Tenderfoot O. C Tenderfoot Oil Company. 

White O. Co White Oil Company- 

Zinn-Hazel Zinn-Hazel Oil & Gas Company. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 295 

In the elevation column the letter "B" indicates that the 
elevation of the top of the hole was obtained by aneroid 
checked on near by U. S, G. Survey spirit level elevations ; 
the letter "L", by spirit level measurement. The elevations of 
the top of the 1iole are expressed in feet above tide. In the 
elevation column under the Big Lime the figures express feet 
below tide. Depths and thicknesses are expressed in feet. 



296 MINERAL RESOURCES OP WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Summarized Record of 



NAME OF WELL 



Ellsworth Buck No. 1 

Thos. Foster No. 1 

Gilbert Rothwell No. 1 

Thos. Fought No. 1 

O. S. Fought No. 1 

Wm. Ratliff No. 1 

D. M. Miller No. 1 

David Cain No. 1 

H. D. Foutty No. 1 

Ben F. Twyman No. 1 

H. D. Foutty No. 1 

H. D. Foutty No. 1 

Jos. Clauston No. 1 

Isaac G. Deems Hrs. No. 1 

A. C. Devo 

A. C. Devo No. 1 

A. C. Devo , 

A. C. Devo 

Geo. S. Lemon No. 1 

Sam Perrin No. 1 

John Perrin No. 1 

Geo. S. Lemon No. 5 

Geo. S. Lemon No. 1 

G. W. Lockhart No. 1 

R. A. Cunningham No. 2 

R. A. Cunningham No. 6 

J. P. Beckner No. 3 

Thos. Lewis No. 3 

Rebecca Mayle No. 1 

David R. Neal, Jr., No. 1 

Vernon, Ashley & Hall No. 11. 
Vernon, Ashley & Hall No. 25. 
Vernon, Ashley & Hall No. 2.. 

Matilda Donoho No. 2 

Pope Bros. No. 41 

D. S. Ritchie No. 1 

Geo. White No. 1... 

Patterson No. 1 

Jas. Bell No. 1 

McCush No. 1 

J. S. Kidwell No. 4 

Kidwell Hrs. No. 1.. 

Simpson No. 1 



■Location-District 



G. H. Mealy N0..I 

J. N. Copeland No. 5 

Scott Bros. No. 4 

Rathbone O. Tract No. 50. 



Newark . . 
Newark . . 
Newark . . 
Newark . . 
Newark . . 

Clay 

Clay 

Clay 

Grant (Rit) 
Clay .... 
Clay .... 

Clay 

Clay 

Clay 

Clay 

Clay .... 

Clay 

Clay 

Clay 

Clay .... 

Clay 

Clay 

Clay .... 

Clay 

Clay 

Clay 

Clay 

Clay 

Clay 

Clay 

Clay 

Clay 

Clay 

Clay 

Clay 

Clay 

Clay 

Clay 

B. Springs 
B. Springs 
B. Springs 
B. Springs 
B. Springs 
B. Springs 
B Springs 
B. Springs 
B. Springs 



Owner 



Thos. Dotson 

Thos. Foster . . . 
Midnight O. Co. .. 
Midnight O. Co. .. 
J. M. McCormick. 
J. M. McCormick. 
J. M. McCormick. 
John Roberts 



Elevation A, L 



Wm. Scott 

J. M. McCormick. 



Mr. Allen 

John Musseter. . . . 

Roberts O. Co 

Roberts O. Co 

Roberts O. Co 

Roberts O. Co 

Geo. S. Lemon 

Roberts O. Co 

Roberts O. Co 

Clark O. Co 

Clark O. Co 

Tenderfoot O. Co.. 

Bickle Bros 

Bickle Bros 

Bills O. & G 

Fairmont O. Co. . . . 

Big Island 

Bickle Bros 

Donoho O. Co 

Donoho O. Co 

Donoho O. Co 

Donoho O. Co 

East & West 

Patterson & McCor, 

White O. Co 

Patterson. . 

J. Bell et al 

J. P. Davidson.... 

Zinn-Hazel 

Donoho O. Co 

P. W. Minshall 

G. H. & M. Mealy. . 

G. N. Grow 

S. M. Whan 

Roberts Bros 



615L 
655B 
710B 
710B 
625B 
606L 
610B 
660B 
615B 
627B 
622L 



750B 
625B 
620B 
610B 
610B 
605B 
950B 
930B 
63 OB 
63 OB 
630B 
805B 
950B 
660B 
700B 
700B 
1015B 
820B 
800B 
795B 
865B 
910B 
750B 
710B 
770B 
740B 
77(5B 
1155B 
760L 
823L 
785B 
1005B 
1230B 
1225B 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



297 



Wells in Wirt County. 



BIB LIHE 


1 BID INJUN SAND |' BEREA SAND 


I 

(2 


Producing Sand. 


i 


[Elevation 
Depth Below 
Top 1 Tide 
1 Top 


r 

Thick- ; Depth Thick- Depth 
ness Top ness Top 


1 
Thick- 
ness 


8 










^ 






1025 
2227 
(1300) 




1 








(1700) 








Big Injun 


?, 












! 


Gas Sand 

Gas Sand 


8 
















4 


















5 


















Second Cow Run ? 

Second Cow Run ? 


6 


















7 














1 




8 














t 

1 




Murphy 

Carroll & Murphy 

Carroll 

Murphy 


9 














1 




10 


















11 








" 








420 
250 
240 


1? 














1 


^^ 














1 




14 














1 


Second Cow Run 

Second Cow Run 

Second Cow Run 

Second Cow Run 

Second Cow Run 

Salt Sand 

Salt Sand 

Murphy 

Murphy , 

Murphy 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Minshall 

Minshall 

Minshall 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Gas Sand 

Gordon ? 


ir> 














1 




16 














i 




17 














i 




18 














j 


150 + 

708 


19 














1 


?0 

















?1 
















412 
648 


?? 
















93 
















?4 


















9'> 


















96 
















395 


97 














1 


28 


















?9 








1285 










?0 
















?1 


787 


13 
36 


95 

80 


963 
970 


10 
30 






994 

1020 

530 


^? 


825 






33 








34 
















3R 








991 


16 








Big Injun 


36 














Second Cow Run 


37 


















38 








1800 

1086 

1338 

942 

. 920 












39 


968 


198 

160 

50 

37 


118 
92 

130 
60 












40 


1315 


74 

91 

135 






1423% 

1039 

1480 


Big Injun 


41 


810 






Big Injun 


4? 


860 


1465 


15 


Big Injun and Berea 

Burning Springs 

Burning Springs 

Salt Sand 

Salt Sand 


43 
44 

















45 




1 












46 




1 










1341 


47 

















298 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Summarized Record of 



NAME OF WELL 



Rathbone O. Tract No. 54 . . . 

Fox & Mueller No. 2 

Roberts Bros. No. 55 

Roberts Bros. No. 5 

Roberts Bros. No. 8 

Rathbone O. Tract No. 51 . . . 
Rathbone O. Tract No. 52 . . . 
Rathbone O. Tract No. 53 . . . 
Rathbone O. Tract No. 49 . . . 
Rathbone O. Tract No. 1... 
Rathbone O. Tract No. 27... 
Rathbone O. Tract No. 28 . . . 
Rathbone O. Tract No. 30... 

Roberts Bros. No. 28 

W. M. Merrill No. 1 

Thos. O'Brien No. 1 

McConaughey Bros. No. 2... 
McConaughey Bros. No. 1 . . . 

M. J. Wolverton No. 1 

L. R. Roberts No. 2 

A. B. Wilson No. 1 

W. M. Dawson No. 1 

L. R. Roberts No. 3 

Sunset No. 2 

Marshall Vandale No. 1 

Melbourne McCloskey No. 1. 

Geo. Starkey No. 1 

Evaline Lee No. 1 

C. E. Davis No. 1 

Caldwell O. Co. Land No. 1. 
Caldwell O. Co. Land No. 2. 

P. G. Marks No. 1 

Wm. Devore No. 1 

Mary J. McCoy No. 2 

Jas. Conrad No. 2 

David Bumgardner No. 1 . . . 

Frank Lynch No. 1 

Lydia Boyle No. 1 

W. W. Snider No. 1 

County Farm No. 1 



Lacation-Oistrici 



Chas. Richardson No. 1... 
J. H. Bumgardner No. 5 . . . 
J. H. Bumgardner No. 1. . . 
C. H. Bumgardner No. 2 . . . 
C. H. Bumgardner No. 1 . . . 
J. W. Evans coal test well. 

Clayton Casto No. 1 

F. Gilbert coal test well. . . 
W. J. McPhearson No. 1 . . . 

H. L. Hoffman No. 1 

R. J. Moore No. 1 



B. Springs 
B. Springs 
B. Springs 
B. Springs 
B. Springs 
B. Springs 
B. Springs 
B. Springs 
B. Springs 
B. Springs 
B. Springs 
B. Springs 
B. Springs 
B. Springs 
B. Springs 
B. Springs 
B. Springs 
B. Springs 
B. Springs 
B. Springs 
B. Springs 
B. Springs 
B. Springs 
Spg'. Creek 
Sp§. Creek 
Spg. Creek 
Spg. Creek 
Spg. Creek 
Spg. Creek 
Spg. Creek 
Spg. Creek 
Spg. Creek 
Spg. Creek 
Reedy .... 
Reedy .... 
Reedy ... 
Elizabeth. 
Elizabeth. 
Elizabeth . 
Elizabeth. 
Elizabeth. 
Elizabeth . 
Elizabeth. 
Elizabeth. 
Elizabeth. 
Slate(Wd.) 
Tucker . . . 
1 uclser . . . 
Tucker . . . 
Tucker . . . 
Tucker . . 



Owner 



Roberts Bros 

Roberts Bros 

W. C. Edwards & Co 
W. C. Edwards & Co 
W. C. Edwards & Co 

Roberts Bros 

Roberts Bros 

Roberts Bros 

Roberts Bros 

Rathbone O. Co.. 

Roberts Bros 

Roberts Bros 

Roberts Bros 

W. C. Edwards & Co 
Graham & Co. . . . 



Carter O. Co 

Carter O. Co 

South Penn 

South Penn 

South Penn 

South Penn 

South Penn 

G. L. Cabot 

Bickle Bros 

Clark & Hines . . . . 
Mobley & Grossman 

John Krepps 

G. L. Cabot 

Clark & Hines 

Clark & Hines 

Clark-Hines 

Clark-Hines 

Kefer O. Co 

Haymaker & Shaw 

South Penn 

Brown & Godfrey. . 
Brown & Godfrey. . 
W.C.Patterson & Co 



Richardson et al. 
Richardson et al. 

Eliz, O. & G 

Eliz. O. & G. 

W. H. Wolf 

South Penn ? 



Carter O. Co. 
Carter O. Co. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 
Wells In Wirt County.— Continued. 



299 



■16 LIME 


■leiMUNSMO \ 


lEREA SAND 


epth 




> 


Depth 
Top 


ElentlM 
Below 
Tide 
Top 


Thick- 
ness 


Depth 
Top 


Thiclt- ; 

MSk 


Depth Thieic 
Top .ess 


_ Producing Sand 

5 


S 
















648 

2010 

412 

342 


Burning Springs 

B. Springs & Salt 

Burning Springs 

Burning Springs 

Burning Springs 

Burning Springs 

Burning Springs 

Burning Springs 

Burning Springs 

Burning Springs 

Burning Springs 

Big Dunkard & B. Spgs. 
Salt Sand 


48 


930 




115 


1045 


50 


1480 


10 


49 
50 
















51 
















5? 


1157 


157 


70 


1227 


86 


1695 


15 


1730 
524 
511 

1265 


53 
54 
















55 


1160 


155 


70 


1230 








56 










57 
















232 

251 

1062 

1254 


58 
















59 


( 930) 


285 
80 




1003 
1226 


59 
28 






60 


(1110) 






Gas Sand 


61 








6? 





















68 


1542 
1560 
1621 


907 
900 
872 


88 
118 
101 


1630 
1678 
1722 


59 
30 
51 


2070 
2090 


10 
25 


2701 
2205 
2213 
1983 
1877 
2043 
2665 
2860 
1750 


Salt Sand 

Salt Sand 

Keener Sand 

Salt Sand 

Salt Sand 

Salt Sand 

Keener Sand 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 


64 
65 
66 








67 
















68 








2200 
2043 
1630 
1674 








69 


1968 
1470 


898 
815 
725 


75 
160 


70 
45 
38 


2458 


4 


70 
71 


1550 






7? 










73 
















1100 
1690 
2404 
1355 
1988 
784 
896 




74 


1641 


996 

775 














75 


1835 


120 


1955 


44 


2387 






76 




B. Spgs.& Second Cow R. 

Salt & Big Injun 

Burning Springs 

Burning Springs 

Big Injun r 


77 


1423 


688 




1580 




1980 




78 
79 
















80 








1702 








81 














1800 
1900 




8? 


















83 


















84 




















85 


1660 


955 




1660 


192 


2254 


6 


3059 




86 






87 




















88 


















Gas Sand 

Gas Sand 


89 


















90 


















91 




















9? 




















93 


(1715) 


(1060) 




1715 


240 






2380 
(700) 
2806 
500 
2802 




94 










95 


1870 


1130 


50 


1920 


40 








96 










97 


1800 


1065 


40 


1840 


40 


2240 


12 




98 



300 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

The accompanying table of wells drilled for oil and gas 
in Wirt county is very convenient for ready reference for 
those wells that' penetrate to the Big Lime and the Berea 
Grit, but it is very important that the complete record of a 
number of the wells be given not only to preserve them from 
loss, but for the great fund of information they contain as 
to the presence or absence of coal beds, and also other oil 
and gas horizons than the Big Injun and Berea Grit sands. 
-The accurate location of any well mentioned is readily de- 
termined by its serial number published in the table and 
with the heading of the well record, and also on the econo- 
omic geology map accompanying this report in a separate 
cover. 

Oil and gas haye been produced in every district of Wirt 
county except Tucker and Reedy, with Clay and Burning 
Springs districts far in the lead. The well records and a 
discussion of the various fields will now be taken up by 
magisterial districts. 

NEWARK DISTRICT. 

Newark district, Wirt county, borders on Wood county 
and is almost bisected by the Little Kanawha river. The 
western part of its area lies in the deep synclinal trough to 
the west of the Burning Springs anticline. In the eastern 
portion of the district near the head of Grieves run there 
occurs a small oil well (W 3) on the Gilbert Rothwell farm. 
This well made about 15 barrels daily at a depth of 1300 
feet from what appears to be the Second Cow Run sand, 
coming as it does about 1250 feet below the Washington 
coal, outcropping in the river hill to the southwest at an 
elevation of 635' B-A. T. Six other wells were drilled around 
this well on the Rgthwell and Thos. Thought farms, but all 
were dry except Thos. Fought No. i (W 4) which was a 
gasser from probably the same horizon as the Rothwell 
well (W 3). 

At the east edge of the town of Newark a well (W 2) 
was drilled on the Thos. Foster farm to a depth of 2227 feet, 
according to Mr. Foster, who says they struck the Big Injun 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 301 

sand at a depth of about 1700 feet and got a showing of oil 
in the latter, and some gas ; that no coal was found to amount 
to anything. 

At the northwest edge of Newark district, one-third mile 
northwest of Greencastle, J. M, McCormick of Parkersburg, 
W. Va., put down a dry hole through the Second Cow Run 
sand. 

On Lee creek on the west side of the Little Kanawha 
river, Thos. Dotson put down a dry hole on the Ellsworth 
Buck farm through the Dunkard sand, the record of which 
is as follows: 

Ellsworth Buck No. i Well Record (W i), Newark District. 

Located one mile Southwest of Newark. Authority, Ellsworth 
Buck. 

(Elevation = 615' L-A, T.) Thickness. Total. 

Fjeet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 230 230 

First sand shell, Uniontown 20 250 

Red rock and slate . . . 150 400 

Coal, Sewickley 10 410 

Red rock and slate ', 65 475 

Unrecorded 12 487 

Coal, Pittsburg 7 494 

Unrecorded 116 610 

Red rock and slate 610 

Unrecorded 90 700 

Linaestone 700 

Unrecorded : 35 735 

Sand, shells and red rock 134 869 

Slate and sand shells 87 956 

Second Cow Run? sand (Big Dunkard) 956 

Unrecorded to bottom 69 1025 

(Dry hole). 

The driller Jias erroneously identified the sand at 956 
feet as the Second Cow Run, since the latter belongs 250 feet 
lower in the measures. The writer is rather skeptical as to 
the thickness of the Pittsburg and Sewickley coals reported in 
this well, since the logs of the two coal test borings (W 93) 
and (W 95), located 3 miles to the west and 4}i miles to the 
southwest, published on pages 50 and 52, respectively, fail to 
report such thick coals, and they are very probably mostly 
black slate. 



302 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

CLAY DISTRICT. 

Clay district, Wirt county, adjoins Newark district on 
the east and has Ritchie county for its northern boundary. 
Its area is traversed in a north and south direction by the 
great Burning Springs anticlinal, along the crest of which 
within the area of Clay district occur a large number of pay- 
ing oil and gas wells. Some of the oldest wells in the State 
are located on Hughes river in this district. The famous 
Lemon well (W 19), located on the south bank of Hughes 
river just below the mouth of Flint run obtained its oil pro- 
duction from a sand slightly over 115 feet below river level or 
from the true Second Cow Run sand, coming as it does about 
500 feet below the Ames limestone, the latter outcropping on 
the axis of the arch about 390 feet above the river. This is 
said to be the oldest well that has produced oil in the United 
States, having been drilled during the year 1844. A short ac- 
count of the same is given on page 278 at the beginning of this 
Chapter. 

About one-eighth mile northwest of the old Lemon well 
in a deep ravine on the north side of Hughes river is located 
what is known as the "Old Canny Well" (W 16). It is pro- 
bably the second oldest well in the United States, that is still 
producing oil. Its record is as follows as given the writer by 
a native: 

A. C. Devo No. i Well Record (W 16), Clay District. 

Located on Hughes River, one-fourth mile East of California. 

(Elevation = 620' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

' Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 125 125 

Second Cow Run sand 60 185 

Second pay at .^ 186 

"Made 50 bbls. daily when first drilled in 1864. Still makes 3 bbls. 
Got an abundance of salt water with the oil which has, no doubt, 
contributed a great deal to the long life of the well." 

Wells (W 15), (W 17), (W 18), and (W 19) are all Sec- 
ond Cow Run sand oil producers, the pool here being located 
on the flattened crest of the arch on both sides of the axis, or 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 303 

rather between the steep dip of the east and west "walls" of 
the anticline, which range from three-fourths to one mile 
apart. Southward a short distance, between Flint run and the 
head of Lick run, is located a small Salt sand oil pool east of 
the axis of the arch and just west of the east "wall". As in 
the Sistersville field of Tyler county, the oil horizons along 
the crest of this arch appear to carry large quantities of salt 
water. From the southern end of the Volcano oil field, one 
mile and a half northwest of Petroleum, Ritchie county, the 
axis of the Burning Springs anticline dips rapidly southward 
until a point is reached about 2 miles north of Hughes river 
where it changes to almost horizontal for 2^ miles south of 
Hughes river. From the latter point the axis dips rapidly 
again towards Standingstone creek. Hence the Hughes River 
oil pool is located on a flattened structural table or terrace of 
the arch itself- The same is true of the Burning Springs field, 
as well as the Volcano field of Wood and Ritchie counties. 
Following the axis of the "break" south from Hughes river 
for 2 miles, we come to large oil pools in both the Second 
Cow Run and Big Injun sands, extending from the heads of 
Little Island and Flint runs down the nose of the anticline 
along Wilson fork of Parish fork, containing in all about 100 
wells. A large number of these wells are still producing oil, 
but it is almost impossible to obtain any accurate detailed 
logs of the same. The following is the record of a Big Injun 
sand well at the northwest edge of this pool: 



Vernon, Ashley and Hall No. 25 Well Record (W 32), 

Clay District. 
Located on head of Little Island Run. Authority, J. W. Bell. 
(Elevation = 800' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 787 787 

Big Lime 95 882 

Unrecorded 81 963 

Pay in Big Injun sand (oil) 10 978 

Unrecorded to bottom .' 21 994 

The following is the record of another Big Injun sand 
well Seated one-half mile south of the one given above: 



304 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Vernon, Ashley and Hall No. 2 Well Record (W 33), 
Clay District. 
Located on head of Little Island Run. Authority, J. W. Bell. 
(Elevation = 795' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 200 200 

Sand, First Cow Run ? (Burning Springs) 65 265 

Unrecorded 560 825 

Big Lime 80 905 

Sand and shale, (Keener) 55 960 

Unrecorded 10 970 

Big I njun sand 30 1000 

Unrecorded to bottom 20 1020 

Identifications in parentheses are by the writer. The 
above logs failed to give the initial oil production. However, 
on the east side of the axis of the fold on the head of Flint 
run, the R. A. Cunningham No. 2 well (W 25) had an initial 
production of 100 barrels of oil daily. It produced oil for a 
time from one of the "shallow" sands, probably the Second 
Cow Run, but was later drilled down to the Big Injun. The 
Pope Bros. No. 41 well (W 35) is reported to be an oil well 
in the Gordon sand by a man on the lease, and if so, this is 
the only paying well, either oil or gas, in the three counties 
from a horizon below the Berea sand. The Cow Run sand 
wells are here on the west side of Wilson fork and the best 
part of the oil pool lies between the axis of the "break" and 
the west "wall" of the same. 

Farther south along the nose of the "break" there occur 
15 to 20 oil wells on Oilrock run. The oil appears to come in 
the Second Cow Run sand, since it is found at over 300 feet 
below the level of the run, and about 470 to 500 feet below 
the Ames limestone. The writer was unable to obtain any 
records from this pool. In the southwestern point of Clay 
district a dry hole (W 38)) has been drilled on the Patterson 
farm. 

In the extreme eastern edge of Clay district there occurs 
an oil pool in what has been named the Minshall sand, extend- 
ing from Girta P. O. northward along the west side of Island 
run to Hughes river. As mentioned on a preceding page, 
this sand appears to correlate with the Connellsville sand of 
the Conemaugh series. This is the only point known^o the 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, 305 

writer in the State where this horizon has produced either oil 
or gas. 

The following is the record of one of these shallow sand 
wells that was completed during the year 1909: 

James P. Beckner No. 3 Well Record (W 27), Clay District. 

Located on Island run, one mile North of Girta P. O, 

(Elevation = 660' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Sand 100 100 

Red and blue slate, sand and shells 100 200 

Sand, Upper Pittsburg 40 240 

Red slate 110 350 

Sand, Minshall, (Connellsville) 46 396 - 

(Oil pay, 350' to 395'), 

Well makes 8 barrels per day, 

Mr. Roberts reports no coal found in the well. The bor- 
ing started about 300 feet below the great Upper Marietta 
sandstone cliff outcropping in the hills above. This would 
make the base of the producing sand here 610 feet below the 
Washington coal horizon, or 130 feet below the Pittsburg coal 
horizon, hence correlating with the Connellsville sandstone of 
the Conemaugh series. 

The following is the record of another well in this pool 
located on Straight fork of Island run : . -* 



Thomas Lewis No. 3 Well Record (W 28), 



4 



Located one-half mile North of Girta P, O, Authority, B, C. Skid- 
more, a pumper. 

(Elevation = 700' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total, 

Feet, Feet. 

Unrecorded 407 407 

Sand, Minshall (Connellsville) 42 449 

Oil pay at 10' and 40' in. 

Initial production was 15 barrels, 

Mr. Skidmore says they did not strike any coal in the 
well. The well started about 170 feet below the Washington 
coal horizon. 

Slightly over a mile west of California at the mouth of 
Lick run of Hughes river there occurs a pool of 15 or 20 oil 
wells in the Murphy sand; also one mile north of the latter 
point at the mouth of Fox run of Goose creek are 4 more oil 

20 



306 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

wells from the same horizon. The following is the record of 
a well drilled on the north side of Hughes river at the mouth 
of Lick run : 
George S. Lemon No. 5 Well Record (W 22), Clay District. 

Located one mile and a half Southeast of Freeport. Authority, 
Clark Oil Company. 

(Elevation = 630' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded (6i/4" casing, 234') 395 395 

Sand, M urphy 17 412 

Shot with 20 quarts; 25' of pocket; 10 bbl. well. 

The G. W. Lockhart No. i well (W 24) on the opposite 
side of the river shows this oil sand coming 181 feet below 
the top of 6 feet of coal that represents the Pittsburg bed. 
Hence, the sand correlates with the Murphy (Morgantown). 

Near the mouth of Second Big run of Goose creek there 
occur two small oil wells in the Murphy sand, one of which — 
the B. F, Twyman No. i well (W 10) — had an initial produc- 
tion of 10 bbls. daily. Both wells struck a showing of oil in 
the Carroll (Uniontown) sand, in well (W 10) at 45 feet and 
in well (W 11) at 14 feet. 

In the extreme northern point of Wirt county, Isaac G. 
Deems Heirs No. i well (W 14) was drilled years ago by 
spring pole to a depth of 240 feet and struck some gas that 
came from one of the "shallow" sand horizons. 

BURNING SPRINGS DISTRICT. 

Burning Springs district has within its boundaries the 
town of Burning Sprigs, the scene of the great "oil boom" 
of the early '6o's of the last century, a short account of which 
is given with the history of the town on page 7, and also 
at the beginning of this Chapter in the description of the first 
well drilled, page 278. The district is traversed in a north 
and south direction by the great Burning Springs anticline, 
and numerous oil and gas wells are scattered along the flat- 
tened crest of this arch throughout its entire length in the 
district. At Burning Springs the crest of the "break" broad- 
ens out and flattens down, and we have two distinct belts of 
oil wells running northward from the town, one on each side 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 307 

of the axis of the fold, and both within the "walls" of the an- 
ticline, which here are one mile and a quarter apart. It was 
formerly supposed that the great oil horizon of the Burning 
Springs region was the Big Dunkard (Mahoning) sand, but 
the Deaver fork section, page 57, and the following record 
of a well published by I. C. White in Vol i, p. 262, of the W. 
Va. Geol. Survey reports, under the name "Roberts Well No. 
i", will show it to represent the Upper Freeport sand and 
not the Mahoning. The well starts 25 feet below the Ames 
limestone : 

Fox & Mueller No. i Well Record (W 49). 

On head of the left branch of Burning Springs Run, one mile 
and a half Northeast of the town. Authority, Roberts Brothers. 

Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor and red shale 60 60 

Limestone, very hard 6 66 

Red and blue shales 69 135 

Sand, water and paraffine 10 146 

Blue shales, soft 99 244 

Sand, (Upper Freeport, Burning Springs), 

good show of oil 71 316 

Gray and blue shales 67 372 

Sand 31 403 

Shale 33 436 

Sand, gray, shelly, oil show at base, 

"Gas Sand," Second Cow Run ? 65 491 

Shale, gray 79 570 

Sand 60 630 

Shale, blue and gray 118 748 

"Salt Sand," upper member, good gas 

flow (2,500,000 feet) 58 806 

Shale 14 820 

"Salt Sand," lower member, Cairo or iVIaxton Sand 110 930 

Limestone, "Big Lime", very hard, 

lower half mixed with sand 116 1045 

"Big Injun" sand, fair oil show 50 1095 

Shale, gray 386 1480 

Black shale, mixed with sand, "Berea", 

and showing oil 10 1490 

Shale, gray 885 1875 

Black shale, lower half mixed with sand, 

"Gordon," showing oil , 15 1890 

Shale, very soft in lower portion to bottom of well 120 2010 

The identifications in parentheses are changes made by 
the writer in the log as originally published. 

The following record of a well located right in the vil- 



308 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

lage, that starts 75 to 80 feet below the Ames Limestone, 
shows the horizon of the producing sands : 

Rathbone Oil Tract No. 28 Well Record (W 59), Burning 
Springs District. 
Located at Burning Springs. Authority, Roberts Brothers 
(Elevation = 625' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 105 105 

First Cow Run sand (oil at 135'), (Buffalo) 37 142 

Unrecorded 76 218 

Second Cow Run ? (oil at 232'), Burning Springs sand.. 33 251 

The drillers have erroneously designated one of the oil 
horizons as Second Cow Run, but in the writer's judgment it 
correlates with the Burning Springs (Upper Freeport) sand. 

The following is the log of a well three-fourths mile east 
of the last one above that has been drilled down to the Keen- 
er sand : 

Rathbone Oil Tract No. 30 Well Record (W 60), Burning 
Springs District. 

Located one-half mile East of Burning Springs. Authority, Rob- 
erts Brothers. 

(Elevation = 645' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 180 180 

First Cow Run ? (Big Dunkard) 15 195 

Unrecorded 35 230 

Second Cow Run ? sand (Burning Springs) 60 290 

Unrecorded 55 345 

Sand, Third ? 25 370 

Unrecorded 20 390 

Sand, Fourth ? 95 485 

Unrecorded 63 548 

Sand, Fifth ? (Second Cow Run) 34 582 

Unrecorded 160 742 

Salt sand (little oil at 824') 164 906 

Unrecorded 97 1003 

Keener and Big Injun sands (no break) 59 1062 

Judging from the depth at which the Big Injun sand 
was encountered in the Fox & Mueller No. i well (W. 49), 
page 307, th'e Rathbone Oil Tract No. 30 Well (W 60) must 
start 60 to 70 feet below the Ames limestone, thus giving 290 
to 295 feet for the Ames limestone-Burning Springs sand 
interval at this point. The well had a small oil show in the 
Salt sand. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 309 

The four following records are from oil wells in the Salt, 
Burning Springs and Gas sands, located on the head of the 
left branch of Burning Springs run : 



Scott Brothers No. 4 Well Record (W 46), Burning 

Springs District, 
Located one mile and a half Northeast of Burning Springs. Com- 
pleted Sept. 3, 1909. Authority, S. M. Whan. 

(Elevation = 1230' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 1236 1236 

First Salt sand (oil at 1256'). 

Made 36 bbls. at first. Still making 10 bbls. on Sept. 17, 1909. 

Rathbone Oil Tract No. 50 Well Record (W 47), Burning 
Springs District. 

Located one mile and a half Northeast of Burning Springs. Au- 
thority, Roberts Brothers. 

(Elevation = 1225' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 703 703 

Second Cow Run ? sand (Burning Springs) 61 764 

Unrecorded 22 786 

Sand, Thirty-foot ? 30 816 

Unrecorded 210 1026 

Gas sand 54 1080 

Unrecorded 150 1230 

Salt sand, gas (oil pay at 1244') 35 1265 

Black slate 17 1282 

Salt sand (water) 59 1341 

Still in Salt sand at bottom of hole. 



The name "Thirty-foot sand" is merely local and is not 
intended to be applied to the oil sand of that name in the 
Catskill beds below. This well is located on the ridge on the 
west edge of the "east wall" of the "break." 



Rathbone Oil Tract No. 54 Well Record (W 48), Burning- 
Springs District. 

Located one mile and a half Northeast of Burning Springs. Au- 
thority, Roberts Brothers. 

(Elevation = 1110' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 563 563 

Sand, Second Cow Run ? (Burning Springs), (first oil 

show at 575'-585'; second oil pay at 612'-630') 67 630 

Blue slate to bottom 18 648 

10 to 12 bbl. well in Burning Springs sand. 



310 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Roberts Brothers No. 28 Well Record (W 61), Burning 
Springs District. 

Located one mile and a half North of Burning Springs, Author- 
ity, J. A. Crawford. 

(Elevation = 1030' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded (no First Cow Run sand) 435 435 

Sand, Second Cow Run ? (Burning Springs) 47 482 

Unrecorded 258 740 

Maxton ? or Gas sand (gas at 750') 740 

Unrecorded 284 1024 

Sand, Salt ? (Maxton) (gas at 1052') 92 1116 

Unrecorded 110 1226 

Keener 4 1230 

Unrecorded 2 1232 

Big Injun sand 22 1254 

Mr. Reger obtained the following data concerning the 
first well ever drilled in this field and the first drilled solely 
for oil in the state: 



Rathbone Oil Tract No. i (W 57), Burning Springs Dist. 

Located one-half mile N. 10°-15° W. of Burning Springs, Au- 
thority, J. A. Roberts. Elevation == 620' B-A. T. 

"No record of this well could be obtained. According to Mr. 
Roberts, the well was begun in 1859 and finished in 1860. It was the 
first well drilled in the Burning Springs district, and the hole was 
drilled by using a spring pole. Oil was found in the Burning Springs 
(Upper Freeport) sand, which at this location would be struck at 
about 200 feet. The well has been pumped ever since it was drilled 
and still produces 30 to 40 bbls. per month. Its original production 
could not be learned. Its picture, showing its location on the Little 
Kanawha River and the pumping apparatus, appears in this volume. 
The well starts about 100 feet below the Ames limestone." 

The four following records are from wells in the Big 
Dunkard and Burning Springs sands along the river hill north 
of the town of Burning Springs: 



Rathbone Oil Tract No. 27 Well Record (W 58), Burning 
Springs District. 

Located on Kanawha River three-eighths mile North of Burning 
Springs. Authority, Roberts Brothers. 

(Elevation = 625' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 150 150 

Sand, First Cow Run ? (Big Dunl<ard) (oil at 174') 45 195 

Unrecorded • • 37 232 

Sand, Second Cow Run ? (Burning Springs) (oil at 267') 45 277 

Identifications in parentheses by the writer. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 311 

Rathbone Oil Tract No. 53 Well Record (W 55), Burning 
Springs District. 
Located five-eighths mile North of Burning Springs. Authority, 
Roberts Brothers. 

(Elevation = 930' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 347 347 

Sand, First Cow Run ? (Big Dunliard) 30 377 

Blue slate 41 418 

Sand, Second Cow Run ? (oil pay, 450'-460' and 

480'-495') (Burning Springs) 77 495 

Unrecorded to bottom 16 511 

(10 to 12 bbl. well). 

The Big Dunkard sand appears to be productive only 
along the west side of the axis of the "break" along the "west- 
ern wall" both on the river hill and north on the head of Net- 
tle run. 

Rathbone Oil Tract No. 49 Well Record (W 56), Burning 
Springs District. 

Located three-fourths mile North of Burning Springs. Author- 
ity, Roberts Brothers. 

(Elevation = 1005' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 477 477 

Sand, Second Cow Run (oil) (Burning Springs) 92 569 

Unrecorded 28 597 

Thirty-foot sand 31 628 

Unrecorded 47 675 

Five hundred-foot sand 675 

Unrecorded 127 802 

Gas sand 61 863 

Unrecorded .• 117 980 

Salt sand 66 1046 

Black slate 34 1080 

Sand, Salt ? (Maxton ?) 80 1160 

Big Lime 70 1230 

Keener sand to bottom and not drilled through 35 1266 

(4 to 5 bbl. well in Burning Springs sand). 

Rathbone Oil Tract No. 52 Well Record (W 54). Burning 
Springs District. 

Located three-fourths mile North of Burning Springs. Author- 
ity, Roberts Brothers. 

(Elevation = 930' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet Feet. 

Unrecorded 480 480 

Sand, Second Cow Run ? (Burning Springs) 47 527 

(Oil pay, 480'-490' and 514'-524') 

(7 bbl. well) 



312 MINERAL RESOURCES OP WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

The three following records are from wells in the Big 
Dunkard and Burning Springs sands on the head of Nettle 
run: 

Roberts Brothers No. 55 Well Record (W 50), Burning 

Springs District. 

Located one mile and a half North of Burning Springs, Author- 
ity, J. A. Crawford. 

(Elevation = 860' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded '.304 304 

Sand, First Cow Run ? (Big Dunkard) 47 351 

Unrecorded 44 395 

8and, Second Cow Run ? (Burning Springs) 17 412 

(Was not drilled to bottom of sand). 

Roberts Brothers No. 5 Well Record (W 51), Burning 
Springs District. 

Located one mile and a half North of Burning Springs. Au- 
thority, J. A. Crawford. 

(Elevation = 825' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 190 190 

Sand, First Cow Run 190 

Unrecorded 102 292 

Sand, Second Cow Run ? (Burning Springs) 50 342 

Roberts Brothers No. 8 Well Record (W 52), Burning 
Springs District. 

Located one mile and a fourth North of Burning Springs. Au- 
thority, J. A. Crawford. 

(Elevation = 775' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 296 296 

Sand, Second Cow Run (Burning Springs) 45 341 

(Well starts at horizon of Harlem coal). 

This well shows that the Burning Springs sand belongs 
300 feet below the Ames limestone. 

Northward on the head of Chestnut run there occur sev- 
eral wells in the Burning Springs sand, but the writer was not 
able to obtain any of the detailed logs. The following is a 
sample of the general run of records kept : 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 313 

G. H. Mealy No. 7 Well Record (Substituted for G. H. Mealy 
No. I (W 44), Burning Springs District. 

Located on Chestnut Run, one mile and a half East of Cherry. 

(Elevation = 785' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 
Unrecorded (6^4" casing at 180' shutting off all 

fresh water) 212 212 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Burning Springs) 

(oil pay, 255'-265') 53 265 

Black slate to bottom 25 290 

« 

Farther northw^ard on Deaver fork of Standingstone 
there occurs a pool of 30 to 40 wells along the nose of one 
of the domes of the Burning Springs arch. The two follow- 
ing records show the horizons in which the oil is found: 

Kidwell Heirs No. i Well Record (W 42), Clay District. 

Located on Deaver Fork, one mile and a half Southwest of Lecta. 
Authority, J. W. Bell. 

(Elevation = 760' L-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 200 200 

Sand, First. Cow Run ? (Burning Springs) 55 255 

Unrecorded 60 315 

Sand, Second Cow Run ? (Gas Sand) 25 340 

Unrecorded 156 496 

Sand, Gas ? (Salt) 52 548 

Unrecorded 217 765 

Sand, Salt ? (Maxton) 45 810 

Big Lime 130 940 

Unrecorded 2 942 

Keener sand 43 985 

Unrecorded 5 990 

Big Injun sand 43 1033 

Unrecorded to bottom 6 1039 

(Oil in Big Injun sand). 

Well (W 43) is published on page 57 in connection with 
the Deaver Fork section. 

J. S. Kidwell No. 4 Well Record (W 41), Burning 
Springs District. 

Located one mile Southwest of Lecta. Authority, Zlnn-Hazel Oil 
& Gas Company. 

(Elevation = 1155' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet, 

Conductor 7 7 

Unrecdrded 627 630 

Sand, First Cow Run ? (Burning Springs) 630 

Unrecorded ^(QM" casing, 640') 101 731 



314 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Thickness Total. 

Feet. Feet. 
Second Cow Run sand ? (Gas Sand) (oil show, 

good sand, 755') 24 755 

Unrecorded 407 1162 

Sand, Gas ? (Maxton) (gas and oil show, 1168') 71 1233 

Big Lime 82 1315 

Sandy lime 1315 

Unrecorded 23 1338 

Keener sand (oil pay, break of slate, 1350') 19 1357 

Unrecorded 21.5 1378.5 

Big Injun sand, very hard and white, oil pay, 1383', 

bottom of first shot, 1408', (2 five-foot shells, 20 qts.) 33.5 1412 

Unrecorded to bottom 11.5 1423.5 

(80 bbl. oil well in Big Injun sand). 

This well starts 73 feet, by hand-level, below the massive, 
pebbly Sewickley (Rock Creek) sandstone. 

The following is the log of a dry hole one mile north- 
ward from Deaver fork along the axis of the "break", where 
it reaches nearly the low point of the drop in the axis : 

McCush No. I Weil Record (W 40), Burning Springs Dist. 

Located six-tenths mile West of mouth of Coalspring run on 
f.mall branch of Standingstone creek. Authority, J. F. Davidson. 

(Elevation = 770' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded (casing, 155') 300 300 

Sand, Second Cow Run ? (Burning Springs) 80 380 

Unrecorded 100 480 

Sand, Gas ? (Second Cow Run) 50 530 

Unrecorded 185 715 

Salt sand (water at 950') 253 968 

Big Lime 118 1086 

Keener sand 1086 

Unrecorded 52 1138 

Big Injun sand. 

Down off the "break" and near the foot of the west 
"wall" of Burning Springs anticline, J. Bell et al. drilled a 
dry hole (W 39) near the head of Trap run on the J. Bell 
farm. Although the elevation of the well is only 740' B-A. T. 
yet they did not reach the Big Injun Sand until over 1800 feet 
was reached. The elevation of the top of the latter is about 
1060 feet below tide as opposed to 97 feet below tide for the 
top of the same stratum in the Simpson No. i well (W 43) 
near the axis of the break. 

In the extreme eastern point of Wirt county there occurs, 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 315 

within the boundaries of Burning Springs district, a Maxton 
sand oil pool of about 20 wells. The following logs of two 
wells in this pool show not only the oil horizon, but other data 
of interest: 

A. B. Wilson No. i Well Record (W 68), Burning 
Springs District. 

Located one mile Southeast of Hartley. Completed July 18, 1903. 
Authority, F. R. McDougal. 

(Elevation = 1050' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 1170 1170 

Second Cow Run ? Big Dunkard 20 J 190 

Unrecorded 135 1325 

Gas or 1100-ft. sand (show of gas) 50 1376 

Unrecorded 45 1420 

Gas sand, first streak 10 1430 

Unrecorded 70 1500 

Black slate and sand mixed 100 1600 

Unrecorded 110 1710 

Sand, Gas ? second streak. Salt 10 1720 

Sand and lime 60 1780 

Sand, Salt ? (Maxton ?) (steel line measurements) to 

bottom of hole, not through sand 97 1877 

First oil pay, 1832'-1844'. 

Second oil pay, 1856'-1866'. 

10" casing put in at 275 feet; 8%" casing put in at 1004 feet; 
6%" casing put in at 1307 feet. 

(Still producing from Salt sand). 

In this region the Washington coal has an elevation of 
about 870' A, T. so that it would come in the well at a depth 
of 180 feet, and the Pittsburg coal horizon 490 feet deeper, 
or at 670 feet ; hence the oil sand here may be the Maxton 
and not a member of Pottsville series. 



L. R. Roberts No. 2 Well Record (W 67), Burning 
Springs District. 

Located at Wirt-Calhoun line one mile and one-fourth Kortheast 
of Munday. Completed Sept, 24, 1904. Authority, F. R. McDougal. 

(Elevation = 1175' A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 1886 1886 

Sand, Salt ? (Maxton ?), steel line to bottom 

(not through sand) 97 1983 

First pay, 1932'-1930'. 

Second pay, 1956'-1971'. 

10" casing put in at 298 feet; 8^4" casing put in at 1126 feet; 
6%" casing put in at 1547 feet. 



316 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

The following is the log of a well located 2 miles south- 
west of the last oil pool mentioned that starts about 40 feet 
below the base of the great Mannington sand, or 105 feet be- 
low the Washington coal horizon: 

M. J. Wolverton No. i Well Record (W 66), Burning 
Springs District. 

Located on Left Fork of Straight Creek, three-fourths mile 

Northwest of Munday. Completed Feb. 22, 1909. Authority, F. R. 
McDougal. 

(Elevation = 749' L-A, T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded (big flow of water in sand at 250') 750 750 

Sand 30 780 

Unrecorded 35 815 

Sand, First Cow Run 25 840 

Unrecorded 266 1106 

Gas sand ■,68 1174 

Unrecorded 6 1180 

Gas sand, first streak 20 1200 

Unrecorded 20 1220 

Sand, Gas ?, second streak (Second Cow Run) 45 1265 

Unrecorded 275 1540 

Sand, Salt ? (Maxton), (little flow of water at 1578'; 

big flow of water at 1608') 71 1611 

Break of slate 5 1616 

Little Lime 5 1621 

Big Lime 101 1722 

Keener sand (gas at 1725'-1740') 18 1740 

Break of slate 4 1744 

Big Injun sand 29 1773 

Break of slate 2 1775 

Squaw sand 20 1795 

Unrecorded 20 1815 

Black sand 30 1845 

Shells and slate to bottom 368 2213 

Produces gas from Keener sand. 

13" casing put in at 38 feet; 10" casing put in at 272 feet; 8^4" 
casing put in at 823 feet; 6%" casing put in at 1656 feet. 

The Pittsburg coal horizon should come at a depth of 
400 feet. 

This record shows quite clearly that the oil horizon in 
the records of the last two wells given above comes only 10 
feet over the Big Lime, and hence must correlate with the 
Maxton sand and not the Salt, as generally supposed by the 
drillers. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 317 

L. R. Roberts No. 3 Well Record (W 70), Burning 
Springs District. 

Located one-half mile East of Munday. Authority, South Penn 
Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 1070' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor 16 16 

Unrecorded (water at 140', 10" casing at 169') 364 380 

Sand and lime 20 400 

Unrecorded 150 550 

Sand Sewickley 30 580 

Red rock 580 

Unrecorded 460 1040 

Sand, Big Dunkard ? (First Cow Run), 

8%" casing, 1169') 35 1075 

Unrecorded 169 1244 

Gas sand (light gas at 1256') (Dunkard) 36 1280 

Unrecorded 157 1437 

Sand, Gas ? (Second Cow Run), (light gas at 1462') 41 1478 

Unrecorded 165 1643 

Gas ? sand (Salt) 95 1738 

Break of slate 56 1794 

Salt and (Maxton) sand, steel line (water at 1940') 160 1954 

Little Lime 14 1968 

Big Lime ' 75 2043 

Keener and Big Injun sand (light gas at 2046') 70 2113 

Break of slate 10 2123 

Squaw sand 22 2145 

Unrecorded 20 2165 

Slate and shells 243 2408 

Shells 2 2410 

Unrecorded 48 2458 

Sandy sliells, Berea sand 4 2462 

Slate to bottom 203 2665 

(Abandoned as dry hole). 

The foUowing is the record of a deep well 3 miles south- 
west from Munday P. O. on Katy run that shows the entire 
absence of the Gordon group of sands in the region : 

McConaughey Bros. No. 2 Well Record (W 64), Burning 
Springs District. 

Located on, the Kanawha River at the mouth of Katy Run, 

two and one-fourth miles Northeast of Creston. Authority, Carter 
Oil Company. 

(Elevation = 635' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 575 575 

Cave .• 93 668 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Big Dunkard) 17 685 

Unrecorded 739 1424 

Salt and (Maxton) sand, (oil and gas) 118 1542 

Big Lime 88 1630 



318 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANB-CALHOUN AREA. 

Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Big Injun sand (gas show at 1633') 59 1689 

Unrecorded 381 2070 

Berea sand 10 2080 

Unrecorded to bottom (no Gordon or Fifth sand) 621 2701 

This well starts 200 to 210 feet below the level of the 
base of the great Mannington sandstone cliffs, or about 270 
feet below the Washington coal horizon ; hence the Pittsburg 
coal horizon belongs about 210 feet in depth in the well. 

SPRING CREEK DISTRICT. 

Spring Creek district lies immediately south of Burning 
Springs District and adjoins Roane county. Its area is tra- 
versed in a northwest-southeast direction by the Burning 
Springs anticline. A glance at the structural map will readily 
show that considerable relief exists there, since the Washing- 
ton coal horizon varies from 680' A. T. in the southwest cor- 
ned to 1300' A. T. where the axis of the latter arch crosses the 
Little Kanawha river. At the present time there is only one 
small developed oil pool in the district and it is located in the 
southeast corner near the head of Ann run of West Fork 
river. Along the axis of the Burning Springs anticline, the 
Washington coal dips rapidly southeast from the Little Ka- 
nawha river to near the head of Ann run wh^re it changes 
to a much more gentle dip, the strata thert forming a struc- 
tural terrace on the crest of the arch itself, upon which is lo- 
cated the oil pool above mentioned. Several unsuccessful at- 
tempts have been made to extend the prolific Burning Springs 
oil pool southward across the Little Kanawha down the nose 
of this fold in line with the direction of the axis of the arch 
north of the river. The result was that large quantities of 
salt water, and no oil or gas in paying amounts, were found 
in the several wells drilled. 

The following is the record of a light gas well drilled on 
the north bank of the Little Kanawha on the eastern flank of 
the fold: 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 319 

Sunset No. 2 Well Record (W 71), Spring Creek District. 

Located one-half mile Northwest of Creston. Authority, God- 
frey L. Cabot, Owner. 

(Elevation = 655' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet, Feet. 

Quicksand 45 45 

Sand, Sewickley ? (Rock Creek) 55 100 

Red shale 100 200 

Red shale 100 300 

Red rock 150 450 

Shale 50 500 

Red rock 30 530 

Sand, First Cow Run 70 600 

Shale and slate 265 865 

Sand 35 900 

Black slate 435 1335 

Salt sand (oil, 1359'; water, 1370') 35 1370 

Slate 100 1470 

White lime ] ' 80 1550 

\ Big Lime 

Lime (6" casing, 1560') J 80 1630 

Big Injun sand (gas) 45 1675 

Slate 365 2040 

Berea Shell 2040 

Slate 120 2160 

Black slate and hard shells 440 2600 

White slate and shells 260 2860 

No Gordon or Fifth sand. 

Rock pressure, 620 lbs. 

Tubed and packed 15' above top of Big Injun sand. 

Pressure at 1st minute = 7 lbs. 





" 2nd 


" 


= 10 




" 3rd 


" 


= 12 




" 4th 


" 


= 14 




" 5th 


" 


= 16 




" 8th 


" 


= 20 




" 10th 


" 


= 22 




•• 15th 


" 


= 30 


32,000 


cu. ft. per 


day. 





The following is the record of a well located farther up 
the slope of the arch on the south side of the Little Kanawha 
river : 

Marshall Vandale No. i Well Record (W 72), Spring 
Creek District. 

Located three-fourths mile Southwest of Creston. Authority, 
Bickle Bros. 

(Elevation = 825' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet Feet. 

Conductor 16 16 

Unrecorded (10" casing, 194'; SM" casing, 825') 819 835 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Burning Springs) 835 



320 mineraIj resources of wirt-roane-calhoun area. 

t Thickness Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 265 1100 

Gas sand 20 1120 

Unrecorded 240 1360 

Salt sand 70 1430 

Unrecorded 120 1550 

Big Lime 124 1674 

Big Injun sand (gas at 1705'-1712') 38 1712 

Unrecorded to bottom 38 1750 

This is a gas well in the Big Injun sand. In the south- 
east corner of the district there occurs a small oil pool on the 
flattened crest of the Burning Springs anticline on Ann run 
in the Burning Springs sand. 

The following is the record of a -yvell in this pool, making 
gas from the Salt sand, that starts about 240 feet below the 
Mannington sandstone clifif: 

Caldwell Oil Co. Land No. 2 Well Record (W 78), Spring 
Creek District. 

Located on Ann Run, one mile from West Fork River. Au- 
thority, W. F. Hickman. 

(Elevation = 735' B-A. T.) Top. 

Feet. 

10" casing (oil) 705 

Sand, Second Cow Run ? ("Gas" sand) 860 

Sand, Gas ? (Second Cow Run) 1058 

Salt sand (gas, 1269'-1343') 1269 

Big Lime (6%" casing) 1423 

Big Injun Sand (gas) 1580 

Total depth and through Berea sand 1988 

Washington coal — Second Cow Run sand interval = 1383 feet. 

Pittsburg coal — Second Cow Run sand interval = 883 feet. 

Pittsburg coal — Big Lime interval = 1700 feet. 

The three following logs are from wells located in the 
Ann run oil pool. Not one of these wells reports any coal : 

P. G. Marks No. i Well Record (W 79), Spring Creek 

District. 

Located on Ann Run, one mile from West Fork River. Au- 
thority, W. L. Showalter. 

(Elevation = 745' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor 8 8 

Unrecorded 34 42 

Mountain sand (bluff) 8" 50 

Unrecorded (S^A" casing 170') 125 175 

Slate and shells 50 225 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 321 



Thickness Total. 

Feet. Feet 

Red rock 40 265 

Slate 15 280 

Red rock 45 325 

Slate and shells 15 340 

Red rock 50 390 

Limestone, very hard 10 400 

Red rock ' 40 440 

Slate and shells 20 460 

Red rock, pink (Pittsburg Red shale) 60 520 

Sand, (Saltsburg) 30 550 

Slate 15 565 

Slate, dark 60 625 

Limestone, hard 6 630 

Red rock 30 660 

Slate and shells 50 710 

Sand, First Cow Run ? (Burning Springs) 

(oil pay, 750'-770') 60 770 

Slate, gray and hard, to bottom 14 784 

(1 bbl. oil well from Burning Springs sand). 

Wm. Devore No. ii Well Record (W 80), Spring Creek Dist. 

Located on Ann Run, nine-tenths mile from West Fork River. 
Authority, W. L. Showalter. 

(Elevation = 840' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 80 80 

Sand, "Mountain" (bluff), (Sewickley) 50 130 

Unrecorded 677 807 

Sand, First Cow Run ? (Burning Springs), 

(oil pay, 850'-876') 69 876 

Unrecorded to bottom 20 89S 

(10 hbl. oil well in Burning Springs sand), ^-ss:.- v 

The well starts 210 to 220 feet below the Washington 
coahhorizon; hence the sands called by" the driller "Moun- 
tain" and "First Cow Run" represent the Sewickley and 
Biirning Springs, respectively. 

Caldwell Oil Co. Land No. i Well Record (W 77), Spring 
Creek District. 
Located on Ann Run, one and four-tenths mile from the West 
Fork River. Authority, W. F. Hickman. 

(Elevation = 775' B-A. T.) Top. 

Feet. 

Sand, First Cow Run ? (Burning Springs) (oil show) 784 

Sand, Second Cow Run ? "Gas" (gas) 888 

Sand, Gas ? (Second Cow Run) 1090 

Salt sand (gas) ! ! . . !l316 

Total depth I355 

(Washington coal— Second Cow Run sand Interval = 1375 feet). 
(Pittsburg coal— Second Cow Run sand interval = 873 feet). 
21 



322 MINERAli RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

The well starts about 215 feet below the base of the 
Mannington sandstone cliff; hence the correct identifications 
of the sands above are those in parentheses. 

The following is the log of a dry hole drilled three- 
fourths mile west of the Ann run oil pool on the steep western 
slope of the Burning Springs anticline: 

C. E. Davis No. i Well Record (W 76), Spring Creek Dist. 

Located on ridge at head of Ann Run, two and one-half miles 
Southwest of Creston. Authority, G. L. Cabot. 

(Elevation = 1060' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

jngQ't. F©6t. 

Unrecorded 1000 1000 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Big Dunkard) 1000 

Unrecorded 200 1200 

Gas sand 20 1220 

Unrecorded 200 1420 

Salt sand 80 1500 

Unrecorded .- 135 1635 

Lime 15 1650 

Slate 5 1655 

Unrecorded (water at 1700') 80 1735 

Sandy Lime 1735 

White sand 30 1765 

Lime 10 1775 

Unrecorded (water, plenty at 1785') 60 1835 

Big Lime 120 1955 

Keener sand 28 1983 

Big Injun sand (gas at 1985') 16 1999 

Unrecorded 388 2387 

Berea sand (thin shell) 2387 

Unrecorded to bottom 17 2404 

Set 10" casing at 260 feet; set 8^" casing at 960 feet; set 6%" 
casing at 1780 feet; set 5 3-16" casing at 1875 feet. 

In the southern part of Spring Creek district a showing 
of oil was encountered in a well (W 75) on the Evaline Lee 
farm, located on and near the mouth of Lost run of Spring 
creek. A dry hole was also drilled one mile south of this 
point on Beaverdam creek, close to the Wirt-Roane county 
line. 

REEDY DISTRICT. 

Reedy district, Wirt county, is situated immediately west 
of Spring Creek district, and is bounded on the south by 
Roane county. An examination of the structural map will 
show that it lies to the west of the steep dip of the strata 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 323 

along the western flank of the Burning Springs anticline. 
Within its area, however, the rocks still continue to dip to the 
northwest, though more gently, towards the axis of the Park- 
ersburg syncline in Wood county. No paying oil or gas wells 
have ever yet been developed in Reedy district. Five or six 
dry holes have been sunk. One of these (W 83) is located 
one-fourth mile northwest of Zackville P. O. on the David 
Bumgardner farm. It is reported to have reached a depth of 
1900 feet. Another dry hole was drilled on the head of Conrad 
run of Reedy creek on the James Conrad farm- It is reported 
to have reached a depth of 1800 feet. 

A group of dry holes was drilled in the southern point of 
Reedy district, one-fourth mile northwest from the intersec- 
,tion of Reedy creek with the Wirt-Roane county line. The 
following is the record of one of these wells :, 

Mary J. McCoy No. 2 Well Record (W 81), Reedy District. 

Located one mile and a half North of Reedy. Authority, (?) 
(Elevation ? 666' L-A. T.) Top. 

Feet 

Sand, First Cow Run (oil show, green) 892 

Salt sand (oil show) 

Big Injun sand (yellow oil show) 1702.6 

The well starts about 20 feet below the Washington coal 
bed. The small showings of oil encountered probably stimu- 
lated the drilling of this group of wells. The structural relief 
is so slight in Reedy district that it is quite probable that no 
large paying oil or gas pool will ever be found within its area. 

ELIZABETH DISTRICT. 

Elizabeth district, Wirt county, is situated north of Reedy 
district, and along both sides of the Little Kanawha river sur- 
rounding the town of Elizabeth. With the exception of the 
northeast portion, the structural relief is very slight and for 
that reason dry holes have resulted from the several wells 
sunk to the well known oil and gas horizons. A small oil pool 
was struck three-fourths mile northeast of Elizabeth in what 
appears to be the Gas sand, coming as it does about 11 50 be- 



324 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

low the Washington coal bed and 675 feet below the Pitts- 
burg coal horizon. This sand evidently correlates with the 
lower member of the Lower Freeport sandstone of the Alle- 
gheny series. Wells W 89 and W 90 on the J. H. Bumgard- 
ner farm are both oil producers from this sand. Two dry 
holes were drilled on Tucker creek, one mile southwest of 
Elizabeth, on land belonging to the county (W 87) and Chas. 
Richardson (W 88). Two more dry holes were drilled in the 
southern portion of Elizabeth district, 2 miles south of Pales- 
tine, on the Frank Lynch (W 84) and Lydia Boyle (W 85) 
farms. The following is the record of a dry hole drilled recent- 
ly near the center of the district down to a depth of 2500 feet 
below the Pittsburg coal horizon, and penetrating over 300 
feet below the Gordon group of sands : . 

W. W. Snider No. i Well Record (W 86), Elizabeth District. 

Located West of Kanawha River, one mile and a fourth South- 
west of Elizabeth. Authority, W. C. Patterson & Co. 

(Elevation = 705' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Unrecorded (cave 700'-800' and 980'-1003') 1003 ' 1003 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Burning Springs) 90 1093 

Unrecorded 127 1220 

Gas sand (little water) 22 1242 

Unrecorded 148 1390 

Salt sand 245 1635 

Unrecorded 25 1660 

Big Injun sand (hole full of salt water) 192 1852 

Unrecorded 402 2254 

Berea sand (pebbles and slate) 6 2260 

Unrecorded 342 2602 

Cave \ . . 23 2625 

Gordon sard (very hard sandy shell) 5 2630 

Unrecorded 122 2752 

Fifth sand (lime) 15 2767 

Slate to bottom 292 3059 

10" casing 210'; 8" 1015'; 6%" 1872' 

TUCKER DISTRICT. 

Tucker district occupies the extreme western portion of 
Wirt county; hence it lies on the east side of the wide Park- 
ersburg structural trough, where the rocks have a very gentle 
dip to the northwest. Four dry holes have been drilled with- 
in its boundary lines, and for the same reason as given for 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 325 

the two districts above, the prospects are not bright for find- 
ing any large paying oil or gas pool within its boundaries. In 
fact, the relief is so slight, the oil and gas are not segregated 
into pools of commercial value. A showing of oil or gas 
might be found in any well drilled in the district. The fol- 
lowing well record in Tucker district is taken from Vol. i(A) 
of the State Geological Survey Reports, page 467 : 

Clayton Caste No. i Well Record (W 94), Tucker District- 
Located on Tucker creek, one mile and a fourth Northeast of 
Morristown. Authority, Clayton Casto. 

Top, Bottom. 
Feet. Feet. 

Conductor, wood 16 

Fresh water at 20 

Salt water at 363 

Ten-inch casing 395 

Pittsburg coal ? 649 to 655 

Second Cow Run sand (8" casing, 1020') 1021 " 1101 

Coal 1156 " 1160 

Sand 1230 " 1345 

Top of Big Injun sand (hole full of water) 1715 

"Break" 1830 " 1860 

Sand (6%" casing, 1955') : 1860 " 1955 

Hard Lime - 1955 " 2055 

Slate 2055 " 2240 

Black chalk 2240 " 2265 

Slate to bottom 2265 " 2380 

The logs of two other dry holes in western Wirt, W 96 
and W 98, are found on pages 49 and 48, respectively. 

ROANE COUNTY WELL RECORDS. 

The accompanying table of 167 wells contains the abbre- 
viated logs of 138 borings as well as the tidal elevations of 
the top of the hole of 29 other wells of which the writer was 
unable to obtain the records. As in the Wirt county list, these 
wells have been chosen from the great number drilled in the 
county on account of their wide distribution and in some cases 
for some special feature attached to the well. The wells are 
numbered from 99 to 258, and grouped by magisterial districts, 
the serial number in each instance corresponding to the num- 
ber of the same well on the economic geology map accom- 



326 MINERAL RES0URCE6 OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

panying this report in a separate cover (See explanations pre- 
ceding the table of Wirt county wells on page 295). 

Under the column headed "Owner" in the table of wells 
for Roane county, the following abbreviations are used: 

American American Oil & Development Co. 

Bullpen Bullpen Oil Co. 

Carter Carter Oil Co. 

Columbia Columbia Electric Gas Co. 

Fisher Fisher Oil Co. 

Hamilton Hamilton Oil Co. 

Hope Hope Natural Gas Co. 

Jarvis O. Co.. . . .Jarvis Oil Co. 

Kettle Kettle Oil Co. 

Kingwood Kingwood Oil & Gas Co. 

L. F. Payn Louis F. Payn Oil Co. 

Ohio Fuel Ohio Fuel Oil Co. 

Reedy O. & D.. Reedy Oil & Development Co. 
Second Hospital Second Hospital for the Insane. 

Southern Southern Oil Co. 

South Penn. . . . South Penn Oil Co. 

Standard Standard Oil Co. 

Three Forks. . . .Three Forks Oil & Gas Co. 
United Fuel. . . . United Fuel Co. 

In the elevation column the letter "B" indicates that the 
elevation of the top of the hole was obtained with an aneroid 
barometer checked on near by U. S. G- Survey spirit level ele- 
vations ; the letter "L", by spirit level measurement. The ele- 
vation of the top of the hole is expressed in feet above tide. In 
the elevation column under Big Lime the figures express feet 
below tide. Depths and thicknesses are also expressed in feet- 
As is the case in Wirt, the accompanying table of wells drilled 
for oil and gas in Roane county is very convenient for ready 
reference for those wells that penetrate to the Big Lime and 
the Berea sand. However, it is very important that the com- 
plete record of a number of these wells be published, not only 
to preserve them from loss, but for the great fund of informa- 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 327 

lion they contain about other oil bearing horizons and the 
presence or absence of coal beds. The accurate location of any 
well is readily determined by its serial number published in 
the table and with the heading of the complete well record, 
and also on the economic geology map accompanying this re- 
port. 



328 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Summarized Record of 



NAME OF WELL. 



Frank M. Simmons No. 1 . . . 

M. F. Simmons No. 1 

H. L. Go£E No. 1 

F. R. Hedges No. 1 

M. F. Simmons No. 1 

W. H. Stalnaker No. 1 

Radaker & Co. No. 6 

Radaker & Co. No. 3 

McConaughey Bros. No. 1 . . . 

Smith-Simmons No. 3 

Smith-Simmons No. 8 

S. E. Grandee No. 1 

Isaac Blosser No. '1 

I. N. Epling No. 1 

Robt. Hildreth Hrs. No. 1. . . 

A. J. Runnion No. 1 

C. E. Bartlett No. 1 

Minerva Nutter No. 1 

Goff & Heck No. 2 

Goff & Heck No. 1 

S. F. Foltz No. 8 

S. F. Foltz No. 1 

Israel Snyder No. 1 

A. M. Hersman No. 1 

Cora E. Rhodes No. 1 

M. L. VanDevender No. 1. . . 

H, B. Hughes No. 1 

W. Va. I. Asylum No. 1 

L. D. Simmons No. 2 •. 

Depue No. 1 

L. D. (H. J.) Simmons No. 1 

J. A. Ward No. 1 

Mary B. Clarkson No. 1 

G. M. Scott No. 1 

H. M. Bennett No. 1 

Fitzhugh Heirs No. 1 

Mark Depue No. 2 

Mark Depue No. 3 

Sayer Roberts No. 2 

W. V. Callow No. 1 

Pearson Dix No. 1 

.J. D. Seaman, Jr., No. 1 . . . . 

Robert Romine No. 1 

R. R. Petty No. 1 

C. C. Kelley No. 1 

W. R, Parsons No. 1 



lecation— District 



Spencer 

Spencer 

Spencer 

Spencer 

Spencer 

Spencer 

Spencer 

Spencer 

Spencer 

Spencer 

Spencer 

Spencer 

Spencer 

Spencer 

Spencer 

Spencer 

Spencer 

Spencer 

Spencer 

Spencer 

Spencer 

Spencer 

Spencer 

Spencer 

Spencer 

Spencer 

Spencer 

Spencer 

Spencer 

Spencer 

Spencer 

Spencer 

Spencer 

Reedy . . 

Reedy . . 

Reedy . . 

Reedy . . 

Reedy . . 

Reedy . . 

Reedy . . 

Reedy . . 

Reedy . . 

Curtis . . 

Curtis . . 

Curtis . . 

Curtis . . 



Owner 



Kingwood 

Miles et al ... 

Kingwood 

South Penn . . . 
Hudson Oil Co. 



UmJ^ 



Carter 

Carter 

Carter 

Heasley & Co 

Heasley & Co 

Carter .. . . ^ 

Lucy Oil Co 

Mill Oil Co 

Smith & Carnahan 

Southern 

Southern 

Southern 

Carter 

Carter 

Carter 

Carter 

Carter 

Carter 

Carter 

Carter 

Pure Oil Co 

Second Hospital... 

Fisher 

Fisher 

Fisher 

United Fuel 

Carter 

Arthur E. Pierce.. 

Reedy O. & D 

Three Porks 

Three Forks 

Three Forks 

Bennett 

South Penn 

L. W. Headley et al 
L. W. Headley etal 



Elevation A. T. 



J. Hartman, Jr. . . . 
Benedum & Trees, 
Fisher 



686B 
685B 
685B 
705B 
795B 
700B 
755B 
815B 
700B 



770B 
750B 
815B 

755L 
865L 
825B 
760B 
735B 

837B 
830B 

885B 
855B 
765B 
735B 
895L 
718L 
760B 
725B 
735B 
68 OL 
770B 
685B 
685B 
685B 
690B 
745B 
715L 
708L 
700L 
745B 
805B 
835B 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



329 



Wells in Roane County. 



BIO UMB 


|BIO INJUN SANS 


BBREA 8AHD 


i 

i 


1 

Produciag Sand 




Depth 
Top 


1 

Elevation 

Below 

Tide Top 


Thick- 
ness 


Depth 
Top 

i 


Thick- 
^ness 


Depth 
Top 


Thick- 
ness 


a 
S 

i 


m 










2245 


69 


2314 
1455 
1516 
3001 
2765 
600 
2239 
2325 
2243 
2362 
2454 
2392 


! 


99 


^ :::::: 










Salt sand 


100 

















Salt sand 


101 


1700 


995 
975 


73 


1773 


70 






Big Injun 


102 


1770 


2315 






103 












104 


1665 


910 
980 
975 

1053* 


140 
85 

134 
72 

115 

115 


1805 
1890 
1809 
1875 
1995 
1938 


25 
30 
75 
55 
30 
30 


2203 
2289 
2212 
2320 
2418 
2319 


28 
29 
22 
33 
30 
20 


Berea 


105 


1795 


Berea 


106 


1675 


Berea 


107 


1803 


Berea 


108 


1880 


Berea 


109 


1823 




110 






111 


1805 


990 


55 
105 


1860 
1950 


115 
104 






2508 
2485 




112 


1820 


2438 


29 




113 






114 




















115 


1755 


930 

1020 

978 


185 

110 

87 


1 1940 

1 1890 

1800 


51 
32 

80 


2300 


5 


2372 
1983 
2600 
2085 
1790 
2709 
2506 
2548 
1643 
2450 
2750 
2485 

2422 
2263 
2494 
2400 




116 


1780 




117 


1713 








118 








Maxton 


119 
















Maxton 


120 


1940 


1110 
1050 


117 

114 

58 


2057 
2014 
2008 


40 
41 
98 








121 


1900 






Big Injun 


122 


1935 








123 








Maxton 


124 


















125 


1850 


1115 
1122 

"iiis" 

1035 


30 
25 
75 
49 
13 
15 


1880 
2042 
1865 
1935 
1870 
1785 


45 
60 
35 
65 
4 
128 


2400 
2466 
2273 
2367 
2251 
2283 
2200 


10 
19 

12 
10 




126 


2017 


Berea 


127 


1780 


Berea 


128 


1886 


Berea 


129 


1840 


Berea 


130 


1770 




131 






132 














133 


1 
















Second Cow Run 

Second Cow Run 

Second Cow Run 


134 


1 
















135 


T 
















136 


1 






1600 










137 














3025 

800 
2420 
1612 
1621 




138 


... 
















139 


(1730) 


(1022) 


(70) 


1800 




2200 






140 






141 












2320 


1 


142 












Salt sand 


143 














1 


Salt sand 


144 





















330 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Summarized Record of 



NAME OF WELL 



J. W. Miller No. 1 

Lloyd Bailey No. 1 

O. N. Bowyer No. 1 

Florence Matthews No. 1 

J. M. Hinzman No. 1 

Herbert Reed No. 1 

H. A. Wiseman No. 1 '. 

Newton Radabaugh No. 1 

David Simmons No. 1 

Oppenheimer & Kaufman No. 1 

L. J. Webb No. 1 

T. Morris Perot No. 1 

Oppenheimer & Kaufman No. 1 

Geo. Chambers No. 1 

L. D. Chambers Hrs. No. 1 

Joseph Dalton No. 1 

J. M. Cox No. 1 

Denham & Westf all No. 1 

W. M. Looney No. 1 

Ellmore-Snodgrass No. 1 

P. A. Tallman No. 1 

P. A. Tallman No. 2 

W. S. Simmons No. 1 

S. R. Ferrell No. 1 

P. C. Adams No. 1 

Chas S. Nichols Hrs. No. 1 

John S. White No. 1 

W. F. Wilson No. 1 

W. C. Tallman No. 1 

Brown-Goshorn No. 1 

Davidson Drake No. 1 

Lindsay Drake No. 1 

W. P. Drake No. 1 

A. B. Caldwell No. 1 

S. D. Runner No. 1 

Philip Justice No. 1 

Alex Justice No. 1 

W. P. Knight No. 1 

Nancy Hall No. 1 

Geo. R. Petit No. 1 

L. B. Thompson No. 1 

John Geary No. 1 

Bascom Chapman No. 1 

J. G. Myers No. 1 

Rev. Thos. Parris No. 1 

Wm. A. Geary No. 1 



Location— District 



Curtis 

Curtis 

Curtis 

Curtis 

Jackson Co 

Curtis 

Curtis 

Curtis 

Smithfield .... 
Smithfield .... 
Smithfield .... 

Smithfield 

Smithfield .... 
Smithfield .... 

Smithfield 

Smithfield . . . . 
Smithfield .... 
Smithfield .... 
Smithfield . ... 
Smithfield .... 
Smithfield .. .. 
Smithfield .... 
Smithfield .... 
Smithfield .... 

Smithfield 

Smithfield .... 

Geary 

Geary 

Henry (Clay). 

Geary 

Geary 

Geary 

Geary 

Geary 

Geary 

Geary 

Geary 

Geary 

Geary 

Geary 

Geary 

Geary 

Geary 

Geary 

Geary 

Geary 



OwDor 



Fisher 

Fisher , 

South Penn , 

Carter , 

Carter 

Fisher 

Fisher 

United Fuel 

Wm. Cale 

Carnahan & Smith 

South Penn 

Heasley & Co 

Heasley & Co 

South Penn 

Heasley & Co 

Carter 

United Fuel 

South Penn 

South Penn 

South Penn 



Elkins&McDermott 

South Penn 

J. F. Woodward . . . 

South Penn 

South Penn 

South Pern 



Eievation A. T. 



United 

Hope 

South 

South 

South 

South 

South 

South 

South 

South 

United 

United 

United 

United 

United 

United 

L'nited 



Fuel. 



Penn . . . 
Penn . . . 
Penn. . . 
Penn . . . 
Penn . . 
Penn. . . 
Penn . . . 
Penn . . . 

Fuel. . 

Fuel . . 

Fuel. . 

Fuel. . 

Fuel. . 

Fuel. . 

Fiiel.. 



830B 
850B 

1065B 

1050B 
720L 

1035B 
965B 

10.05B 
855B 
990B 
940B 
880L 
825B 

895B 
756L 

835B 
865B 

1045B 
890B 
865B 

(875) 
915B 
900L 
750B 
925B 
810B 
765B 
745B 
730B 



845B 



830B 
720L 

710B 
668L 
683L 
666L 
670L 
785B 
650L 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 
Wells in Roane County. — Continued. 



331 



BIG LIMB 



Deplh lE'"?''"" 
Top -Bel" 
Tide Top 



1934 1104 
1945 I 1095 

2140 I 

2155 I 1105 
1725 I 1005 



2070 1105 
2130 1125 



1885 
1870 
1795 



1840 
1763 



1550 
1765 
1960? 
1752 



1628 



1800 



1612 
1490 
1540 



1385 
1743 
1945 
1705 
1900 
1830 
1685 
1545 
1680 
1480 
1375 
1391 
1333 
1381 
1464 
1400 



945 
990 
970 



945 
1007 



715 
900 



862 



(753) 
900 



687 
680 
775 



655 



860 



855 
825 



770 
707 
708 
667 
711 
679 
750 



Thick- 
nett 



66 
70 
80 
70 
145 



83 
40 



103 

65 

125 



65 
55 



150 

103 

3 

85 



152 



180 



101 
150 
130 



75 

83 

55 

100 

112 

100 

90 

55 

85 

96 

(90) 

90 

100 

69 

103 

85 



BIG INJUN SAND 



Depth 
Top 



2000 
2015 
2220 
2225 
1870 
2165 



2170 



1988 
1985 
1920 



1905 
1818 



1700 
1868 
1963 
1837 



1780 



1980 



1713 
1640 
1670 



1460 
1826 
2000 
1805 
2012 
1930 
1775 
1600 
1765 
1576 
1465 
1481 
1433 
1450 
1567 
1485 



Thick- 
ness 



18 
20 
60 
15 
25 
54 



20 



46 
32 
22 



96 
122 



43 

40 

75 

(1) 



28 



60 



15 

10 

6 



63 
35 
80 
67 
38 
32 



97 
50 
28 



24 
48 
114 
62 
60 



BBREA SAND 



Depth 
Top 



2407 
2425 
2636 
2621 
2301 
2616 
2560 
2590 



2273 



2365 



Thick- 
ness 



16 
8 
17 
12 
10 
15 
20 
16% 



20 



2443 

2433 

2655 

2633 

2325 

2631 

2599 

2606% 

1700 



2037 
2033 
1958 



2006 
2359 



1743 
1908 
2038 
1952 



1856% 
2385 



1814 
2700 
3001 
1906 
1525 
1870 

1872 
2050 
1962 
1825 
1709 
1815 
1604 



I 1513 

' 1481 
! 1503 
, 1632 
I 1637 



Producing Sand 



Berea 

Berea 

Berea 

Berea 

Berea 

Berea 

Berea 

Berea 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Squaw 

Salt ................. 

Big Lime & Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Keener 

Keener 

Keener 

Keener 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 



332 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Summarized Record o1 



NAME OF WELL 



184A 

185 

186 

187 

188 

189 

190 

191 

192 

193 

194 

195 

196 

197 

198 

199 

200 

201 

202 

203 

204 

205 

206 

207 

208 

209 

210 

211 

212 

213 

214 

215 

216 

217 

218 

219 

220 

221 

222 

223 

224 

225 

226 

227 

228 

229 



M. P. Osborne No. 1 

A. W. Goad No. 1 

L. D. Osborne No. 1 

C. S. Young No. 1 

L. M. Bird No. 1 

Mary F. Taylor No. 1 

Sarah Wright (T.J.Armstead) 1 

W. S. Lewis No. 2 

W. S. Lewis No. 1 

Otha Jett No. 1 

John Parker No. 1 

W. C. White No. 1 

Prica A. Criner No. 1 

Marshall Vineyard No. 1 

W. S. Lewis No. 4 

W. S. Lewis No. 11 

Effie Morgan No. 1 

W, S. Lewis No. 8 

W. S. Lewis No. 28 

John Cromwell No. 1 

M. M. Boggs No. 1 

S. L. Casey No. 1 

Frank Pickering No. 1 

W. H. Bird No. 2 

Sen. Adam Littlepage 

Chas. Stewart No. 1 

John Schoolcraft No. 1 

L. P. Paxton No. 1 

Geo. Summers No. 1 

Geo. Donohue No. 1 

D. T. Cummings No. 4 

John Summers No. 1 

C. C. Hively No. 6 

A. W. Summers No. 1 

Lucy J. Lynch No. 1 

Robt. Miles No. 2 

R. C. Ellmore No. 3 

John W. Lynch No. 1 

M. H. Sennett No. 2 

P. G. Cunningham No. 1 

M. H. Sennett No. 1 

Mary J. Gibson No. 1 

Austin Fleshman No. 1 

Matthew Hively No. 1 

H. H. Fleshman No. 2 

J. A. Dougherty No. 2 



Locailon— District 



Elevation A, 



Geary 

Geary 

Geary 

Kanawha Co. 
Kanawha Co. 
Geary 




Geary 

Geary 

Geary , 

Geary , 

Geary 

Geary 

Geary 

Walton 

Walton 

Walton 

Walton 

Walton 

Walton 

Walton 

Walton 

Walton 

Kanawha Co. 
Kanawha Co. 
Kanawha Co. 
Kanawha Co. 

Walton 

Walton 

Walton 

Walton 

Walton 

Walton 

Walton 

Walton 

Walton 

Walton 

Walton 

Walton 

Walton 

Walton 
Walton 
Walton 
Walton 
Walton 
Walton 
Walton 



United Fuel 648L 

United Fuel 656L 

United Fuel ' 715L 

United Fuel [ 621L 

United Fuel ! 622L 

United Fuel 649L 

United Fuel 664L 

United Fuel 739L 

United Fuel 752L 

South Penn 895B 

United Fuel 905B 

South Penn 880B 

South Penn HOOB 

United Fuel 853L 

United Fuel 790L 

United Fuel 745B 

United Fuel I 881L 



United Fuel . . . 
United Fuel . . . 
United Fuel... 
United Fuel. . . 
United Fuel... 
United Fuel . . . 
L'nited Fuel. . . 
United Fuel... 
United Fuel . . . 

Bullpen 

Kettle 

L. F. Payn 

Ohio Fuel 

L. F. Payn 

L. F. Payn 

L. F. Payn 

L. F. Payn 

South Penn 

South Penn .... 

Ohio Fuel 

South Penn. . . . 
South Fenn .... 
South Penn .... 
South Penn .... 
South Penn .... 

Hamilton 

Hamilton 

Hamilton 

Fisher 



715L 

688L 
646L 
622L 
64 OL 
680B 
795B 
760B 
775B 



805B 

930B 

1140B 

1075B 

77GB 

llOOB 

1080B 

1112L 

842L 

lllOB 

1063L 

1053L 

975B 

852L 

900B 

1030B 

lOOOB 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



33^ 



Wells in Roane County. — Continued. 



BIOUMB 



Elentlon 

Below 

Tide Top 



BIG UrjUN SAITD 



Thick- 
ness 



Depth 
Top 



752 
739 
745 
751 
788 
786 
776 
816 
803 
830 
817 
815 
740 
709 
720 



772 
792 



764 
781 
778 
788 



832 



770 
871 
654 
895 



895 



118 

120 

116 

140 

100 

128 

138 

65 

115 

91 

86 

92 

114 

125 

140 



110 
123 



123 
130 
113 
124 



133 



102 
113 
160 
136 



150 



891 


128 


1042 


136 


905 


131 


748 


127 


890 


142 


900 


139 


943 


122 


872 


128 


^894 


139 


920 


136 



1518 
1515 
1576 
1512 
1510 
1563 
1578 
1620 
1670 
1816 
1808 
1787 
1954 
1687 
1650 



1763 
1630 



1575 
1557 
1539 
1552 



1725 



1810 
1928 
1955 
2106 



2145 



2131 
2020 
2146 
1938 
2085 
2014 
1917 
1900 
2063 
2056 



Thick- 
ness 



BBRBASAND 



Depth 
Top 



33 
26 
36 
43 
41 
37 
39 
42 
20 
42 
22 
20 
29 
40 
60 



39 
35 



50 
51 
14 
40 



46 



42 
58 
40 
39 



33 



42 
48 
49 



40 
43 



Thick- 
ness 



1552 
1552 
1614 
1560 
1557 
1610 
1682 
1670 
2196 
1858 
1830 
2850 
2501 
1729 
1735 

1810 
1670 

1625 
1611 
1558 
1597 



1775 



1852 
1986 
2002 
2145 



2178 



2173 
2071 
2197 
1966 
2127 
2060 
1949 



2089 
2082 



Producing Sand 



Big Injun & Big Lime 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun & Big Lime 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun & Salt... 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun. . ■ 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 

Big Injun 



334 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Summarized Record of 



NAME OF WELL 



230 A. A. Westfall No. 1 

231 P. G. Cunningham No. 1. 

232 Wm. Harmon No. 1 

233 Presley Vineyard No. 1.. 

234 Geo. W. Phillips No. 1.. 

235 John E. Swisher No. 1.. 

236 Marcellus Starcher No. 1 

237 S. N. Curry No. 1 

238 I. F. Couley No. 2 

239 G. M. Karrickhoff No. 1. . 

240 S. S. Hickle No. 2 

241 J. F. Hersman No. 1 

242 Oscar Kelley No, 2 , 

243 Oscar Kelley No. 1 

244 Thos. Hughes No. 2 

245 Thos. Hughes No. 1 

246 John Winters No. 1 

247 J. F. Jones No. 1 

248 Eliza Anderson No. 1 

249 Benjamin Smith No. 3 . . . 

250 Benjamin Smith No. 1. . . 

251 J. N. Tolley No. 1 

252 J. Riley Johnson No. 1 . . 

253 Davy Locke No. 1 

254 Laura (John) Hunt No. 1 

255 ! John Jarvis No. 1 

256 John Jarvis No. 6 

257 Wm. Caldwell No. 1 

258 Jas. M. Summers No. 1.. 



Location— District 



Walton 

Walton 

Walton 

Walton 

Walton 

Walton 

Harper 

Harper 

Harper 

Harper 

Harper 

Harper 

Harper 

Harper 

Harper 

Harper 

Harper 

Harper 

Jackson 

Jackson 

Harper 

Harper 

Harper 

Harper 

Harper 

Harper 

Harper 

Harper 

Harper 



Co. 

Co. 



Owner 



United Fuel 

Lawrence & Brouse 

Pure Oil Co 

Standard 

Carter 

Pure Oil Co 



American 
American 
American 
Carter . . 
Carter . . 
Carter . . 
Carter . . 
American 
American 
American 
Carter . . 
Carter . . 



Columbia 

Carter 

Carter 

Jarvis O. Co 

Jarvis O. Co 

Holly & Stevenson 
South Penn 



790B 

980B 
725B 
760B 
1055B 
1085B 
845B 
79 OB 
800B 
805B 
855B 
829L 
815B 
800B 
760B 
790B 
715B 
770B 
1015B 
920B 
840B 
682L 



1018L 
983B 
760B 

1060B 



WEST Vi:ilGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



335 



Wells in Roane County. — Continued. 



BIG LIMB 


BIO mjUN SAND 


BERBA SAND 


Ul 

i 


Producing Sand 




Depth lEImtlon 
Tod Below 
"" Tide Top 


Thick- 
ness 


Depth 
Top 

1 


nest 


Depth 
Top 


Thick- 
net* 


S 


1585 


796 


65 


1176 


30 






1808 

2300 

2701 

15-1600 

2452 

2804 

1615 
1546 


Big Injun 


230 










231 


2067 


1087 


124 


2191 


55 


2545 


40 




232 


J 




233 


1823 


1063 
1075 


124 
135 


1947 
2265 


108 
45 


2340 
2605 


20 
45 




234 


2130 




235 






236 
















Salt sand 


237 
















Salt sand 


238 
















Salt sand 


239 
















1582 
1701 
1648 
2675 


Salt sand 


240 
















Salt sand 


241 


















242 
















Salt sand ... 


243 
















Salt sand 


244 


















Salt sand 


245 
















1716 
2324 
2492 


Salt sand 


246 


1720 


1005 
1022 


45 


1825 
1900 


75 


2225 


25 


Salt sand 


247 


1792 


Salt sand. 


248 












249 


















Salt sand 


250 
















(2000) 
2000 




251 
252 


1591 


909 


149 


1740 


44 








■ 






T^iET TniiiTi 


253 
254 
255 
















1441 
2089 
20391^ 


Salt sand 


1900 


882 
873 


144 
144 


2044 
2000 


36 
32 






Big Injun 


1856 






Big Injun 


256 








Big Injun 


257 
258 


1875 


815 


130 


2006 


i^ 






3008 


Big Injun & Big Lime 











336 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Oil and gas in paying quantities have been produced in 
every district of Roane county. The well records and a dis- 
cussion of the various fields will now be taken up by magis- 
terial districts. 

REEDY DISTRICT. 

Reedy district is situated in the northwest corner of 
Roane county and adjoins both Wirt and Jackson. Its area is 
traversed by the Flat Fork anticline and the Spencer syncline 
and both folds appear to have their northeast termini within 
the area of the district. The Washington coal bed within the 
latter area varies from 640' A. T., about two miles west of the 
town of Reedy, to 775' A. T. at the extreme eastern point of 
the district north of Millard P. O. The only developed oil 
pool within its area occurs one mile southeast of Reedy. There 
three small wells occur which appear to get their oil from the 
Gas sand, at about 670 feet below the horizon of the Pittsburg 
coal bed. The following record of a well in this pool shows 
the producing horizon 11 50 feet below the Washington coal : 

Fitzhugh Heirs No. i Well Record (R 134), Reedy District- 
Located on Reedy creek, one mile and a fourtli Southeast of 
Reedy. Authority, Three Forlcs Oil & Gas Co. 

(Elevation = 685' B-A. T.) Top. Bottom. 

Feet. Feet. 

Sand, First Cow Run ? (Saltsburg) 808 835 

Sand, Second Cow Run ? (Big Dunkard) 915 

Sand, "Gas" (oil pay, 1136') 1130 

(11/^ bbl. well in Gas sand. Well starts 20' below Washington 
coal bed.) 

Washington coal — Gas sand interval = 1150 feet. 
Pittsburg coal — Gas sand interval = 670 feet. 

The above record is an example of the many errors made 
by the drilling fraternity in identifying the true Cow Run 
sands. There are only three wells in this pool. The following 
is the record of a dry hole drilled one-half mile northeast of 
this oil pool : 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 337 

H. M. Bennett No. i Well Record (R 133), Reedy District. 

Located on branch of Reedy creek, one mile and a third East 
of Reedy. Authority, Three Forks Oil & Gas Co. 

(Elevation = 770' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 67 67 

Coal, Washington 2 69 

Slate Ill 180 

Lime 15 195 

Reds 110 305 

Lime 50 355 

Slate 15 370- 

Red rock and unrecorded 246 616 

Coal, (Little Clarksburg) 5 621 

Unrecorded 64 685 

Sand (Morgantown ?) 15 700 

Cave 185 885 

Sandy lime 10 895 

Unrecorded 45 940 

Big Dunkard sand 120 1060 

Black lime 118 1178 

Sand (no oil show,) (Second Cow Run) 60 1238 

Lime 15 1253 

Sand 45 1298 

Slate and lime 117 1415 

Salt sand .' 40 1455 

Break of slate 28 1483 

Salt sand 102 1585 

Slate to bottom 10 1595 

8Vi" tasing, 192 feet; 5%" casing, 930 feet. 

The following is the record of another dry hole drilled, 
one mile and a half south of the oil pool mentioned above: 

W. V. Callow No. I Well Record (R 138), Reedy District. 

Located one mile due North of Kyger Station. Authority, South 
Penn Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 745' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 972 972 

Dunkard sand 88 1060 

Unrecorded 60 1120 

Gas sand 95 1215 

Unrecorded II5 1330 

Sand, Gas ? (Second Cow Run) 30 1360 

Unrecorded 100 1460 

Sand, Salt ? 460 1920 

Unrecorded 335 2255 

Berea sand, hard shell 2 2257 

Unrecorded to bottom 768 3025 

The well starts about 50 feet above the Washington coal 
22 



338 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

bed. The 460 feet of sand at a depth of 1460 feet evidently 
includes both the Big Lime and the Big Injun sand. 

The following is the record of a well in the northwestern 
portion of Reedy district on and near the mouth of Masters 
run of Sugarcamp run. This well was drilled to the Berea 
sand, getting neither oil nor gas in paying quantity : 

J. D. Seaman, Jr. No. i Well Record (R 140), Reedy District. 

Located at Seamans Station, two miles West of Reedy. Author- 
ity, L. W. Headley. 

(Elevation = 708' L-A. T.) Top. 

Feet. 

Sand, First Cow Run 952 

Coal (2 bits), Lower Freeport ? 1200 

Big Injun sand 1800 

Berea sand 2200 

The well starts about 60 feet above the Washington coal 
horizon. The coal at 1200 feet is probably the Lower Free- 
port or Upper Kittanning, since it comes about 665 feet below 
the horizon of the Pittsburg coal bed. Southwest of this well 
along the axis of the Flat Fork anticline to the Reedy-Curtis 
district line, there occurs an area on which no test wells have 
been drilled- This territory looks good for Berea sand gas. 

Tn the extreme eastern portion of the district, there oc- 
curs a structural terrace, as is well shown on the economic 
geology map by the wide divergence of the 725 and the 750- 
foot contours at the base of the Washington coal bed. It is 
a structural terrace of just this shape upon which the Shinns- 
ton oil field of Harrison county, West Virginia, is located. 
This terrace extends southeast into the northwest edge of 
Spencer district to near Wellington P. O. The territory along 
the head of Coal, Wagon, Bear and Island runs of Spring creek 
would justify a test well through the Berea sand. However, 
the following record of a dry hole (R 99) at the eastern mar- 
gin of the terrace, shows the Berea sand quite shelly, and it 
may happen that while the structure is favorable, the oil and 
gas bearing horizons are worthless: 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 339 

F. M. Simmons No. i Well Record (R 99), Spencer District. 

Located on Spring Creek, one-half mile West of Millard. Au- 
thority, Julius K. Monroe, Kingwood, W. Va. 

(Elevation = 685' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Loam (conductor) 26 26 

Limestone 20 46 

Slate 274 320 

Sand, (Arnoldsburg) 60 380 

Shale 20 400 

Gritty lime 100 500 

Red rock 100 600 

Slate 10 610 

Sand 20 630 

Black shale 5 635 

Slate 40 675 

Red rock 90 765 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Murphy) 20 785 

Shale 15 800 

Red rock 30 830 

Slate 20 850 

Lime 50 900 

Sand, Little Dunkard ? (Saltsburg) 30 930 

Slate 70 1000 

Big Dunkard sand 100 1100 

Slate 24 1124 

Sand, First Salt ? ("Gas") 108 1232 

Shale 48 1280 

Sand, Second Salt ? (Second Cow Run) 60 1340 

Slate 170 1510 

Sand, Third Salt ? 390 1900 

Slate and Shell 325 2225 

Coffee colored slate 20 2245 

Berea Grit shells and gray slate to bottom 69 2314 

The well starts about 70 feet below the Washington coal, 
which crops on the point one-eighth mile northeast from the 
well- The great sand mass at 15 10 feet evidently includes 
both the Big Lime and the Big Injun sand. Unfortunately 
the log fails to describe the quality or nature of the Big Injun 
portion of the formation. 

SPENCER DISTRICT. 

Spencer district joins Reedy on the east and occupies the 
northeast corner of Roane county. A glance at the structure 
map will show that within its area there occur three promi- 
nent structural features ; viz., Burning Springs anticline, Rich-* 
ardson basin and Spencer syncline; also that its strata are 



340 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

very much warped and twisted. Considerable drilling has» 
been done within the district, opening up two separate pools, 
one of oil and the other of gas, in the Berea sand ; also a small 
oil pool in the Maxton sand on Starcher fork of Island run. In 
the eastern edge of the district, the Washington coal bed is 
depressed to 850' A. T. in the lowest point of the Richardson 
basin by the buckling of the strata where the Burning Springs 
arch intersects the steep western slope of the Arches Fork 
anticline. The result is ideal conditions according to the "an- 
ticlinal theory" for the formation of the oil pool there in the 
Berea sand, since the latter horizon does not carry any water 
in this locality. In fact, water appears to be absent from all 
the sands below the Big Injun in central West Virginia. 

The Berea sand gas pool of the district occurs in the vi- 
cinity of Spencer and southwest from the latter point along 
the strike of the rocks between the 725' and the 800' contours 
of the Washington coal bed. It is quite probable that a Berea 
sand oil pool lies a short distance northwest down the slope 
of the strata from the gas belt. The development will now be 
taken up in the district from north to south. 

The records of two wells in the vicinity of Millard P- O. 
that penetrated several hundred feet below the Berea, will 
now be given. Both wells were dry holes- The identifica- 
tions in parentheses are by the writer. 

M. F. Simmons No. i Well Record (R 103), Spencer District- 
Located on Toms Run, one mile and a half Northeast of Millard. 
Authority, Hudson Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 795' B-A. T.) Thickness Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor 16 16 

Unrecorded 309 325 

Sand — 325 

Unrecorded 250 575 

Big red rock 100 675 

Sand and slate 95 770 

Second red rock 65 835 

Unrecorded 40 875 

Sand — 875 

Unrecorded 40 915 

Little Dunkard sand (oil show, 915'-925') 90 1005 

Unrecorded 115 1120 

Sand, Second Dunkard ? (Burning Springs) — 1120 

Unrecorded 40 1160 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 341 

Thickness. Total. 

• Feet. Feet. 

Gas sand 90 1250 

Unrecorded 15 1265 

Sand, First Salt ? (Second Cow Run) 65 1330 

Unrecorded 45 1375 

Second Salt sand 65 1440 

Unrecorded 110 1550 

Sand, slate and shale — 1550 

Unrecorded (water at 1640') 220 1770 

Big Lime — 1770 

Unrecorded 505 2275 

Coffee colored shale and slate 10 2285 

Unrecorded 30 2315 

Berea slate, shells and sand — 2315 

Unrecorded 262 2577 

Sand and shell — 2577 

Unrecorded 148 2725 

Slate, shells and gritty sand to bottom 40 2765 

10" casing at 275 feet; 8" casing at 1125 feet; 6%" casing at 
1813 feet. 

No oil or gas in paying quantity and none except at 915 
feet. Well starts 20 feet below level of the Washington coal. 

F. R. Hedges No. i Well Record (R 102), Spencer District. 

Located on Little Spring creek, one mile East of Millard. Au» 
thority, South Penn Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 705' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 050 850 

Sand, Little Dunkard ? (Big Dunkard) 85 935 

Unrecorded 40 975 

Sand, Big Dunkard ? (Burning Springs) 35 1010 

Unrecorded . . • • 90 1100 

Gas sand, 60 1160 

Unrecorded 315 1475 

Salt sand 193 1668 

Unrecorded 19 1687 

Little Lime 8 1695 

Pencil cave 5 1700 

Big Lime 73 1773 

Big Injun sand 70 1843 

Unrecorded 425 2268 

Hard shells (Berea sand) 3 2271 

Unrecorded 414 2685 

Hard shells (Gordon sand ?) 5 2690 

Unrecorded to bottom 311 3001 

(This well starts about 100 feet below level of the Washington 
coal bed.) 

The well shows the Gordon sand group in this portion 
of the State to be represented by only five feet of shells. It 
also shows the absence of other sands for over 300 feet below 
the Gordon horizon. 



342 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

The Berea sand oil pool of Rowles run, Calhoun county, 
was opened up in the latter part of 1902 and three or four years 
later was extended across the Calhoun-Roane county line into 
Spencer District where the wells proved to be the best in the 
field. This portion of the pool lies immediately south and 
west of Richardson. The following records of five wells from 
this region show not only the producing horizon, but the 
thickness and character of their sands and the presence of ap- 
parently commercial coal beds: 

Radaker & Co. No. 6 Well Record (R 105) Spencer District. 

Located on Lee Run, one and one-tenth mile West of Richard- 
son. Authority, Carter Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 755' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 18 18 

Coal, Uniontown 3 21 

Unrecorded 249 270 

Cave 20 290 

Unrecorded 45 335 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Minshall) 60 395 

Unrecorded 630 1025 

Sand, Cow Run ? ("Gas") 120 1145 

Unrecorded 300 1445 

Salt sand 100 1545 

Unrecorded 5 1550 

Salt sand 20 1570 

Unrecorded 87 1657 

Cave 8 1665 

Big Lime (water, 1735') 140 1805 

Big Injun sand 25 1830 

Unrecorded 373 2203 

Berea sand (oil, 2220'-2228') 28 2231 

Unrecorded to bottom 8 2239 

10" casing, 303 feet; 8^/4" casing, 1045 feet; 6%" casing, 1665 
feet; 5 3-16" casing, 1832 feet, 

Radaker & Co. No. 3 Well Record (R 106), Spencer District. 

Located on Lee Run, three-fourths mile West of Richardson. Au- 
thority, Carter Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 815' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total, 

Feet, Feet. 

Unrecorded 315 315 

Cave 15 330 

Unrecorded 605 935 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Big Dunkard) 20 955 

Unrecorded 135 1090 

Sand, Cow Run ? ("Gas" sand) 140 1230 

Unrecorded 95 1325 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 343 



Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Coal, Pittsburg ? (Upper Mercer) 5 1330 

Unrecorded 85 1415 

Salt sand 20 1435 

Unrecorded 40 1475 

Salt sand 50 1525 

Unrecorded 5 1530 

Salt sand (water, 1570') 105 1635 

Unrecorded 30 1665 

Sand, Maxton ? 40 1705 

Unrecorded 85 1790 

Cave 5 1795 

Big Lime 85 1880 

Unrecorded 10 1890 

Big Injun sand (gas show, 1894') 30 1920 

Unrecorded 369 2289 

Berea sand (oil, 2304'-2314') 29 2318 

Unrecorded to bottom 7 2325 

This well starts 40 feet by hand-level below the base of 
the Mannington sandstone, or no feet below the horizon of 
the Washington coal bed. The drillers have erroneously iden- 
tified the coal at 1325 feet as the Pittsburg, since the latter 
belongs at about 400 feet. It is one of the Pottsville coals 
and probably represents the Upper Mercer bed. 

Smith-Simmons No. 3 Well Record (R 108), Spencer District. 

Located on West Forli River, six-tenths mile Southwest of Rich- 
ardson. Authority, Heasley & Co. Completed Dec. 2, 1906. 

Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 12 12 

Rock 18 30 

Red rock 20 50 

White slate .^ 30 80 

White sand 50 130 

Red rock 50 180 

Lime shells 20 200 

Black slate 60 260 

Sand, (Sewickley and Upper Pittsburg) 120 380 

Red rock 60 440 

White slate 50 490 

Lime 30 520 

Red rock 20 540 

Lime 10 550 

Red rock 100 • 650 

Sand, (Morgantown) 25 675 

Red rock 30 705 

Sand 15 720 

Red rock 55 775 

Lime 16 790 



344 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Red rock 90 880 

Black slate 20 900 

Lime 15 915 

Red rock 10 925 

Lime 25 950 

Black slate 30 980 

Lime shells 20 1000 

Sand, (Burning Springs) 20 1020 

White slate 20 1040 

Black slate 60 1100 

Sand, ("Gas") 70 1170 

White slate 12 1182 

Sand 62 1244 

Black slate 31 1275 

Sand, (Second Cow Run) 35 1310 

Slate and shells 150 1460 

Sand 25 1485 

Black slate 65 1550 

Salt sand (water, 1570') 137 1687 

Coal (No. 2 Gas ?) 8 1695 

Lime 20 1715 

Black slate 10 1725 

Sand, Maxton ? 5 1730 

Blue slate 5 1735 

Little lime •. 40 1775 

Slate 5 1780 

Gray sand, (Maxton) 10 1790 

Pencil slate 5 1795 

Bedrock 8 1803 

Big Lime 72 1875 

Keener sand 15 1890 

Lime 15 1905 

Big Injun sand 25 1930 

Slate and shells 380 2310 

Black slate 10 2320 

Berea sand, oil pay (2337'-2347') 33 2353 

Unrecorded to bottom 9 2362 

10" casing, 420 feet; 8%" casing, 1100 feet; 6%" casing, 1803 
feet. 

The 8 feet of coal at a depth of 1687 feet appears to be 
quite generally present throughout the area of this oil field. 

Its horizon ranges from 115 to 140 feet above the top of the 
Big Lime and about 400 feet below the top of the Pottsville 

series. The coal may possibly correlate with the No. 2 Gas 
bed oi the Kanawha (Upper Pottsville) series. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 345 

Smith-Simmons No. 8 Well Record (R109), Spencer District. 

Located one-fourth mile West of West Fork River and nine- 
tenths mile Southwest of Richardson. Authority, Heasley & Co. 
Completed Jan. 6, 1909. 

Thickness. Total. 
Feet. Feet. 

Conductor 12 12 

Sandstone (Mannington) 63 75 

Red rock 25 100 

Sandstone (Waynesburg) 30 130 

Red rock , 45 175 

White sandstone (Uniontown) 50 225 

Dark sandstone (Arnoldsburg and Sewickley) 165 390 

Red rock 50 440 

Sandstone, (Upper Pittsburg) 40 480 

Red rock 50 530 

White slate 70 600 

Red rock 120 720 

Sandstone 85 755 

White sandstone, (Morgantown) 45 800 

Red rock 35 835 

Slate and shells 55 890 

Sand 10 900 

Black slate 70 970 

Red rock 15 985 

Lime 15 1000 

Black slate 15 1015 

Big Dunkard sand 35 1050 

Slate 50 1100 

Sand 15 1115 

Black slate 37 1152 

Sand Big Dunkard, ("Gas") 148 1300 

Slate 30 1330 

Sand, (Second Cow Run) 130 1460 

Slate 40 1500 

Sand 85 1585 

Black slate 40 1625 

Salt sand (water, 1635') 100 1725 

Coal (No. 2 Gas ?) 5 1730 

Sand 60 1790 

Slate 10 1800 

Sand 5 1805 

Black slate 15 1820 

Sand, Maxton ? 5 1825 

Little Lime 20 1845 

Sand (Maxton) 10 1855 

Red rock 10 1865 

Sand 15 1880 

Big Lime 115 1995 

Big Injun sand (gas 2000') 30 2025 

Slate and shells 380 2405 

Black slate 13 2418 

Berea sand (oil pay, 2434'-2446') 30 2448 

Unrecorded to battom 8 2454 

10" casing, 520 feet; SV^" casing, 1180 feet; 6%" casing, 1880 
feet. 



346 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

The well evidently starts almost flush with the horizon 
of the Washington coal bed. Several prominent sandstones 
of the Dunkard and Monongahela series are noted. 

The initial production of the wells in this Berea sand 
pool in Spencer district ranges from lo to lOO barrels a day 
of a fine "amber" grade of oil. The producing sand is 25 to 
40 feet thick, and the "pay streak", just below the middle 
portion of the sand, 8 to 12 feet in thickness. The last string 
of casing is set on the top of the Big Lime to shut off water 
and the caves immediately above. As shown by the above well 
records, three strings of casing are usually required. 

South and southwest from the Richardson oil pool sev- 
eral dry holes have been drilled down through the Berea 
sand. The following records of five of these wells show the 
character of the rock material in this portion of Spencer dis- 
trict : 

S. E. Grandee No. i Well Record (R no), Spencer District. 

Located on and near the mouth of Triplett Run, one mile and a 
half South of Richardson. Authority, Carter Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 770' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 1005 1005 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Big Dunkard) 20 1025 

Unrecorded 58 1083 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Gas sand) 112 1195 

Unrecorded 255 1450 

Salt sand 102 1552 

Unrecorded 13 1565 

Salt sand (water, 1640') 125 1690 

Unrecorded 133 1823 

Big Lime ....•■ 115 1938 

Big Injun sand 30 1968 

Unrecorded 351 2319 

Berea sand 20 2339 

Unrecorded to bottom 53 2392 

(Dry hole). Well starts near base of Mannington sandstone. 

Minerva Nutter No. i Well Record (R 116), Spencer District. 

Located on Big Run, one mile and a half Southwest of Rocks- 
dale. Authority, T. N. Barnsdale. 

(Elevation = 825' B-A. T.) Thickness. Tota. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 860 860 

First Cow Run sand 60 920 

Unrecorded 635 1555 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 347 

Thickness Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Sand. "Gas" ? (Salt) 50 1605 

Unrecorded 85 1690 

Salt sand 25 1715 

Unrecorded 40 1755 

Big Lime 185 1940 

Big Injun sand 51 1991 

Unrecorded 309 2300 

Berea Grit sand 5 2305 

Unrecorded to bottom 67 2372 

Dry. 10" casing, 100 feet; 8" casing, 860 feet; 6%" casing, 1845 
feet. 

The well starts 5 feet below the base of the Mannington 

sandstone, or 75 feet below the level of the horizon of the 
Washington coal bed. The Berea has thinned down to only 
.5 feet. 

I. N. Epling No. i Well Record (R 112), Spencer District- 
Located on Little Spring Creek, one-half mile East of Triplett 
P. O. Authority, Ira K Goff. Thickness. Total. 

(Elevation = 815' B-A. T.) Feet. Feet. 

Conductor 6 6 

Sandstone 30 36 

Unrecorded 274 310 

Sandstone, (Sewickley) 20 330 

Unrecorded 61 391 

Sandstone, (Upper Pittsburg) 40 431 

Unrecorded 284 715 

Coal, (Elk Lick) 2 717 

Unrecorded 148 865 

Sand 10 875 

Unrecorded 5 880 

Coal, (Bakerstown) 3 883 

Unrecorded 40 923 

Little Dunkard sand, (First Cow Run) 57 980 

Unrecorded 48 1028 

Sand 5 1033 

Unrecorded 72 1105 

Gas sand 60 1165 

Unrecorded 10 1175 

Sand 49 1224 

Unrecorded 4 1228 

Sand, (salty ; no water) 42 1270 

Unrecorded 285 1555 

Salt sand (water, 1585') 148 1703 

Lime and sand 62 1765 

Lime 30 1795 

Cave 5 1800 

Lime 3 1803 

Pencil cave 2 1805 

Big Lime 55 1860 

Lime and sand, gas show (Big Injun sand) 115 1975 

Slate 60 2035 

Slate and lime shells to bottom 473 2508 

10" casing, 647 feet; 8" casing, 1032 feet; 6" casing, 1840 feet. 



'44:8 MINERAL RESOUBCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

The well starts 50 feet below the level of the Washing- 
ton coal. Both the Elk Lick and Bakerstown coals are rep- 
resented in the log. The Big Injun sand is quite limy and 
no doubt includes part of the Big Lime. The Berea has 
thinned away entirely. 

Robert Hildreth Heirs No. i Well Record (R 113), Spencer 

District. 

Located one mile Southeast of Triplett P. O. Authority, Smith 
and Carnahan. Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor 12 12 

Unrecorded .31 43 

Lime, sandy at bottom 12 55 

Sandstone (Mannington) 75 130 

Reds 40 170 

Slate 50 220 

Sandstone, (Uniontown) 40 260 

Reds 40 300 

Lime, hard "^O 320 

Reds 50 370 

Sandstone 40 410 

Reds 60 470 

Sandstone, (Sewickley ?) 50 520 

White slate 50 570 

Sandstone, (Lower Pittsburg) 50 620 

Reds 150 770 

Black slate 30 800 

White slate 40 840 

Coal, (Elk Lick) 5 845 

Black slate 50 895 

Lime shells 30 925 

Slate 20 945 

Sandstone, Little Dunkard ? (Saltsburg) 10 955 

Black slate 45 1000 

Sand, Big Dunkard ? (First Cow Run) 90 1090 

Lime shells 80 1170 

Sand, "Gas" ? (Burning Springs) 30 1200 

Slate, gray 50 1250 

Sand, First Salt ? (Gas sand) (show of water at top) 60 1310 

Slate, ' black 10 1320 

Sand, Second Salt ? (Second Cow Run) (salt water 

at 1360') 120 1440 

Limestone and slate, broken 1 85 1625 

Maxton (?) sand 160 1785 

Cave, slate, slight 15 1800 

Little Lime 12 1812 

Pencil cave 8 1820 

Big Lime 105 1925 

Lime and ^late ■ 25 1950 

Big Injun sand 104 2054 

Limestone and slate, shelly 384 2438 

Berea Grit sand 29 2467 

Slate to bottom 18 2485 

10" casing, 740 feet; 8" casing, 1063 feet 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 349 

This record was kept with great care and observations 
on the character of the formations taken every 5 feet in depth- 
The well mouth is about 60 feet above the level of the hori- 
zon of the Washington coal. The Berea has thickened up 
to 29 feet. Although the well is only one-half mile distant 
from the Epling well (R 112) above, yet the logs show quite 
a variation in the formations. 

GofF and Heck No. 2 Well Record (R 117), Spencer District. 

Located on Bufflngton run of Laurel run, two miles West of 
Tristan. Authority, Carter Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 760' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 500 500 

Cave (poor) 100 600 

Unrecorded 350 950 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Burning Springs) 80 1030 

Unrecorded 545 1575 

Salt sand 100 1675 

Unrecorded 20 1C95 

Maxton sand (poor) 30 1725 

Unrecorded 50 1775 

Cave 5 1780 

Big Lime 110 1890 

Big Injun sand (little gas on top) : . . . 32 1922 

Unrecorded to bottom 61 1983 

Dry hole. The well mouth is 75 feet below the level of 
the base of the Mannington sandstone cliflF or 145 feet below 
the horizon of the Washington coal bed. 

In the southeast corner of Spencer District on Starcher 
fork of Island run, the Carter Oil Co. opened up a pool in 
1902 that contains 9 or 10 producing oil wells. Dry holes 
have been drilled near by on all sides of the pool, apparently 
confining it to a small area not over one-half square mile in 
extent. From a structural standpoint, this field lies near the 
foot of the steepest slope of the western flank of the Arches. 
Fork anticline. The oil is very dark and heavy, and requires 
steaming to get it to flow freely from the tanks into the pipe 
line- 

The two following records are from wells in this pool 
and show the depth and thickness of the oil horizon as well 
as other formations of interest: 



350 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

S. F. Foltz No. 8 Well Record (R 119), Spencer District. 

Located on Island Run, one mile and a half West of Pink. 
Authority, Carter Oil Co. 

Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 670 fi70 

Coal, Pittsburg (no good) 6 67G 

Unrecorded 64 740 

Cave, bad '. 190 930 

Unrecorded 250 IISO 

Sand, poor. Cow Run ? (Big Dunkard) 54 123 1 

Unrecorded 636 1S70 

Salt sand, poor (water, 1924') 118 19.S8 

Unrecorded 79 2067 

Maxton sand 10 2077 

Unrecorded to bottom 8 2085 

Oil well in the Maxton sand. Well apparently starts 
slightly less than 200 feet above the Washington coal ; hence 
the bed at 670 feet seems to represent the Pittsburg coal al- 
though the record mentions this coal as being no good. 

The record below is taken from Vol. I (A) of the W. Va. 
Geological Survey, page 470: 

S. F. Foltz No. I Well Record (R 120), Spencer District. 

Located on Island Run, one mile and a half West of Pink P. O. 
Authority, Carter Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 837' L-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 525 525 

Cave 350 875 

Unrecorded 145 1020 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Burning Springs) 30 1050 

Unrecorded 555 1605 

Salt sand 115 1720 

Unrecorded 40 1760 

Maxton sand (oil) 26 1786 

Unrecorded to bottom 4 1790 

The well starts 40 feet, by ha?nd-level, below the base of 
the Mannington sandstone cliflF, or no feet below the Wash- 
ington coal horizon. Another detailed log of a dry hole in 
this region is found on page 72 of the Goff & Heck No. i 
well (R 118) used in connection with the Tristan P. Q. sec- 
tion. The well is located one mile north of this Maxton sand 
oil pool, and there the Maxton sand and one of the Potts- 
ville sandstones above have combined into one great mass 
198 feet in thickness. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 351 

The follow^ing is the record of a dry hole in this same 
field, located a short distance west (lOO yards) from the Foltz 
well above. The well mouth is about lOO feet below the level 
of the Washington coal bed. The log, with a few modifica- 
tions by the writer, is as published in Vol. II of the State 
Survey reports, pp. 398-400: 

S. Conley No. i Well Record, Spencer District. 

Located three-fourths mile up Starcher fork of Island run, one 
mile and a half West of Pink P. O. Authority, Carter Oil Co. 

Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 55 55 

Sand 15 70 

Red rock 10 80 

Sandstone 20 100 

Slate 50 150 

Lime 25 175 

Slate 25 200 

Sand 25 225 

Red rock 15 240 

Lime 20 260 

Sandstone 10 270 

Slate '. 30 300 

Lime 35 335 

Lime 15 350 

Slate 30 380 

Shell 4 384 

Coal, (Pittsburg) 4 388 

Lime 12 400 

Slate 55 465 

Lime 15 470 

Slate 10 480 

Red rock 15 495 

Lime 5 500 

"Big Red" cave 80 580 

Lime 20 600 

Slate J. 100 700 

Red rock 10 710 

Slate 40 750 

Lime 25 775 

Sand 8 783 

Lime 7 790 

Slate 60 850 

Lime 29 879 

Sand, First Cow Run ? (Dunkard) 59 938 

Upper Freeport coal 2 940 

Sand 20 960 

Slate and lime 52 1012 

Sand 10 1022 

Lime 18 1040 

Slate 20 1060 



352 MINERAL RESOURCES OP WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

"Gas sand" ] 75 1135 

Slate, "break" I Lower Freeport 5 1140 

Sand J 60 1200 

Slate 55 1255 

Sand 45 1300 

Black slate (cavej 40 1340 

Sand 50 1390 

Slate 80 1470 

Lime 30 1500 

Slate 45 1545 

Lime 35 1580 

Slate 10 1590 

Salt sand, water (1620'j 135 1725 

Unrecorded 53 1778 

Maxton sand 9 1787 

Slate 13 1800 

Little Lime 15 1815 

Slate 5 1820 

Sandstone, hard 10 1830 

"Pencil cave" 5 1835 

"Big Lime" 61 1896 

Big Injun sand (small gas at 1936 feet) 104 2000 

Slate 30 2030 

Lime 24 2054 

Slate 71 2125 

Sand 10 2135 

Slate 50 2185 

Lime *. 15 2200 

Slate 160 2360 

Limy sand (Berea) 10 2370 

Slate 50 2420 

Shells 50-55 2475 

Slate 53 2528 

Sand, limy, "stray", gas show 7 2535 

Slate 15 2550 

Gordon sand (shell) 3 2553 

Slate to bottom 51 2604 

The following is the record of a dry hole drilled in the 

southern point of Spencer district near the axis of the Spen- 
cer synclinal trough : 

Israel Snyder No. i Well Record (R 121), Spencer District. 

Located on Right Fork of Spring Creek, one-half mile South- 
west of Speed. Authority, Carter Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 830' B-A. T. ) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 590 590 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Minshall) 40 630 

Unrecorded 550 1180 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Gas sand) (water, 1180') 20 1200 

Unrecorded (water, 1495') 295 1495 

Coal, (Upper Mercer ?) 5 1500 



J^'.j^ WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 353 

Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

"Unrecorded 95 1595 

Salt sand (water, 1650') 175 1770 

Unrecorded 2 1772 

Salt sand (water, 1780') 78 1850 

Unrecorded 10 1860 

Salt sand 35 1895 

Unrecorded 40 1935 

Cave 5 1940 

Big Lime 117 2057 

Big Injun sand (water, 2092') 40 2097 

Unrecorded to bottom 612 2709 

10" casing, 489 feet; 8i4" casing, 995 feet; 6%" casing, 1940 feet. 

The well starts lo to 15 feet above the level of the Wash- 
ington coal bed. The coal at 1495 feet in depth, and 1000 feet 
below the horizon of the Pittsburg coal, may possibly repre- 
sent the Upper Mercer of northwestern Pennsylvania. 

The following is the record of a well located one mile 
due north of the above well: 

A, M. Hersman No. i Well Record (R 122), Spencer District. 

Located six-tenths mile Northwest of Speed. Authority, Carter 
Oil Co. 

Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet, 

Unrecorded 425 425 

Coal, (Lower Sewickley ?) 426 

Unrecorded 615 1040 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Big Dunkard) (water, 1050') 30 1070 

Unrecorded 195 1265 

Sand, Cow Run (Gas and Second Cow Run) (water, 1270') 140 1405 

Unrecorded 187 1592 

Salt sand (water, 1660') 146 1738 

Unrecorded 2 1740 

Salt sand 90 1830 

Unrecorded 62 1892 

Maxton sand 8 1900 

Big Lime (water, 1955') 114 2014 

Big Injun sand (gas, 2025') 41 2055 

Unrecorded to bottom 451 2506 

Gas show light in Big Injun sand. 

10" casing, 630 feet; 8^" casing, 1105 feet; 6%" casing, 1900 
feet. 

Both the above wells penetrated below the horizon of 
the Berea sand and fail to report the latter formation. 

The following is the record of a light gas well, located 
23 



354 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

5 miles southwest of Spencer in the Spencer basin, from the 
Salt sand and not the Maxton as identified by the driller, since 
the gas horizon comes about 300 feet above the Big Lime, 
as shown by the log of the Cora E. Rhodes well (R 123) next 
below : 

M. L. Van Devender No. i Well Record (R 124), Spencer 

District. 

Located on Lick Fork of Spring Creek, one mile and a half 
Southeast of Vandalia. Authority, Carter Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 855' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded (water at 40', 480' and 620') 830 830 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Murphy) 25 855 

Unrecorded 95 950 

Sand, Cow Run ? (First Cow Run and Big Dunkard) 

(water, 1020') 130 1080 

Unrecorded 185 1265 

Sand, Salt ? (Gas sand) 60 1325 

Unrecorded 95 1420 

Sand, Salt ? (Second Cow Run) 80 1500 

Unrecorded 131 1631 

Sand, Maxton ? (Salt) (gas, 1636') to bottom 12 1643 

10" casing, 500 feet; 8^" casing, 990 feet; 5 3-16" casing, 1547 
feet. 

The identifications in parentheses are by the writer. The 
well starts about 60 feet above the level of the Washington 
coal bed and about 530 feet above the horizon of the Pitts- 
burg coal- The following record of a well, located one-half 
mile to the west, shows the Big Lime and the absence of the 
Berea sand in this region: 

Cora E. Rhodes No. i Well Record (R 123), Spencer District. 

Located on Lick Fork of Spring Creek, one mile and a fourth 
Southeast of Vandalia. Authority, Carter Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 885' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 1141 1141 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Big Dunkard) 19 1160 

Unrecorded 75 1235 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Burning Springs and Gas sands) 101 1336 

Unrecorded 346 1682 

Salt sand (water, 1695', 1745' and 1772') 158 1840 

Unrecorded 5 1845 

Salt sand 70 1915 

Unrecorded 20 1935 

Big Lime 58 1993 



WB6T VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 355 



Thickness. Total. 
Feet. Feet. 

Keener sand 15 2008 

Big Injun sand '. 98 2106 

Unrecorded 29 2135 

Squaw sand 17 2152 

Unrecorded to bottom 396 2548 

No Berea sand. Dry hole. 

13" casing, 34 feet; 10" casing, 742 feet; 8^" casing, 10a4 feet; 
6%" casing, 2018 feet. 

The well starts about 90 feet above the horizon of the 
Washington coal. 

As mentioned on a preceding page, there occurs a fine gas 
pool in the Berea sand immediately northwest of the town of 
Spencer. Some of the wells have an initial production of over 
10 million cubic feet of gas a day with a rock pressure of 950 
to 975 pounds. The five following well records show not only 
the producing horizon, but other important data of interest : 

L. D. Simmons No. 2 Well Record (R 127), Spencer District. 

Located three-fourths mile Northwest of Spencer. Authority, 
Fisher Oil Co, 

(Elevation = 895' L-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor 16 16 

Unrecorded 1054 1070 

Sand, Second Cow Run ? (First Cow Run) 35 1105 

Unrecorded 529 1634 

Salt sand (First oil show, 1 bbl., 1637'-1645', second, 1812') 383 2017 

Big Lime 25 2042 

Big Injun sand 60 2102 

Unrecorded .364 2466 

Berea sand (gas, 2471'-2485') to bottom 19 2485 

10" casing, 535 feet; 8%" casing, 1080 feet; 6%" casing, 2022 
feet. 

"Completed July 9, 1909. Quite a lot of pebbles at bottom of 
Berea sand. Well showed 6^^ million cu. ft. a day after last pay. 
Well showed only 2 million cu. ft. July 15 after blowing open 13 
hours. Set packer at 450 feet from bottom. Rock pressure, 970 
lbs." 

The well starts about 150 feet above the Washington coal, 
or 625 feet above the Pittsburg bed- 

Depue No. i Well Record (R 128), Spencer District. 

Located on Spring Creek, three-fourths mile North of Spencer. 
Authority, Fisher Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 718' L-A. T.) Thickness, Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 905 905 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Big Dunkard) 90 995 



356 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 510 1505 

Salt sand 270 1775 

Unrecorded 5 1780 

Big Lime 85 1865 

Keener sand 35 1900 

Unrecorded 373 2273 

Berea sand. 

The well starts about 40 feet below the crop of the Wash- 
ington coal bed. 

L. p. (H. J.) Simmons No. 2 Well Record (R 129), Spencer 

District. 

Located on Nancy Run of Spring Creek, one mile and a half 
Northwest of Spencer. Authority, Fisher Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 760' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor, yellow clay 11 11 

Lime 19 30 

White slate, (Washington fire clay sliale) 10 40 

Lime 15 55 

Red rock 5 60 

Lime 5 65 

Red rock 5 70 

White slate 15 85 

Sand (water) 20 105 

White slate 10 115 

Red rock 10 125 

Lime 5 130 

Red rock 10 140 

Lime 5 145 

Red rock 5 150 

White slate 5 155 

Red rock 5 160 

Lime 8 168 

Red rock 22 190 

Lime 5 195 

Red rock 15 210 

Lime 5 215 

White slate 20 235 

Red rock 10 245 

Sandstone, (Uniontown) 5 250 

Red rock 15 265 

Red lime 10 275 

Red rock 25 300 

White slate 10 310 

Sandstone 10 320 

Red rock 30 350 

Lime 10 360 

White slate 25 385 

Red lime 20 405 

Red rock 20 425 

Sandstone 5 430 

White slate 20 450 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 357 



Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Sandstone 35 485 

White slate > 40 525 

Sandstone, (Upper Pittsburg) 15 540 

White slate 25 565 

Sandstone, Connellsville 75 640 

Black slate 3 643 

Sandstone, (Morgantown) 22 6o5 

Pink rock 30 695 

Sandstone 5 700 

Red rock, "Big Red" (Pittsburg Reds) 65 765 

Lime 23 788 

Red rock l:i 800 

Sandstone, Saltsburg ? 20 820 

White slate 5 825 

Lime 13 838 

Red rock 12 850 

White slate 20 870 

Red rock 20 V90 

White slate 15 905 

Sand 20 925 

White slate 20 945 

Sand 25 980 

Red rock 3 983 

White slate 7 990 

Sand, Second Cow Run ? (Big Dunkard) 1 00 1090 

White slate 10 1100 

Sand 20 1120 

Slate 15 1135 

Sand 30 1165 

White slate 90 1255 

Sand 15 1270 

Coal, (Lower Kittanning) 3 1273 

Black slate 37 1310 

Lime 10 1320 

White slate 30 1350 

Black slate 10 1360 

Sand, (Second Cow Run) (Homewood.) 50 1410 

Black slate 30 1440 

Sand 50 1490 

Black slate 46 1536 

Coal 1 1537 

Slate 18 1555 

Lime 10 1565 

White slate and shells 30 1595 

Salt sand (water, 1650' and 1691') 291 1886 

Big Lime 49 1935 

Keener sand 15 1950 

Sandy lime 15 1965 

Slate 25 1990 

Big Injun sand 10 2000 

Shells and slate 350 2350 

Brown shale 17 2367 

Shells, first gas .....] 8 2375 

Pebbly sand, second gas. . [ Berea sand 14' 1 2376 

Sand I 5 2381 

Unrecorded to bottom 41 2422 



358 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

10" casing, 355 feet; 8" casing, 955 feet; 6%" casing, first, 1902 
feet; 6%" casing, second, 1907 feet. 

The log is interesting in that it shows red rock to within 
loo feet of the base of the Conemaugh series. The well starts 
about 30 feet above the Washington coal and over 500 feet 
above the Pittsburg coal horizon. 

J. A. Ward No. i Well Record (R 130), Spencer District. 

Located at Willowbank school-house on Spring Creek, one mile 
and three-fourths North of Spencer. Authority, United Fuel Co. 

(Elevation = 725' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded J 80 180 

Sandstone 15 195 

Slate 240 435 

Unrecorded 65 500 

Sandstone, (Connellsville, Minshall) 50 550 

Unrecorded 70 620 

Sandstone, (Morgan town, Murphy) 25 645 

Unrecorded 5 650 

Coal, (Elk Lick) 5 655 

Unrecorded 65 720 

Lime 12 732 

Unrecorded 118 850 

Big Dunkard sand 124 974 

Unrecorded 136 1110 

Sand, (Gas sand) 110 1220 

Unrecorded 92 1312 

Sand, Gas ? (Second Cow Run) 18 1330 

Unrecorded 80 1410 

Salt sand (gas, 1430'; oil, 1450') 84 1494 

Slate 30 1524 

Salt sand (water, 1530') 313 1837 

Pencil cave 3 1840 

Big Lime 13 1853 

Slate 17 1870 

Big Injun sand 4 1874 

Slate 269 2143 

Unrecorded 100 2243 

Black shale 8 2251 

Berea sand (First pay, 2251'; second pay, 2261') 12 2263 

10" casing, 260 feet; 8" casing, 850 feet. Rock pressure, 925 lbs. 

Mary B. Clarkson No. i Well Record (R 131), Spencer 

District. 

Located on Spring Creek, two miles North of Spencer. Author- 
ity, Carter Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 735' B.-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 616 516 

Cave 25 541 

Unrecorded 409 950 

Sand, Cow Run, (First Cow Run) 55 1005 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 359 

Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 5 1010 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Big Dunkard) 65 1075 

Unrecorded 375 1450 

Salt sand 50 1500 

Unrecorded 35 1535 

Salt sand (water, 1640') 235 1770 

Big Lime 15 1785 

Big Injun sand 128 1913 

Unrecorded 370 2283 

Berea sand 10 2293 

Unrecorded to bottom 201 2494 

10" casing, 310 feet; SV^" casing, 1075 feet; 6%" casing, 1898 
feet. 

The record of the old Asylum weW (R 126) is given on 
page 69, published in connection with the Spencer section. 
It, along with the logs of other dry holes east and southeast 
of Spencer, shows the Berea sand to be more or less lentil in 
character in Roane county ; hence, for that reason, the gas 
pool northwest and west from Spencer is confined down near 
the axis of the Spencer syncline. 

CURTIS DISTRICT. 

Curtis district lies directly west from Spencer district 
along the Roane-Jackson county line- Its area is traversed 
by the Flat Fork anticline along the western border from 
north to south, and by the Spencer syncline on its eastern 
margin. Its strata are very much warped and considerable 
relief prevails. The Washington coal bed varies from 675' 
A. T. at the northern boundary line of the district to 825' 
A. T. in the southeast corner of the latter area. The Berea 
sand gas pool of Spencer district has been developed west- 
ward almost entirely across Curtis, and in this portion of 
Roane are found some of the best gas wells in the State. The 
four following records of wells in this vicinity show the gas 
horizon and other data of interest : 

Florence Matthews No. i Well Record (R 148), Curtis 

District. 
Located three-fourths mile Southeast of Clarence. Authority, 
Carter Oil Co. Completed in September, 1909. 

(Elevation = 1050' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 755 755 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Lower Pittsburg) 50 805 

Unrecorded 575 1380 



360 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Gas sand) 65 1445 

Unrecorded 145 1590 

Sand, Salt ? (Second Cow Run) 25 1615 

Unrecorded 225 1840 

Salt sand (oil and gas show, 1857'; water, 1875') 315 2155 

Big Lime 70 2225 

Big Injun sand 15 2240 

Unrecorded 381 2621 

Berea sand (gas, 2627'-2633') to bottom 12 2633 

10" casing, 855 feet; 8%" casing, 1245 feet; 6%" casing. 2250 
feet; 4" tubing, 2633 feet. 

The well starts 250 feet above the horizon of the Wash- 
ington coal, and made over 10,000,000 cu. ft. per day from 
the Berea sand when the pay was tapped, with a rock pres- 
sure of over 900 pounds. It required several days to shut the 
well in. The drillers have even called a sand (Lower Pitts- 
burg) at the top of the Conemaugh series the "Cow Run". 
The wells in this portion of Curtis district all find a showing 
of oil and gas in the Salt sand. 

Lloyd Bailey No. i Well Record (R 146), Curtis District. 

Located on Stover Fork of Reedy Creek, one mile East of Clar- 
ence. Authority, Fisher Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 850' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total 

Feet. Feet, 

Conductor 13 13 

Unrecorded 905 918 

First Cow Run sand 102 1020 

Unrecorded 610 1630 

Third Salt sand (oil show, 1635'-1643') 280 1910 

Unrecorded 20 1930 

Little Lime 15 1945 

Big Lime 70 2015 

Big Injun sand 20 2035 

Unrecorded 390 2425 

Berea sand (gas pay, 2427'-2433') 8 2433 

10" casing, 512 feet; 8^^" casing, 1001 feet; 6%" casing, 1951 
feet. "After blowing open for 24 hours it gauged 12-10 inch mercury 
and 20 inches water, or 6,312,600 cu. ft. Rock pressure, 970 lbs." 

Well starts about 50 feet above Washington coal horizon. 

Herbert Reed No. i Well Record (R 149), Curtis District. 

Located three-fourths mile Northwest of Vandalia. Authority, 
Fisher Oil Co. Completed Dec. 13, 1908. 

(Elevation = 1035' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor 16 16 

Unrecorded 564 580 

Sandstone, Pittsburg ? (Sewickley and Upper Pittsburg) 105 685 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, 361 

Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 415 1100 

Sand, Second Cow Run ? (First Cow Run) 65 1165 

Unrecorded 636 1801 

Salt sand (oil show, 1801') — 1801 

Unrecorded 364 2165 

Big Injun sand 54 2219 

Unrecorded 397 2616 

Berea sand (gas, 2618'-2631') 15 2631 

Gas well 6,000,000 cu. ft. daily. 

10" casing, 675 feet; 8^" casing, 1160 feet; 6%" casing, 2164 feet. 

Well starts about 230 feet above the Washington coal 
horizon. 

Newton Radabaugh No. i Well Record (R 151), Curtis 

District. 

Located one mile North of Vandalia. Authority, United Fuel Co. 

Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 650 650 

Red rock (cave, 750'-760') 110 760 

Sand, (Minshall) 30 790 

Blue slate ' 100 890 

Grayish slate 15 905 

Sand, (Murphy) 15 920 

Red rock 80 1000 

Grayish slate 35 1035 

Sand, (Saltsburg) 40 1075 

Pale red slate (cave) 25 1100 

Sand, (First Cow Run) 30 1130 

White slate 15 1145 

Sand, (Big Dunkard) 35 1180 

Gray slate 30 1210 

Sand 10 1220 

Gray slate 5 1225 

Sand 5 1230 

Gray slate 20 1250 

Black slate 20 1270 

Dark lime 30 1300 

Gray slate 15 1315 

White slate 15 1330 

Gray sand ] 10 1340 

Black sand )■ Gas sand 45 1385 

Gray sand | 10 1395 

Lime 55 1450 

Dark slate 15 1465 

Dark slate R 1 470 

Lime shells 5 1475 

Black slate 10 1485 

Sand 15 1500 

Unrecorded 5 1505 

Dark slate 5 1510 

Sand, (Second Cow Run) '. 35 1545 

Dark slate 5 1550 



362 MINERAL EESOUBCES OF WERT-BOANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Sand 5 1555 

Slate 5 1560 

Sand, (Salt) 25 1585 

Black slate 15 1600 

Sand, (Salt) 177 1777 

Salt sand (water, 1850') 353 2130 

Little Lime "1 40 2170 

Wliite Lime }■ Big Lime 20 2190 

Black Lime J 33 2223 

Slate 367 2590 

Berea Grit (gas, 2593'-2605') 161/2 2606% 

Well mouth is about 200 feet above horizon of the Wash- 
ington coal bed. 

H. A. Wiseman No. i Well Record (R 150), Curtis District. 

Located three-fourths mile due North of Vandalia. Authority, 
Fisher Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 965' B-A, T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor 16 16 

Unrecorded 1697 1713 

Salt sand (oil show) 357 2070 

Big Lime 83 2153 

Unrecorded (no Big Injun sand) 407 2560 

Berea sand (first gas pay, 2567'-2570'; second, 

2578'-2580') 20 2580 

Unrecorded to bottom 19 2599 

3,500,000 cu. ft. of gas daily in Berea. Well showed 3 bbls. of 
oil in Salt sand. Completed May 15, 1909. 

10" casing, 617 feet; 8%" casing, 1121 feet; 6%" casing, 2087 
feet; Packer set in Big Lime at 2146 feet. 

The well mouth is about 160 feet above the horizon of the 
Washington coal. The Big Injun sand appears to be absent 
entirely. 

Several other gas wells in the Berea sand in Curtis dis- 
trict occur about two miles northeast of the above well. It 
also seems quite probable that this Berea sand gas belt ex- 
tends on west down Left fork of Elk fork to the Roane-Jack- 
son county line. The following is the record of a Berea sand 
gas well in the edge of Jackson county : 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 363 

J. M. Hinzman No. i Well Record (R 148A), Washington 

District. 

Located on Left Fork of Elk Fork of Mill creek, one-half mile 
East of Gay. Authority, Carter Oil Co. Completed Jan. 13, 1910. 

(Elevation = 720' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 625 625 

Cave 50 675 

Unrecorded 185 860 

First Cow Run sand 20 880 

Unrecorded 85 965 

Sand, Cow Run? (Big Dunkard) 50 1015 

Unrecorded 235 1250 

Sand, Salt ? (Second Cow Run) 55 1305 

Unrecorded 45 1350 

Salt sand 25 1375 

Unrecorded 140 1515 

Salt sand (oil and gas show, 1535'; water, 1545') 210 1725 

Big Lime (water, 1783') 145 1870 

Big Injun sand 25 1895 

Unrecorded 406 2301 

Berea sand (gas, 2303'-2311') 10 2311 

Unrecorded to bottom 14 2325 

10" casing, 382 feet; 8^4" casing, 968 feet; 6%" casing, 1735 
feet. 

Well mouth is 10 feet below crop of the Washington coal- 
The Berea sand gas pool may extend northward from Left 
fork of Elk fork along the axis of the Flat Fork anticline to 
the northern boundary of Curtis district. No wells have ever 
been drilled in this portion of the latter area. Northwest of 
the Berea sand gas belt in Curtis district there probably oc- 
curs a pool of oil from the same horizon, since oil almost uni- 
versally accompanies gas pools in any stratum, but generally 
at a lower level. 

On Stover fork of Reedy, six miles southwest of Spen- 
cer, there occurs a small pool of oil in the Salt sand. The 
wells are very light, ranging from 5 to 10 barrels. The two 
following records from wells in this pool show the producing 
horizon and other sands as well : 

C. C. Kelley No. i Well Record (R 143), Curtis District. 

Located on Stover fork of Reedy Creek, one mile and a fourth 
Northwest of Vandalia. Authority, Ira K. Goff. 

(Elevation = 805' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor 15 15 

Unrecorded 323 338 

Sand, Pittsburg, gritty (Sewickley and Upper Pittsburg) 110 448 

UnrecorOed 367 815 



364 MINERAL RESOURCES OP WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Sand, Little Dunkard (First Cow Run) 35 850 

Unrecorded 50 900 

Big Dunkard and Burning Springs sands 146 1046 

Unrecorded 54 1100 

Gas sand 140 1240 

Unrecorded 347 1587 

Salt Sand (oil pay, 1603'-1609') 25 1612 

4 bbl. oil well from Salt sand. 

10" casing, 452 feet; 8" casing, 934 feet. 

The well mouth is 5 feet above the level of the crop of 
the Washington coal. 

W. R. Parsons No. i Well Record (R 144), Curtis District. 

Located on Stover fork of Reedy creek, one and one-tenth mile 
Northwest of Vandalia. Authority, Fisher Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 835' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor 13 13 

Unrecorded (water at 140' and 200') ^ 347 360 

Sand, Pittsburg (Sewickley and Upper Pittsburg) . . .'. 106 466 

Unrecorded 374 840 

First Cow Run sand 35 875 

Unrecorded 80 955 

Sand, Second Cow Run ? (Big Dunkard) (light show of oil) 5 960 

Unrecorded 215 1175 

Sand, First Salt ? (Gas sand) 85 1260 

Unrecorded 140 1400 

Second Salt sand 50 1450 

Unrecorded 143 1593 

Third Salt sand (oil pay, 10 bbl. after shot, 1607'-1619') . . 28 1621 

10" casing, 466 feet; 8^/4" casing, 960 feet. 

Well mouth is 30 feet above level of Washina:ton coal. 

The record of another well in this pool is found on pa;e^e 
74 in connection with the section for Vandalia P. O. Al- 
though the latter well (R 145) made some oil in the Salt 
sand, it was drilled on down to the Berea and a flow of gas 
encountered at this horizon. < 

About two miles north of this Salt sand pool a dry hole 
was drilled on the Petty farm. Its record is as follows : 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, 365 

R. R. Petty No. i Well Record (R 142), Curtis District. 

Located on Reedy creek, three-fourths mile South of Reedyville. 
Authority, R. R. Petty. 

(Elevation = 745' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. PeeL 

Unrecorded 750 750 

Sand, First Cow Run ? (Murphy) (oil show) — 750 

Unrecorded 335 1085 

Sand, Second Cow Run ? (Burning Springs) (gas at top; 

oil under gas) 98 1183 

Unrecorded 1137 2320 

Berea sand — 2320 

Unrecorded to bottom 100 2420 

Show of oil and gas, but abandoned as dry. 

Well starts about 15 feet above the horizon of the Wash- 
ington coal bed. 

SMITHFIELD DISTRICT- 

Smithfield district is situated slightly southeast of the 
central portion of Roane county. Its area is traversed in a 
northeast-southwest direction by two structural folds ; viz., 
Arches Fork anticline and the Robinson syncline. Conditions 
are ideal from a structural standpoint for the segregation of 
its oil and gas into pools of commercial value. Considerable 
relief prevails there as shown by the fact that the Washing- 
ton coal horizon varies from 950' A. T. at the northern point 
of the district to 1600' A. T. at the southeastern point of the 
same area. On the head of Clover and Rush runs of Henry 
fork, an oil pool in the Big Injun sand has recently been 
opened- This pool appears to be an extension of the Walton 
pool, 8 miles to the southwest. It occupies a lower struc- 
tural level than the latter pool if referred to Washington coal 
as the datum plane, but practically the same structural level 
if referred to the top of the Big Lime. This difference in 
level, depending on the datum plane used, is caused by the 
thickening up of the Pottsville measures in passing south and 
east across Roane county. This convergence of the measures 
often interferes with the best considered plans to locate in 
advance any oil or gas pool by means of a structural contour 
map on a single key rock. An examination of the structure 
map accompanying this report, on which is shown not only 



366 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

the relief of the strata but the present oil and gas develop- 
ment, demonstrates the probability of the extension in an un- 
broken belt of productive w^ells to the southwest from the 
Clover and Rush run oil field. This belt of wells m Smith- 
field district should follow closely the west side of Laurel fork 
of "Poca" and cross the Smithfield-Walton district line be- 
tween the 1 125 and 1200-foot structure contours as outlined 
on the map. 

The Clover run pool was opened by Heasley & Company 
during the year 1909. The record of the first well in the field 
on the L. D. Chambers farm is published in connection with 
the general sections for the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area, page 
80. The log of the Oppenheimer & Kaufman No. i by the 
same company is published in connection with the Clover run 
section on page 78- The following is the detailed log of a 
well in this field, located three-fourths mile northeast of the 
L- D. Chambers No. i : 

T. Morris Perot No. i Well Record (R 155), Smithfield 

District. 

Located on Clover Run, one mile and a fourtli Southeast of 
Graux. Authority, Heasley & Co. 

(Elevation = 880' L-A, T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 222 222 

Sand, (Sewickley) 30 252 

Lime 10 262 

Slate 38 300 

Sand, (Upper Pittsburg) 68 368 

Slate (10" casing, 385') 105 473 

Red rock 19 492 

Sand, (Minshall) 41 533 

Red rock 347 880 

Sand, Big Dunkard (8" casing, 885') 80 960 

White slate 40 1000 

Sand, (Burning Springs) 20 1020 

White slate 50 1070 

Sand 40 1110 

Slate 6 1116 

Sand, (Second Cow Run) 84 1200 

Slate and shells 80 1280 

Sand 16 1296 

Black slate 14 1310 

Sandy lime 105 1415 

Slate 10 1425 

Sand 55 1480 

Slate and shells 114 1594 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 367 



Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Salt sand (water, 1630') 91 1685 

Coal (No. 2 Gas ?) 7 1692 

Lime 28 1720 

Slate 10 1730 

Sand 35 1765 

Red rock 25 1790 

Gray sand (Maxton) 23 1813 

Slate 2 1815 

Little Lime 35 1850 

Sand 5 1855 

Pencil cave 5 1860 

Red rock (&V2" casing, 1870') 10 1870 

Big Lime (gas, oil and water, 1915') 65 1935 

Sandy lime (Keener sand) 50 1985 

Big Injun sand (gas and oil pay, 1992'-2017') 32 2017 

Slate to bottom 16 2033 

The well starts 120 feet below the level of the Washing- 
ton coal. The 7 feet of coal at 1685 feet in depth, 178 feet 
above the top of the Big Lime and 576 feet below the top of 
the Pottsville, appears to be the same bed as found 9 miles 
due northward in the Richardson oil field, coming there at 
140 feet above the Big Lime and 400 feet below the top of the 
Pottsville series. 

Lucy J. Webb No. i Well Record (R 154), Smithfield 

District. 
Located on Rush run, one mile and a half Southeast of Walnut 
Grove P. O. Authority, South Penn Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 940' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 185 185 

Sand 10 195 

Unrecorded 25 220 

Sand, (Sewickley) 30 250 

Unrecorded 105 355 

Sand, (Upper Pittsburg) 15 370 

Unrecorded 160 530 

Sand, (Murphy) , 20 550 

Unrecorded ; 35 585 

Sand 15 600 

Unrecorded 190 790 

Sand 30 820 

Unrecorded 35 855 

Big Dunkard and Burning Springs sands 115 970 

Unrecorded 70 1040 

Sand, (Gas) 60 1100 

Unrecorded 25 1125 

Sand 35 1160 

Unrecorded 140 1300 

Sand, (Second Cow Run) 85 1385 



368 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE- CALHOUN AREA. 



Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 180 1565 

Salt sand 160 1725 

Maxton sand 160 1885 

Big Lime 103 1988 

Big Injun sand (oil, 2015'-2034') 46 2034 

Unrecorded to bottom 3 2037 

Well mouth is 140 feet below crop of Washington coal. 

The wells in this pool are very large, ranging from 5 to 
50 barrels daily. The Big Injun sand is not nearly so thick 
as in the northern end of the State. The oil pay occurs in the 
bottom portion of the sand. The following is the record of 
a dry hole, one mile northwest of the pool, taken from Vol. 
I (A), page 471: 

David Simmons No. i Well Record (R 152), Smithfield 

District. 

Located on Vandal fork of Spring creek, one-half mile South- 
east of Graux. Authority, Wm. Cale. 

(Elevation = 855' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor 16 16 

Shale 20 36 

Shale, blue (water at 40') 10 46 

Lime 10 56 

Shale, blue 20 76 

Shale, red 20 96 

Lime 23 119 

Shale, red 17 136 

Sand 20 156 

Shale, blue 10 166 

Shale, red 65 231 

Lime 5 236 

Shale, blue 15 251 

Lime 10 261 

Shale, blue 16 277 

Sand (Sewickley) 41 318 

Shale, blue 216 534 

Red rock ? 16 550 

Shale, blue - 10 560 

Sand 40 600 

Shale, blue 15 615 

Sand 16 631 

Slate, pink, hard 30 661 

Slate, blue 5 666 

Sand, white 15 681 

Slate, white 10 691 

Slate, brown 20 711 

Slate, blue 34 745 

Slate, brown 98 843 

Sand 17 860 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 369 

Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Slate, blue 20 880 

Sand, gray 10 890 

Slate 5 895 

Lime 15 910 

Shale, blue 12 922 

Sand 93 1015 

Shale, black 70 1085 

Sand, white (cased at 1170') 140 1225 

Lime, black 5 1230 

Coal (Lower Kittanning ?) 3 1233 

Sand, black 15 1248 

Lime, black 8 1256 

Sand, white 5 1261 

Lime, white 35 129C 

Sand, white 12 1308 

Slate, black 20 1328 

Lime 27 1355 

Sand, white 85 1440 

Slate, black 15 1455 

Lime, white 10 1465 

Sand, white 35 1500 

Sand, dark 20 1520 

Slate and shells 50 1570 

Lime, white 8 1578 

Shale, black 12 1590 

Limestone 15 1605 

Sand, white (Maxton ?) 85 1690 

Sand, dark 3 1693 

Slate, brown ; 7 1700 

(Dry.) 

The w^ell mouth is slightly over loo feet below the level 
of the Washington coal bed, and since it did not even reach 
the Big Lime, the well should not condemn the territory to the 
northwest from the Chambers well (R 158) for the Big Injun 
horizon. The coal at 1230 feet in depth, about 850 feet below 
the horizon of the Pittsburg coal, apparently correlates with 
the Lower Kittanning seam of the Allegheny series. 

It does not seem probable that the Clover run oil pool 
will be extended to the northeast much beyond the divide 
separating Millstone run of Clover and Island run of Henry 
fork for the reason that the structural slope on the western 
flank of the Arches Fork anticline suddenly becomes much 
steeper in this direction. To bear out this statement there 
occur two or three dry holes on northeast at about the same 
structural level. Farther up the slope of the above mentioned 
arch to the east, the South Penn Oil Co. drilled a dry hole 
(R 165A") during 1910 on the land of Charles Nichols' heirs. 
24 



370 MINERAL RESOURCES OP WIRT-ROANB-CALHOUN AREA. 

The well is located one mile and a half above the mouth of 
Rush run of Henry fork. 

Southwest of the Rush run oil pool, the United Fuel Co. 
recently brought in a small oil well from the Big- Injun sand 
on the J. M. Cox farm (R 159A). In the western edge of 
Smithfield district, the Carter Oil Company drilled a dry hole 
(R 159) on Rush creek of Poca river, one-half mile south of 
Rushville. The record of this well is found on page 82 in 
connection with the section for Rushville. Near the head of 
Johnson creek and in the southern point of Smithfield, the 
South Penn Oil Company drilled in a gas well (R 160). The 
record was kindly furnished the Survey and is as follows : 

Denham and Westfall No. i Well Record (R 160), Smithfield 

District. 

Located on Johnson creek, one-fourth mile North of Latch. Au- 
thority, South Penn Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 835' B-A. T. ) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor 16 16 

Unrecorded 54 70 

Sand, (Minshall) 55 125 

Unrecorded 55 180 

Sand, (Murphy) 20 200 

Unrecorded 50 250 

Sand, (Grafton) 25 275 

Unrecorded 50 325 

Sand, (Saltsburg, First Cow Run, Big Dunkard and 

Burning Springs) 325 650 

Unrecorded 25 675 

Sand, (Gas) 190 865 

Unrecorded 10 875 

Sand, (Second Cow Run and Salt) 350 1225 

Unrecorded 5 1230 

Salt sand, (oil, 1264') 308 1538 

Pencil cave 12 1550 

Big Lime sand (gas, 1675') 150 1700 

Big Injun sand (gas, 1704' and 1714'-1723') to bottom 43 1743 

10" casing, 140 feet; 814" casing, 860 feet. 

The well starts 132 feet by hand-level below the base of 
the Sewickley (Rock Creek) sandstone or 65 feet below the 
horizon of the Pittsburg coal. The gas pay occurs near the 
top of the Big Injun sand. There was a small show of oil 
in the second division of the Salt sand. 



WEST VntaiNIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 371 

Two or three gas wells from the Big Injun sand have been 
drilled near the crest of the Arches Fork anticline in Smith- 
field district- One of these is located on the S. R. Ferrell 

farm near the head of Hayes run of Henry fork, 2^ miles 
southwest of Linden P. O. Another was drilled last year by 

Elkins & McDermott on Simmons run of Canoe run, 2 miles 

northwest of Tariff P. O. Joseph H, McDermott of Mor- 
gantown, W. Va., kindly furnished the Survey the following 
log of the well : 

W. S. Simmons No. i WeU Record (R 164A), Smithfield 

District- 
By Elkins & McDermott. Completed Jan. 24, 1910. 

Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Clay 5 5 

Sand 7 12 

Water and gravel 8 20 

White slate 5 25 

Sand 15 40 

White slate 15 55 

Sand 10 65 

White slate 40 105 

Sand 10 115 

Red rock 15 130 

White slate 10 140 

Red rock 75 215 

Sand 10 225 

Red rock 15 ?40 

White slate 10 250 

Red rock 20 270 

White slate 25 295 

Lime 5 300 

Sand 35 335 

White slate 5 340 

Red rock 70 410 

White slate 10 420 

Red rock 25 445 

White slate 35 480 

Lime 35 515 

Sand, (Big Dunkard) 129 644 

White slate 3 647 

Sand, (Burning Springs) 23 670 

Slate and shell 65 735 

Sand 19 754 

Slate 11 765 

Gas sand 32 797 

Coal, (Upper KIttannIng ?) 2 799 

White slate 26 825 

Black slate 25 850 

Lime 6 866 

Sand 14 870 



372 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Thickness. Total. 
Feet. Feet. 

Black slate 40 910 

Sand, (Second Cow Run) 50 960 

Black slate 10 970 

Sand 40 1010 

White slate 10 1020 

Sand 50 1070 

Lime 15 1085 

Black slate . .' 60 1145 

Sand 44 1189 

Black slate 103 1292 

Lime 13 1305 

Sand (water, 1380' and 1430') 159 1464 

Coal (No. 2 Gas ?) 1 1465 

Slate 31 1496 

Sand 44 1540 

Black slate 15 1555 

Red rock 15 1570 

Maxton sand 30 1600 

Little Lime 12 1612 

Pencil cave 8 1620 

Gray sand 8 1628 

Big Lime 152 1780 

Big Injun sand, (gas pay, 1795'-1799') 28 1808 

Slate to bottom 48y2 1856y2 

Conductor, 21 feet; 10" casing, 240 feet; 8" casing, 712 feet; 
61^" casing, 1647 feet. 

The well starts lo to 25 feet above the horizon of the 
Pittsburg coal bed. The coals at 765 feet and 1464 feet ap- 
pear to correlate with the Upper Kittanning and No. 2 Gas 
beds, respectively. The latter is evidently the same seam as 
found in the wells at Clover run and Richardson, coming as 
it does 164 feet above the top of the Big Lime. The Big Injun 
is only 28 feet thick, the gas pay coming just below the middle 
portion. 

Near the low point of the Robinson syncline, two miles 
east from Linden P. O. near the head of Flat run of Henry 
fork, J. F. Woodward of Ohio drilled a well (R 165) through 
the Berea sand in which a showing of both oil and gas was 
ehcountei^ed in the Squaw and Berea sands. Mr. Geo. B. Sim- 
mons, Linden, W. Va., kindly furnished the Survey the fol- 
lowing record of the well : 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 373 

P. C. Adams No. i Well Record ( R 165), Smithfield District 

Located on Flat run of Henry fork, one mile and three-fourths 
East of Linden. Authority, Geo. B. Simmons, Linden, W. Va. 

(Elevation = 900' L-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet, 

Unrecorded 1755 1755 

Pencil cave 45 1800 

Big Lime 180 1980 

Sand, limy, Big Injun ? (Keener) 40 2020 

Big Injun sand, good 20 2040 

Unrecorded 115 2155 

Squaw sand (oil and gas show) — 2155 

Unrecorded 210 2365 

Berea sand (oil and gas show) 20 2385 

The well starts about 200 feet above the horizon of the 
Pittsburg coal bed. 

During the latter part of 1909 the South Penn Oil Com- 
pany opened an oil pool in the Big Injun sand on the Snod- 
grass and Looney farms south of Tariff P. O. The pool ap- 
parently lies along the axis of the Robinson syncline from 
Tariff southwest to near Bright P. O. This feature is prob- 
ably accounted for by the absence of water in the Big Injun 
in this region ; at least, the log of the following well fails to 
record any water at this horizon : 

W. M. Looney No. i Well Record (R 161), Smithfield 

District. 

Located on Sycamore fork of Henry fork, one mile and a half 
South t)f Tariff. Authority, South Penn Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 865' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 10 10 

Lime 20 30 

Red rock 15 45 

Lime 90 135 

Red rock 65 200 

Lime 25 226 

Unrecorded 85 310 

Red rock 230 540 

Sand, Little Dunkard ? (Big Dunkard and 

Burning Springs) 135 675 

Unrecorded 700 1376 

Sand, Big Dunkard ? (Salt) 281 165C 

Unrecorded 36 1691 

Maxton sand 14 1705 

Little Lime 51 1766 

Pencil cave 9 1766 

Big Lime 103 1868 

Big Injun sand (oil and gas, 1878'-1900') to bottom 40 1908 



374 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CAL.HOUN AREA. 

The well mouth is very close the horizon of the Pitts- 
burg coal bed. The drillers have called a sand here near the 
base of the Pottsville the "Big Dunkard". The wells make 
from lo to 50 barrels daily in this pool. The brief log of the 
Ellmore-Snodgrass No. i Well (R 162) is found in the table 
of Roane County Well Records. 

The following is the log of a well drilled several years 
ago by the Carter Oil Company one-half mile southeast of the 
Looney well (R 161) on the P. A. Tallman farm on Syca- 
more fork of Henry fork. In this well a showing of oil and 
gas was found in the Big Injun sand: 

P. A. Tallman No. i Well Record (R 163), Smithfield District. 

Located on Sycamore fork of Henry fork, one mile and three- 
fourths South of Tariff. Authority, E. M. Hukill. 

(Elevation = 890' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Sand (conductor, 27') (Lower Pittsburg) 60 60 

Red rock 500 560 

Sand (Big Dunkard) 20 580 

Slate 5 585 

Sand, First Cow Run ? (Burning Springs) 85 670 

Slate 5 675 

Unrecorded 5 680 

Sand (Gas sand) 95 775 

Slate ■ 15 ^ 790 

Second Cow Run sand 105 ^ 895 

Slate 150 1045 

Sand 40 1085 

Slate 80 1165 

Sand 47 1212 

Slate 123 1335 

Salt sand 305 1640 

Slate 10 1650 

Little Lime 92 1742 

Pencil cave 10 1752 

Big Lime 85 1837 

Sand (Big Injun) (little gas) 1 1838 

Limestone 66 1904 

Slate 48 1952 

10" casing, 80 feet; 8^" casing, 580 feet; 6%" casing, 1752 feet. 

The well mouth is about 10 feet below the horizon of the 
Pittsburg coal bed. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 375 

GEARY DISTRICT. 

Geary district occupies the southeast portion of Roane 
county, and is bounded on the south by Clay and Kanawha 
counties. An examination of the structure map shows that its 
area is traversed in a northeast-southwest direction by three 
structural folds; viz., Arches Fork and Chestnut Ridge anti- 
clines, and Robinson syncline. Within the district, the lat- 
ter fold is so slight, and the structural level of the whole 
district is so high as compared to Walton and Smithfield dis- 
tricts on the northwest, that a large portion of Geary has 
proved prolific gas territory from the Big Injun sand; in fact, 
some of the best gas wells in the State are located within its 
boundaries. In the northern portion of the district the South 
Penn Oil Company struck a 25 to 30 bbl- oil well in the 
Big Injun sand during 1909. This well is near the south- 
west terminus of what is probably the Tariflf pool described 
above. The company kindly furnished the Survey the fol- 
lowing record of the well : 

A. B. Caldwell No. i Well Record (R 173), Geary District. 

Located on Ashleycamp run, one-fourth mile Northwest of 
Bright. Authority, South Penn Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 845' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 400 400 

Lime 50 450 

Sand, (Big Dunkard and Burning Springs) 125 575 

Lime 25 600 

Sand 50 650 

Slate 60 710 

Sand, (Gas sand) 75 785 

Slate 15 800 

Sand, (Second Cow Run and Salt) 325 1125 

Slate 200 1325 

Salt sand (hole full of water at 1400') 230 1555 

Slate 30 1585 

Lime 45 1630 

IVIaxton sand 10 1640 

Little Lime 50 1690 

Pencil cave 15 1705 

Big Lime (gas show near bottom) 100 1805 

Big Injun sand (oil pay, 1810'-1816'; gas, 1812') to bottom 67 1872 

Well mouth is 60 feet below the crop of the Pittsburg 
coal bed. 



376 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

The gas show near the bottom of the Big Lime is most 
likely in the Keener portion of the Big Injun sand. The great 
sand mass at a depth of 450 feet appears to represent both 
the Big Dunkard (Mahoning) and Burning Springs (Upper 
Freeport) sands. In every direction except to the northeast, 
the Washington coal horizon rises away from the vicinity of 
the well. The result expected happens ; that is, gas wells are 
found on the west, southwest and south of the oil well. 

On page 90 in connection with the Bright P. O. section 
is found the log of the W. P. Drake No. i well (R 172). The 
latter is located one mile and a half due south of the Cald- 
well well (R 173), and is a gasser from the Big Injun sand. 
Summarized logs of the gas wells R 174, R 175, R 176, R 177 
and R 178 from the headwaters of Lefthand run in the north- 
western portion of Geary district are published on page 330 
in the table of well records for Roane county. Several de- 
tailed logs of wells along the western boundary line of Geary 
on the waters of Little Lefthand run and Hurricane creek, 
containing much data of interest, will now be given. 

Prica A. Criner No. i Well Record (R 196), Geary District. 

Located on head of Little Lefthand run of Sandy creek, three- 
fourths mile Northeast of Kester P. O. Authority, South Penn Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 1100' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total, 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 37 37 

Sand, (Minshall) 13 50 

Red rock 500 550 

Lime 100 650 

Sand, (Gas sand) 30 680 

Slate 35 715 

Sand, (Second Cow Run) 55 770 

Slate 85 855 

Sand 40 895 

Slate 130 1025 

Sand, (Salt) 85 1110 

Slate 65 1175 

Sand 50 1225 

Slate 190 1415 

Salt sand (oil, 1495'-1510') 310 1725 

Slate and red rock 40 1761. 

Maxton sand 15 1780 

Little Lime 45 1825 

Pencil cave 15 1840 

Big Lime (gas, 1936') 114 1954 

Big Injun sand (gas, I960') 29 1983 

Slate and shells to bottom 518 2501 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 377 

Well starts 50 feet above base of Sewickley (Rock Creek) 
sandstone and 115 feet above the Pittsburg coal horizon. No 
Berea sand in well. A showing of oil was encountered in 
the Salt sand and also some gas in the bottom portion of the 
Big Lime. The main gas horizon, however, was 6 feet down 
from the top of the Big Injun sand. 

The following is the log of a well located one mile and a 
half due south of the Criner well: 

John Parker No. i Well Record (R 194), Geary District. 

Located on Lefthand run of Sandy creek, one mile and one- 
fourth Southeast of Kester. Authority, United Fuel Co. Completed 
Mar. 2, 1909. 

(Elevation = 905' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 15 15 

Red rock 15 30 

White slate 15 45 

Limestone 30 75 

White slate 10 85 

Limestone 15 100 

Red rock 5 105 

White slate 10 115 

Limestone 15 130 

Red rock 20 150 

Limestone 50 200 

White sand '. 40 240 

Red limestone 75 315 

Sand, white, (First Cow Run).. 72 387 

Red rock 41 428 

Sand, white, (Big Dunkard) 75 503 

Limestone 97 600 

Black slate 40 640 

Sand, Gas 35 675 

Coal, (Lower Kittanning ?) 7 682 

Sand, white, (Second Cow Run and Salt) 168 850 

Shale and slate 392 1242 

Salt sand (show of oil, 1245'; water, 1415' and 1500') 353 1595 

Black slate 120 1715 

Pencil cave 7 1722 

Big Lime 86 1808 

Big Injun sand to bottom 22 1830 

Well mouth is 140 feet below the base of the Sewickley 
(Rock Creek) sandstone, or 75 feet below the Pittsburg coal 
bed. There was also a showing of oil from the Salt sand in 
this well. W'ould have made a light oil well from this hori- 
zon, but the company was after the Big Injun gas below. 



378 MENEBAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

The 7 feet of coal at 675 feet appears to represent the Lower 
Kittanning. 

The following is the log of a well located i mile south- 
east of the axis of the Robinson syncline near the foot of the 
western flank of the Chestnut Ridge anticline : 

Geo. R. Petit No. i Well Record (R 179), Geary District 

Located on Little Lefthand run of Big Sandy creek, oi}.e mile 
and a fourth North of Amma. Authority, United Fuel Co. 

(Elevation = 710' B-A, T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 1480 1480 

Big Lime (gas, 1534') 96 1576 

Big Injun sand (gas, 1579') 28 1604 

Rock pressure = 525 lbs. 1516 feet of 3" tubing; 90 feet of 4" 
tubing. 

The three following logs are from wells near Clio P. O. 
on Hurricane creek and in the Robinson synclinal basin: 

W. S. Lewis No. i Well Record (R 192), Geary District. 

Located on Hurricane creek, two miles due South of Kester. 
Authority, United Fuel Co. 

(Elevation = 752' L-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 680 680 

Sand, First Cow Run ? (Second Cow Run) 40 720 

Unrecorded 355 1075 

Sand, Second Cow Run ? (Salt) 58 1133 

Salt sand 302 1435 

Unrecorded 112 1547 

Pencil cave 8 1555 

Big Lime / 115 1670 

Big Injun sand (gas) 20 1690 

Unrecorded to bottom 506 2196 

Gas pressure at end of 1st minute, 150 lbs. 
Gas pressure at end of 2nd minute, 195 lbs. 
Gas pressure at end of 3rd minute, 220 lbs. 
Gas pressure at end of 4th minute, 245 lbs. 
Gas pressure at end of 5th minute, 262 lbs. 
Rock pressure = 500 lbs. Size of tubing = 2". 

The well mouth is about 200 feet below the crop of the 
Pittsburg coal bed. The drillers were badly off in their iden- 
tifications of the Cow Run sands. This well was drilled dur- 
ing 1898 and was the first well put down by this company 
in Roane county. When first struck the gas was permitted 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL 8UBVET. 379 

to blow open for i8 months for a total loss. Although 12 to 
13 years old, it is still a fair gasser. 

W. S. Lewis No. 2 Well Record (R 191), Geary District. 

Located on Hurricane creek, two and one-half miles due South 
of Kester P. O. Authority, United Fuel Co. Completed in 1899. 

(Elevation = 739' L-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 1555 1555 

Big Lime 65 1620 

Big Injun sand (gas at 1625') 42 1662 

Slate to bottom 8 1670 

Gas pressure at end of 1st minute, 225 lbs. 
Gas pressure at end of 2nd minute, 300 lbs. 
Gas pressure at end of 3rd minute, 345 lbs. 
Gas pressure at end of 4th minute, 370 lbs. 
Gas pressure at end of 5th minute, 380 lbs. 
Rock pressure, 500 lbs. 

Well was plugged by dropping tubing and abandoned June 1, 
1907. 

Otha Jett No. i Well Record (R 193), Geary District 

Located on Hurricane creek, one mile and three-fourths North- 
west of Amma. Authority, South Penn Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 895' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 75 75 

Sand (water at 80'), (Minshall) 20 95 

Red rock 65 160 

Lime 15 175 

Red rock 85 260 

Slate 40 300 

Red rock 105 405 

Sand, (Big Dunkard) 115 520 

Slate 45 565 

Lime 15 580 

Slate 20 600 

Lime 10 610 

Slate 10 620 

Coal, (Lower Freeport) 5 625 

Slate 5 630 

Unrecorded 20 650 

Sand, Little Dunkard ? "I 20 670 

Slate \ Gas sand 40 710 

Sand, Big Dunkard J 35 745 

Slate ' 5 750 

Sand 20 770 

Slate 65 835 

Sand (Second Cow Run) 75 910 

Slate 100 1010 

Sand 30 1040 

Slate 25 1065 

Sand 60 1126 



380 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Slate 35 1160 

Lime 40 1200 

Salt sand 440 1640 

Lime 15 1655 

Maxton sand 10 1665 

Lime 10 1675 

Pencil cave 6 1681 

Little. Lime 29 1710 

Red pencil 15 1725 

Big Lime 91 1816 

Big Injun sand (gas, 1819' and 1840') to bottom 42 1858 

Well mouth is 135 feet below level of the base of Se- 

wickley (Rock Creek) sandstone, or 70 feet below crop of the 
Pittsburg coal bed- 

Sarah Wright (T. J. Armstead) No. i Well Record (R 190), 

Geary District. 

Located on Hurricane creek, two miles Northeast of Cotton P. O. 
Authority, United Fuel Co. Completed Nov. 26, 1904. 

(Elevation = 664' L-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 970 970 

Salt sand ; 210 1180 

Unrecorded 110 1290 

Maxton sand (water) 105 1395 

Unrecorded 45 1440 

Big Lime 138 1578 

Big Injun sand (gas all through sand) 39 1617 

Slate to bottom 65 1682 

Well starts about 400 feet below Pittsburg coal. 

Mary F. Taylor No. i Well Record (R 189), Geary District. 

Located on Hurricane creek, one mile Northeast of Cotton. Au- 
thority, United Fuel Co, 

(Elevation = 649' L-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Sand and slate 270 270 

Lime 40 310 

Sand, (Gas sand) 25 335 

Slate - 125 460 

Sand (Second Cow Run) 105 565 

Slate 15 580 

Coal, (Stockton ?) 4 584 

Slate 76 660 

Sand and slate 140 800 

Slate 80 880 

Salt sand (show of gas. 950') 375 1255 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 381 

Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Slate and sand 40 1295 

Lime 27 1322 

Slate 12 1334 

Lime ? 56 1390 

Little Lime 35 1425 

Pencil cave 10 1435 

Big Lime 128 1563 

Big Injun (break, 1589'-1593') 37 1600 

Slate to bottom 10 1610 

The well mouth is about 400 feet below the Pittsburg 
coal horizon. The coal at 580 feet, 120 feet below the 80' top 
of the Pottsville, appears to correlate with the Stockton coal. 

The following is a record of a gas well in the edge of 
Kanawha county near the intersection of Lefthand creek 
of Big Sandy with the Roane-Kanawha boundary line : 

L. M. Bird No. i Well Record (K 188), Big Sandy District, 
Kanawha County. 

Located on Lefthand creek, one-fourth mile South of Cotton P. O. 
Authority, United Fuel Co. 

(Elevation = 622' L-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 425 425 

Coal, (Lower Kittanning ?) 4 429 

Unrecorded 611 1040 

Salt sand — 1040 

Unrecorded 370 1410 

Big Lime (gas, 1450') 100 1510 

Big Injun sand 41 1551 

Slate to bottom 6 1557 

"Strong gas pressure at first, but was exhausted in three days. 
Well completed Nov. 3, 1905." 

The well appears to start about 450 feet below the Pitts- 
burg coal horizon. The coal at 425 feet seems to correlate 
with the Lower Kittanning (Roaring Creek) bed. 

The following is the record of another well in the north 
edge of Kanawha county, one mile southeast from Cotton 
P. O. at the mouth of Lick branch of Lefthand creek. The 
well starts about 500 feet below the Pittsburg coal horizon, 
and the log shows apparently the same coal (Stockton) as 
encountered in the Mary F. Taylor No. i well (R 189) above: 



382 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

C. S. Young No. i Well Record (K 187), Big Sandy District. 
Kanawha County- 
Located on Lefthand creek at Wellford. Authority, United Fuel 
Co. 

(Elevation = 621' L-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 400 400 

Coal, (Stockton ?) 4 404 

Sand 66 470 

Lime 130 600 

Sand 30 630 

Shale 50 680 

Sand 30 710 

Slate 60 770 

Salt sand (gas show, 780') 510 1280 

Slate 2 1282 

Little Lime 58 1340 

Pencil cave 32 1372 

Big Lime (gas show, 1448') 140 1512 

Big Injun sand (break, 1530'-1535') 43 1555 

Unrecorded to bottom 5 1560 

A glance at the structure map and the elevation column for 
top of Big Lime in the table of Roane county wells will show 
the interesting fact that the Washington coal horizon rises 
in elevation more rapidly from Cotton P. O. eastward than 
does the Big Lime. This is readily accounted for by the fast 
thickening up of the intervening Pottsville measures. This 
feature, of course, would tend to elevate the Washington 
coal, or all other formations above the Pottsville, at a greater 
rate than any formation below the latter series. Hence, the 
seeming discrepancy between the structure contours on the 
economic geology map in southeastern Roane and Calhoun 
counties, and the elevation of the top of the Big Lime as 
given by the table of wells for the same region, is easily 
explained. 

Passing eastward in Geary district from the Cotton P. O. 
region to the vicinity of Osbornes Mills, we find a number of 
wells producing gas from the Big Lime and the Big Injun 
sand. Several of the wells have a show of oil in the Salt sand, 
but in none has it been utilized. The following records of 
wells around Osbornes Mills show not only the gas horizons, 
but also the presence of two apparently commercial coal beds : 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 383 

L. D. Osborne No. i Well Record (R i86), Geary District. 

Located on Big Sandy creek at Osbornes Mills. Authority, 
United Fuel Co. Completed Feb. 11, 1907. 

(Elevation = 715' L-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Drift 11 11 

Slate and sand, (Big Dunkard) 209 220 

Coal, (Upper Freeport) 4 224 

Slate and sand 226 450 

Coal, (Lower Kittanning) 4 454 

Sand, (Second Cow Run) 66 520 

Slate 20 540 

Sand 20 560 

Slate 180 740 

Sand • • 40 780 

Slate 60 840 

Sand 60 900 

Slate 2 902 

Salt sand (show of oil, 932') 438 1340 

Shale 41 1381 

Maxton sand 40 1421 

Little Lime 30 1451 

Pencil cave 9 1460 

Big Lime (gas, 1485'-1530') 116 1576 

Big Injun sand 36 1612 

Slate to bottom 2 1614 



The well mouth is about 400 feet below the horizon of 
the Pittsburg coal bed. The two coals reported at 220 feet 
and 450 feet, appear to correlate with the Upper Freeport and 
Lower Kittanning beds, respectively. 

M. F. Osborne No. i Well Record (R 184 A), Geary District. 

Located on Big Sandy creek, one-fourth mile Northwest of Os- 
bornes Mills. Authority, United Fuel Co. 

(Elevation = 648' L-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Drift 20 20 

Sand 70 90 

Slate 60 150 

Sand, (Burning Springs) 100 250 

Coal, ( Lower Freeport) 3 253 

Sand, (Gas sand) 102 355 

Slate 50 405 

Coal, (Lower Kittanning) 3 408 

Sand, (Second Cow Run) 102 510 

Slate 66 575 

Sand 75 660 

Slate 165 816 

Sand 40 856 

Slate 5 860 



384 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Salt sand (show of gas, 930') 400 1260 

Slate 40 1300 

Maxton sand 45 1345 

Little Lime 30 1375 

Pencil cave 25 1400 

Big Lime (show of gas, 1430') 118 1518 

Big Injun sand 33 1551 

Slate to bottom 1 1552 

The well mouth is apparently about 450 feet below the 
horizon of the Pittsburg- coal bed. 



A. W. Goad No. i Well Record (R 185), Geary District- 
Located on Gorner Branch of Sandy creek, three-fourths mile 
Northeast of Osbornes Mills. Authority, United Fuel Co. 

(Elevation — 658' L-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Drift 20 20 

Sand 80 100 

Shells 180 280 

Lime 31 311 

Coal, (Upper Kittanning) 4 315 

Sand, (Gas sand) 102 417 

Coal, (Lower Kittanning) 5 422 

Sand, (Second Cow Run) ' 303 725 

Slate 25 750 

Sand, (Salt) (trace of oil, 855') 125 875 

Slate 12 887 

Salt sand 405 1292 

Shale 10 1302 

Maxton sand 43 1345 

Little Lime 35 1380 

Pencil cave 15 1395 

Big Lime 120 1515 

Big Injun sand (gas in first 10' only) 25 1540 

Slate to bottom • • 12 1552 



The well mouth is about 450 feet below the horizon of 
the Pittsburg coal bed. The upper coal in this well does 
not appear to be the same bed as the upper coal in the M. F. 
Osborne No. i well (R 184A), unless the intervening sand- 
stones are very lenticular in character. All the identifications 
in parentheses are by the writer. 



WEST VIRGINIA QBOLOOICAL SURVEY. 385 

Wm. A. Geary No. i Well Record (R 184), Geary District. 

Located on Big Sandy creek, three-fourths mile East of Os- 
bornes Mills. Authority, United Fuel Co. 

(Elevation = 650' L-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 347 347 

Coal, (Lower Kittanning) 5 352 

Unrecorded 473 825 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Salt) 50 875 

Unrecorded 55 930 

Salt sand 280 1210 

Unrecorded 175 1385 

Pencil cave 15 1400 

Big Lime (gas, 1435') 85 1485 

Big Injun sand (gas, 1500' and 1520') 60 1545 

Unrecorded to bottom 92 1637 

The well mouth is almost 500 feet below the Pittsburg 
coal horizon. The drillers have here extended the Cow Run 
horizon over 400 feet lower than the Second Cow Run sand 
should come in the rock column. 

Several good gas wells in the Big Injun have been drilled 
along Big Sandy creek south and southeast from Amma P. O. 
The five following well records give important data for this 
portion of Geary district: 

L. B. Thompson No. i Well Record (R 180), Geary District. 

Located on the north side of Big Sandy creek, six-tenths mile 

Southeast of Amma. Authority, John Geary, 393 feet; United Fuel 
Co., 393 to 1535 feet. 

(Elevation = 668' L-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 325 325 

Coal, (Lower Kittanning) 10 335 

Sand 60 385 

Coal, (Clarion) 8 393 

Unrecorded 1072 1465 

Keener sand 25 1490 

Slate 15 1505 

Big Injun sand to bottom 30 1535 

"About 4,000,000 cu. ft. gas in Keener sand. Completed March 
30, 1903. Some oil was reported in top of Little Lime, probably was 
poured in from top of well." 

The well mouth is 475 to 500 feet below the horizon of 
the Pittsburg coal bed. It makes gas from the Keener divis- 
ion of the Big Injun sand- The following is the log of a well 
26 



386 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

located on the opposite side of Big Sandy creek, one-fifth mile 
to the westward from the above well: 

John Geary No. i Well Record (R i8i), Geary District. 

Located on Big Sandy creek, one-half mile Southeast of Amma 
P. O. Authority, United Fuel Co. Completed May 4, 1907. 

(Elevation = 683' L-A. T. ) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Drift 16 16 

Sand, (First Cow Run and Big Dunkard) 134 150 

Slate 50 200 

Sand, (Gas) 140 340 

Coal, (Lower KIttanning) 2 342 

Sand and lime 43 385 

Slate 90 475 

Sand 57 532 

Shale 258 790 

Sand 80 870 

Salt sand (hole full of water, 1160') 342 1212 

Slate 73 1285 

Lime ? 52 1337 

Little Lime 52 1389 

Pencil cave 2 1391 

Big Lime (show of gas, 1431') 90 1481 

Keener sand (gas all in top) 24 1505 

Slate to bottom 8 1513 

The well mouth is 450 to 475 feet below the horizon of 
the Pittsburg coal. This well evidently did not reach the Big 
Injun as shown by comparison with the Thompson well 
(R 180) above. 

Bascom Chapman No. i Well Record (R 182), Geary 

District. 
Located on and one-fifth mile above the mouth of Pigeon run 
of Big Sandy. Authority, United Fuel Co. Completed Aug. 17, 1904. 
(Elevation = 666' L-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded '. 636 636 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Salt) 200 836 

Unrecorded 26 862 

Sand (trace of oil, 962'), (Salt) 100 962 

Salt sand 333 1295 

Unrecorded 38 1333 

Big Lime •■ 100 1433 

Keener sand (3,855,000' of gas) 20 1453 

Slate , 5 1458 

Big Injun sand (8,314,000' of gas) to bottom 23 1481 

The well starts about 525 feet below the horizon of the 
Pittsburg coal. There is a trace of oil in the Salt sand. This 
showing of oil in the Salt sand appears to be quite general 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 387 

in the western half of Geary district. The well has also a 
large volume of gas from both the Keener and Big Injun. The 
gas heretofore attributed to the bottom portion of the Bijj 
Lime in the western half of the district should have been 
credited to the Keener sand. 

J. G. Myers No. i Well Record (R 182 A), Geary District. 

Located on Big Sandy creek, one mile and three-fourths South 
of Amma. Authority, United Fuel Gas Co. 

(Elevation = 670' L-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Drift 65 65 

Sand, Big Dunkard 15 80 

Lime 135 215 

Slate 85 300 

Sand, (Clarion) 30 330 

Lime 30 360 

Sand, (Second Cow Run) 55 415 

Slate 10 425 

Lime 10 435 

Slate 15 450 

Lime 60 510 

Slate 50 560 

Sand, (Salt) 90 650 

Slate 85 735 

Sand 65 800 

Slate 35 835 

Salt sand 484 1319 

Slate 23 1342 

Little Lime 38 1380 

Pencil cave 1 1381 

Big Lime 69 1450 

Keener sand (3,000,000' gas) 18 1468 

Break 7 1475 

Big Injun sand 26 1501 

Slate to bottom 2 1503 

The well starts about 500 to 520 feet below the Pittsburg 
coal horizon. 

The above log fails to record either of the two coals in 
the Allegheny series that have been generally reported in fhe 
wells given above for the western portion of Gearj' district. 
The following is the log of a well located three-fourths of 
a mile southwest from the J. G. Myers No. i well (R 182A) 
that reports one of the coal beds, however: 



388 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CAL.H0UN AREA. 



Thos. Parris No. i Well Record (R 183), Geary District. 

Located on the north side of Big Sandy creek, two miles East 
of Osbornes Mills. Authority, United Fuel Co. 

(Elevation = 785' B-A. T.) - Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Drift 40 40 

Sand and slate 140 180 

Sand, (Burning Springs, etc.) 160 340 

Coal, (Upper Kittanning ?) 3 343 

Sand (Gas sand) 117 460 

Slate 22 482 

Lime 18 500 

Sand (Second Cow Run) and slate 475 975 

Slate 5 980 

Salt sand (full of water at 1200') 358 1338 

Red rock 5 1343 

Slate 17 1360 

Maxton sand 73 1433 

Black sand 6 1439 

Little Lime 21 1460 

Pencil cave 4 1464 

Big Lime (gas, 1490'-1525') 103 1567 

Big Injun sand (gas, 1573'-1578' and 1605'-1610') 62 1629 

Slate to bottom •• 3 1632 

The well mouth is about 400 feet below the horizon of 
the Pittsburg coal bed. 



Brown-Goshorn No. i Well Record (R 169), Geary District. 

Located on Pigeon run, two and three-fourths miles Northwest 
of Kanawha-Roane-Clay county corner. Authority, United Fuel Co. 

(Elevation = 745' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Drift 20 20 

Sand 50 70 

Slate 20 90 

Lime 25 115 

Slate 15 130 

Sand 215 345 

Slate 9 354 

Coal (Stockton ?) 3 357 

Slate 43 400 

Lime 15 415 

Slate 85 500 

Sand 50 550 

Slate 80 630 

Sand 40 670 

Slate 75 745 

Sand and slate ■• 127 872 

Slate 13 885 

Salt sand (little water at 930'; gas at 1030') 215 1100 

Well completed July 21, 1908. 



WEST VIRGINIA QBOLOGICAL SURVEY, 389 

This well did not reach the Big Injun, according to the 
above log, and, of course, could not be considered a test for 
this portion of Geary district. 

On a small branch of Granny creek, three-fifths mile 
southeast of the mouth of the latter stream, the Hope Natural 
Gas Co. drilled a well (R 170), during 1909, in which a small 
flow of gas was encountered in both the Big Lime and the 
Big Injun sand. The log of this well is published on page 
91 in connection with the section for Newton. Four miles 
farther east a dry hole (R 168) was drilled near Wallback 
P. O. in the edge of Clay county. The log of this well is 
published on page 96 in connection with the section for Wall- 
back P. O. Another dry hole was drilled during the early 
part of 1910 one-half mile north of Uler P. O. and the log of 
this well is published on page 95 in connection with the 
section for the latter place. During the year 1910 the South 
Penn Oil Co. drilled a dry hole on the head of Trace fork 
of Hollywood run. The record of the well reads as follows: 

John S. White No. i Well Record (R 166). Geary District. 

Located one mile and a half Northwest of Uler. Authority, 
South Penn Oil Co. Completed Oct. 13, 1910. 

(Elevation = 925' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded (water at 70') 240 240 

Sand 410 650 

Unrecorded 310 960 

Sand 80 1040 

Unrecorded 100 1140 

Sand 16 1156 

Unrecorded 24 1180 

Salt sand (water at 1275' and 1305') 135 1315 

Break 70 1385 

Salt sand 25 1410 

Cave 11 1421 

Unrecorded 24 1446 

Sand, Maxton (water at 1460') 115 1560 

Little Lime 42 1602 

Pencil cave 10 1612 

Big Lime 101 1713 

Sand, (Big Injun) 15 1728 

Lime 57 1786 

Slate to bottom 29 1814 

The well mouth is about 200 feet below the horizon of 
the Pittsburg coal. 



390 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

The above dry holes in the eastern portion of Geary can 
hardly be considered a test for this part of the district. From 
the mouth of Joes run of Left fork, one mile and a half north- 
east of Uler P. O. southwest along the axis of the Chestnut 
Ridge anticline to the Roane-Kanawha county line, there oc- 
curs a belt of territory 2 to 2^ miles wide, along which the 
structural conditions are very favorable for gas. 

WALTON DISTRICT. 

Walton district lies immediately west of Geary district 
and is bounded on the south by Kanawha county. Its area 
is traversed by three structural folds ; viz., Spencer syncline. 
Arches Fork anticline and the Robinson syncline. The Wash- 
ington coal horizon varies from 800' A. T. at the northern point 
of the district to 1500'A. T. at its southern boundary, 2 miles 
west of Cotton P. O. As regards the "anticlinal theory" for 
the accumulation of oil and gas pools, structural conditions 
are ideal in Walton district for their segregation into com- 
mercial fields. At the town of Walton large quantities of salt 
water are found in the Big Injun sand. This point is on 
the axis of the Spencer syncline. Southeast from Walton the 
rocks rise rapidly and at a mile and a half from the town we 
find the western edge of the belt of Big Injun sand oil wells. 
This pool follows closely the strike of the strata, and on the 
head of Rock creek where the Washington coal structure 
contours suddenly change their direction from southwest to 
almost due west, we find the oil pool doing likewise. At 
its present northeastern terminus, this oil belt is about one 
mile in width, but at its southwestern end, it has spread out 
to almost double that width. On page 366, under the de- 
scription of the oil and gas development of Smithfield dis- 
trict, the writer outlined the probable northeast extension of 
this oil pool from Johnson creek. 

Southeast from the Big Injun sand oil pool in Walton 
district, the rocks rise rapidly to the summit of the Arches 
Fork anticline, two miles northwest of Cotton P. O. Nearly 
the whole eastern portion of the district appears to be pro- 
lific gas territory from the Big Injun sand. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SUBVEY. 391 

At Walton and north from the latter point several dry 
holes have been drilled in Walton district. This portion of 
the latter area all lies down the structural slope from the 
Walton oil field, and hence it is quite likely that any future 
efforts to open up a paying oil and gas pool from the Big 
Injun sand, in this part of Walton district, will be fruitless. 
The following is the record of one of the dry holes drilled 
in the northwestern part of the district on the Walton-Harper 
district line: 

John E. Swisher No. i Well Record (R 235), Walton District. 

Located at the head of Big creek, one-fourth mile Southeast of 
Countsville. Authority, Pure Oil Co. Completed Jan. 29, 1910. 

(Elevation = 1055' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 560 560 

Sandstone, Pittsburg ? (Sewickley and Upper Pittsburg) 

(3 bailers of water at 590') 80 640 

Unrecorded 170 810 

Cave 130 940 

Unrecorded 50 990 

Cave 80 1070 

Sand, Little Dunkard (First Cow Run) 15 1085 

Cave 30 1115 

Unrecorded 150 1265 

Sand, Big Dunkard ? (Burning Springs) 15 1280 

Unrecorded (4 bailers of water, 1365') 550 1830 

Salt sand (11 bailers of water, 1880'; hole full, 1920') ... .258 2088 

Little Lime 42 2130 

Big Lime 135 2265 

Big Injun sand (no good) 45 2310 

Unrecorded 295 2605 

Berea Grit sand (lime and shells) 45 2650 

Unrecorded to bottom 154 2804 



The well starts about 180 feet above the horizon of the 
Washington coal, or 650 feet above the Pittsburg bed. Both 
the Big Injun and Berea sands appear poor in this region. 
The great sand mass at 560 feet seems to be a combination 
of both the Sewickley (Rock Creek) and Upper Pittsburg 
sandstones. 

The following is the record of another dry hole located 
2 miles southeast of the Swisher well : 



392 MINERAL RESOURCES OP WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Geo. W. Phillips No. i Well Record (R 234), Walton District- 

Jjocated on Big creek, two and one-half miles Northwest of Wal- 
ton. Authority, Carter Oil Co. Completed Nov. 19, 1908. 

(Elevation = 760' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 930 930 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Burning Springs) 40 • 970 

Unrecorded -i 180 1150 

Sand, Cow Run (Second Cow Run) 95 1245 

Unrecorded 175 1420 

Salt sand 100 1520 

Unrecorded 15 1535 

Salt sand (water, 1605' and 1625') 203 1738 

Unrecorded 2 1740 

Maxton sand 50 1790 

Unrecorded 33 1823 

Big Lime (little gas, 1908') 124 1947 

Big Injun sand (little gas, 1951'; water, 2000' and 2020').. 108 2055 

Unrecorded 285 2340 

Berea sand 20 2360 

Unrecorded to bottom 92 2452 

10" casing, 372 feet; 8%" casing, 940 feet; 6%" casing, 1823 feet. 

The well starts about 140 feet below the Washington 
coal, or 330 feet above the Pittsburg bed. As would be ex- 
pected, the log shows water at two different horizons in the 
Big Injun sand. The water probably occupies the "oil pay" 
horizon of the Walton field to the southeast. 

One mile and a half farther up the structural slope to the 
southeast from the Phillips well (R 234), the Pure Oil Co. 
drilled another dry hole on the Wm. Harmon farm. The well 
is located near the axis of the Spencer synclirie, and the fol- 
lowing log shows the Big Injun sand carrying two pays of 
water : 

Wm. Harmon No. i Well Record (R 232), Walton District. 

Located one mile and one-fourth North of Walton. Authority, 
Pure Oil Co. Completed Sept. 6, 1909. 

(Elevation = 980' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded (water at 580' and 660') 670 670 

Sand 5 676 

Unrecorded 180 855 

Sand, Little Dunkard ? (Saltsburg) 30 885 

Unrecorded 30 915 

Lime 15 930 

Unrecorded 93 102S 

Sand, (Big Dunkard) 15 1038 

Unrecorded 52 1090 

Sand, (Burning Springs) 95 1186 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 393 

Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded (7 bailers of water per hour, 1205') 47 1232 

Sand, First Salt ? (Gas sand) 118 1350 

Unrecorded 20 1370 

Sand, Second Salt (Second Cow Run) 125 1495 

Unrecorded 235 1730 

Salt sand (water, 1870') 300 2030 

Little Lime 37 2067 

Big Lime 124 2191 

Big Injun sand (water, 2191' and 2235') 55 2246 

Slate and shells 299 2545 

Berea Grit sand 40 2585 

Slate and shells to bottom 116 2701 

The well starts about 30 feet above the Washington coal, 
or 500 feet above the Pittsburg bed. 

Two miles northeast of the latter well, near the mouth 
of a small branch of Round Knob run, a dry hole (R 233) was 
drilled about 18 years ago on the Presley Vineyard farm. Mr. 
Rufus Vineyard (son of Presley) says that a small showing 
of oil and gas was encountered in the Salt sand, and that the 
well was drilled to a depth of only 1500 to 1600 feet. The 
well starts 255 feet below the Washington coal, hence did not 
reach the top of the Big Injun sand by over 300 feet. It' 
would probably be dry at the latter horizon, since it is on 
almost the same structural level as the Harmon well (R 234) 
the log of which is given above. 

One-fourth mile due east of the town of Walton, Law- 
rence and Brouse drilled a dry hole through the Big Injun 
sand. The well is located near the axis of the Spencer syn- 
cline, and, as would be expected, a large quantity of water 
was struck at the latter horizon. 

Beginning at the northeastern end of the Walton pool, 
several records of wells will now be given to show not only 
the oil horizon, but other data of importance- 

H. H. Fleshman No. 2 Well Record (R 228), Walton District. 

Located on branch of McKown creek, two and one-fourth miles 
Southeast of "Walton. Authority, Hamilton Oil Co. Completed Sept. 
11, 1909. 

(Elevation = 1030' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor 10 10 

Unrecorded 985 995 

Sand, Second Dunkard ? (Gas sand) — 995 

Unrecorded 545 154§ 



394 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WTRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Salt sand • • 60 1600 

Unrecorded 274 1874 

Little Lime 50 1924 

Big Lime 139 2063 

Big Injun sand (first oil, 2063') 31 2094 

10" casing, 365 feet; 8^" casing, 1000 feet; 6%" casing, 1929 
feet. "Shot from 2069 feet to 2089 feet with 40 qts." 

The well starts about i6o feet below the horizon of the 
Washington coal, or 320 feet above the Pittsburg. 

The initial production of the wells in the Walton field 
ranges from 5 to 100 barrels daily. The wells have good stay- 
ing qualities and do not fall away from their original pro- 
duction so rapidly as in other portions of the State. 

The following is the log of a well located one-tenth 
mile due north of H. H. Fleshman No. 2 on the Dougherty 
farm : 

J. A. Dougherty No. 2 Well Record (R 229), Walton District. 

Located on McKown creek, two miles Southeast of Walton. Au- 
thority, Fisher Oil Co. Completed Aug. 13, 1910. 

(Elevation = 1000' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor 16 16 

Unrecorded 278 294 

Sandstone, Pittsburg ? (Lower Pittsburg) 91 385 

Unrecorded 1155 1540 

Salt sand (water, 1670') 380 1920 

Big Lime 136 2056 

Big Injun sand (oil pay, 2058'-2080') to bottom 26 2082 

10" casing, 290 feet; 8%" casing, 890 feet; 6%" casing, 1925 
feet. "Shot at 2058 feet to 2080 feet. Showed for 25 to 30 bbl." 

The well starts about 175 feet below the Washington 
coal horizon. 

The following is the log of a gas well located just at 
the east edge of the oil pool on Laurel run of Johnson creek, 
one-half mile above the mouth of the latter stream, and one 
mile due east from the two wells the logs of which are 
given above: 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 395 

A. A. Westfall No. i Well Record (R 230), Walton District. 

Authority, United Fuel Co. Completed Aug. 28, 1909. 

(Elevation = 790' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor 14 14 

Water (sand unrecorded) 46 60 

Sand, (Minshall) 70 130 

Sand 40 170 

Sand 167 337 

Sand 110 447 

Sand 148 695 

Slate 80 675 

Sand, Big Dunitard ? (Gas sand) 35 710 

Gas ? sand (Second Cow Run, etc.) 340 1050 

Salt sand 175 1225 

Oil (sand unrecorded) 25 1250 

Water (sand unrecorded) 70 1320 

Unrecorded 50 1370 

Maxton sand 203 1573 

Little Lime 12 1586 

Big Lime 65 1650 

Sand, Keener 80 1730 

Unrecorded 45 1775 

Big Injun sand 33 1808 

"Size of packer, 3" x 6%". Depth set, 1740 feet. Tubing, 3". 
First minute pressure, 225 lbs. Rock pressure, 350 lbs." 

The well starts 45 feet (hand-level measurement) below 
the base of the Sewickley (Rock Creek) sandstone, or 20 feet 
above the horizon of the Pittsburg coal bed. The several 
sands, extending from 60 to 595 feet in depth, must be an 
error in recording the log of the well, for no such sand mass 
occurs at this place in the rock column in any other portion 
of the State. The Keener sand also makes it appearance, 
and the Big Lime necessarily has decreased in thickness. 

The following is the log of a well located on the main 
fork of McKown creek, one mile and a quarter southwest of 
the Fleshman and Dougherty wells above mentioned : 

Austin Fleshman No. i Well Record (R 226), Walton 

District. 
Located on McKown creek, one mile and three-fourths southeast 
of Walton. Authority, Hamilton Oil Co. Completed May 5, 1907. 

(Elevation = 852' L-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor 20 20 

Unrecorded (gas, 1435'; water, 1440') 1665 1685 

Salt sand , 35 1720 

Maxton sand 65 1785 



396 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Pencil cave 10 1795 

Big Lime (gas, 1820') 122 1917 

Big Injun sand (oil pay, 1927'-1944') to bottom 32 1949 

10" casing, 290'; 814" casing, 930'; 6%" casing, 1805'. 

The "oil pay" in this pool apparently comes in the top 
portion of the Big Injun and ranges from 15 to 20 feet in 
thickness- A light show of gas was encountered in the upper 
part of the Big Lime, 

One mile farther up McKown creek occurs a gas well 
on the Matthew Hively farm (R 227), the log of which is 
given in the table of Roane county well records on page 332. 

The following is the log of an oil well located on the 
south side of the ridge between the two forks of McKown 
creek : 

Mary J. Gibson No. i Well Record (R 225), Walton District. 

Located two and one-fourth miles Southeast of Walton. Author- 
ity, South Penn Oil Co. Completed May 9, 1909. 

(Elevation = 975' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor 14 14 

Unrecorded 86 100 

Sandstone, (Sewickley, Rock Creek, and Upper Pittsburg) 90 190 

Unrecorded 61 251 

Sand 25 276 

Unrecorded 12 288 

Sand, (Minshall) 60 348 

Unrecorded 352 700 

Sand 16 716 

Unrecorded 14 730 

Dunkard sand 25 755 

Unrecorded 10 765 

Sand, Dunkard? (Burning Springs) 70 835 

Unrecorded 46 881 

Sand, (Gas sand) 101 982 

Unrecorded 5 987 

Sand 47 1034 

Unrecorded 66 1100 

Sand 320 1420 

Unrecorded 70 1490 

Sait sand 293 1783 

Unrecorded : 2 1785 

Maxton sand 50 1835 

Little Lime 38 1873 

Pencil cave 2 1875 

Big Lime 139 2014 

Big Injun sand (oil, 2025') 43 2057 

Unrecorded to bottom 3 2060 

10" casing, 190'; 8*4" casing, 750'; 6%" casing, 1924'. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 397 

Three-fourths mile farther southwest we have the logs of 
three oil wells along the ridge road leading from the town of 
Walton southeast over on to Lefthand creek : 

M. H. Sennett No. 2 Well Record (R 222), Walton District. 

Located two and one-fourth miles South of Walton. Authority, 
South Penn Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 1110' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor 16 16 

Unrecorded 269 285 

"Rock Creek" sandstone (Sewickley) 35 320 

Unrecorded 575 895 

Sand, Big Dunkard, and (Burning Springs) 155 1050 

Unrecorded 550 1600 

Salt sand (hole full of water, 1675') 315 1915 

Unrecorded 5 1920 

Maxton sand 55 1975 

Unrecorded 5 1980 

Little Lime 32 2012 

Pencil cave 3 2015 

Big Lime 131 2146 

Big Injun sand (oil, 2160') 49 2195 

Unrecorded to bottom 2 2197 

"Well completed Aug. 7, 1909. Shot with 20 quarts, top, 2160 feet. 
17 ft. anchor. 10" casing, 375 feet; 8*4" casing, 900 feet; 6%" casing, 
2045 feet." 

The well starts about 115 feet below the horizon of the 
Washington coal, or 370 feet above the Pittsburg coal bed. 
The drillers have called the 35 feet of sand at 285 feet the 
"Rock Creek". This sand is the great cliff rock along Rock 
creek and McKown and Green creeks ; hence it is well named 
from the former stream, and was so named by the writer in 
the description of the formations of the Monongahela series. 
The wells in this field all require shooting to get the best 
results- 

M. H. Sennett No. i Well Record (R 224), Walton District. 

Located two and one-half miles South of Walton. Authority, 
South Penn Oil Co. Completed Feb. 17, 1909. 

(Elevation = 1053' L-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor 16 16 

Unrecorded 159 175 

Sandstone, (Rock Creek, Sewickley) 70 245 

Unrecorded 365 610 



398 MINERAL RESOURCES OP WIRT-BOANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Sand, (Murphy) : 25 635 

Unrecorded 105 740 

Sand, (Saltsburg) 30 770 

Unrecorded 60 830 

Sand. Dunkard, (First Cow Run) 40 870 

Unrecorded 10 880 

Sand, Dunkard ? (Big Dunkard, Burning Springs, and Gas) 220 1100 

Unrecorded 70 1170 

Sand, Dunkard ? (Second Cow Run, etc.) 350 1520 

Unrecorded 30 1550 

Salt sand 344 1894 

Maxtor) sand 14 1908 

Little Lime 35 1943 

Big Lime 142 2085 

Big Injun sand (oil, 2110') 40 2125 

Unrecorded to bottom 2 2127 

"Shot February 19, 1909; 15 bbl. oil well in Big Injun sand." 
10" casing, 315 feet; 814" casing, 840 feet; 6%" casing, 1968 feet. 

The well starts 200 feet below the horizon of the Wash- 
ington coal. 

P. G. Cunningham No. i Well Record ( R 223), Walton 

District. 

Located two and three-fourths miles South of Walton. Author- 
ity, South Penn Oil Co. Completed October 7, 1909. 

(Elevation = 1063' L-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor 16 16 

Unrecorded 4 20 

Sandstone, (Arnoldsburg) 85 105 

Unrecorded 531 636 

Sand, (Saltsburg) 54 690 

Unrecorded 40 730 

Sand, Dunkard ? (First Cow Run) 50 780 

Unrecorded 35 815 

Sand, (Big Dunkard and Burning Springs) 147 962 

Unrecorded 443 1405 

Salt sand 325 1730 

Unrecorded 2 1732 

Maxton sand 38 1770 

Little Lime 39 1809 

Pencil cave 2 1811 

Big Lime 127 1938 

Big Injun sand (gas, 1939'; oil, 1965') to bottom 28 1966 

Not shot. 10" casing, 200 feet; 8^" casing, 710 feet; 8%" cas- 
ing, 1832 feet. 

The well mouth is about 210 feet below the horizon of 
the Washington coal. 

The two following logs are from wells located on the 



WBST VIRQENIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 399 

extreme head of Rock creek and on opposite edges of the oil 
belt. The first is situated on the north side of the pool: 

John W. Lynch No. i Well Record (R 221), Walton District. 

Located on Rock creek, two and one-fourth miles South of Wal- 
ton. Authority, South Penn Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 842' L-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet 

Unrecorded 135 135 

First sand (Murphy) 70 205 

Unrecorded 55 260 

Second sand (Saltsburg and First Cow Run) 94 364 

Unrecorded 426 780 

Sand, Little Dunkard ? (Second Cow Run) 130 910 

Unrecorded 4 914 

Sand, Big Dunkard ? (Salt) 18 932 

Unrecorded 503 1435 

Salt sand (water, 3 bailers, 1492'; hole full, 1580') 393 1828 

Unrecorded 40 1868 

Little Lime 10 1878 

Pencil cave • ■ 6 1884 

Big Lime 136 2020 

Big Injun sand (oil, 2035'-2055') 48 2068 

Unrecorded to bottom 3 2071 

The well starts immediately on top of the Sewickley 
("Rock Creek) sandstone, or no to 120 feet above the Pitts- 
burg coal horizon. In this oil field the Big Injun sand ranges 
in thickness from 30 to 50 feet, while the Big Lime varies 
from 125 to 150 feet in thickness. 

R. C. Elmore No. 3 Well Record (R 220), Walton District. 

Located on the head of Rock creek, three miles South of Wal- 
ton. Authority, Ohio Fuel Co. Completed May 28, 1909. 

(Elevation = 1112' L-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 922 922 

Break 15 937 

Sand ? 583 1520 

Slate and sand 22 1542 

Unrecorded (water, 1642'; big water, 1670') 243 1785 

Break 5 1790 

Sand, Salt 120 1910 

Break — 1910 

Unrecorded 93 2003 

Big Lime 128 2131 

Big Injun sand, (gas, 2143'; first oil, 2147'-2173') 

to bottom 42 2173 

"Top of shell, 2153'; 20 feet of shell. Shot May 28, 1909. Size 
of torpedo, 40 qts." 



400 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

The well starts about 150 feet below the horizon of the 
Washington coal, or 335 feet above the Pittsburg bed. The 
583 feet of sand at a depth of 937 feet is evidently an error in 
recording the log, since no such sand mass occurs at this 
place in the measures. A showing of gas was Encountered 
near the top of the Big Injun sand. This appears to be true 
of all the wells near the southeast border of the pool, and 
should be expected on the side of the belt farthest up the 
structural slope. 

The following is the log of a well located on the extreme 
head of Green creek near the low gap separating the latter 
stream from Rock creek. The well is near the middle of the 
widest portion of the oil belt : 

Lucy J- Lynch No. i Well Record (R 218), Walton District. 

Located three miles South of Walton. Authority, South Penn Oil 
Co. Completed May 5, 1908. 

(Elevation = 1100' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor 8 8 

Unrecorded 222 230 

Sandstone, (Sewickley and Upper Pittsburg) 110 340 

Unrecorded 60 400 

Sand • • 26 426 

Unrecorded 284 710 

Sand, (Saltsburg) 50 760 

Unrecorded 270 1030 

Sand, (Burning Springs and Gas sands) .160 1190 

Unrecorded , 40 1230 

Sand, (Second Cow Run) 35 1265 

Unrecorded 185 1450 

Sand 40 1490 

Unrecorded 50 1540 

Salt sand (water, 1600') 430 1970 

Little Lime 22 1992 

Pencil cave 3 1995 

Big Lime 150 2145 

Big Injun sand (oil, 2153'-2176') to bottom 33 2178 

The well mouth is 140 to 150 feet below the horizon of the 
Washington coal, or 350 feet above the Pittsburg coal bed. 
The no feet of sand at 230 feet in depth evidently represents 
both the Sewickley (Rock Creek) and the Upper Pittsburg 
sandstones. The "pay" is 23 feet thick and extends to within 
2 feet of the bottom of the sand. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 401 

The two following logs are from wells on Green creek in 
the most southern extension of the Walton oil field where the 
latter spreads out in the shape of a fan on the structural ter- 
race formed by the intersection of the Flat Fork with the 
western slope of the Arches Fork fold: 

Geo. Donohue No. i Well Record (R 213), Walton District. 

Located on Green creek, three and one-fourth miles East of Ket- 
tle. Authority, Ohio Fuel Oil Co. Completed in August, 1909. 

(Elevation = 805' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor 14 14 

Lime 40 54 

Slate 26 80 

Sand (10" casing, 140'), (Minshall) 60 140 

Red rock slate 402 542 

Sand, Little Dunkard ? (Big Dunkard).... 20 662 

Slate and shale (8" casing, 622') 60 622 

Sand, Big Dunkard ? (Gas sand) 158 780 

Slate 300 1080 

Sand, Gas ? (Salt) 75 1155 

Slate 95 1250 

Salt sand (hole full of water, 1340') 288 1538 

Little Lime 23 1561 

First pencil cave 6 1567 

Lime 4 1571 

Second pencil cave 4 1575 

Big Lime 102 1677 

Unrecorded 133 1810 

Sand (first oil, 1835') to bottom 42 1852 

"Shot at 1852' with 20' shell; size of torpedo, 40 qts. First day's 
production, 20 bbls." 

The well starts 75 feet below the base of the Sewickley 
(Rock Creek) sandstone, or almost flush with the horizon of 
the Pittsburg coal bed. The break between the Big Lime and 
the Big Injun sand is unusually thick here, and is no doubt 
an error in recording the same as is shown by the following 
log of a well located one-fourth mile northeast : 

D. T. Cummings No. 4 Well Record (R 214), Walton District- 
Located on Green creek, three and one-fourth miles East of Ket- 
tle. Authority, L. F. Payn Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 930' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor 16 16 

Unrecorded 644 660 

Sand, Little Dunkard ? (Big Dunkard) 25 685 

Sand, Big Dunkard ? (Burning Springs and Gas) 115 800 

Unrecorded (little water, 1420'); big water, 1500') 938 1738 

26 



402 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Little Lime 45 1783 

Pencil cave 3 1786 

Shell 4 1790 

Second cave 11 1801 

Big Lime (gas, 1910'-1914') 127 1928 

Keener sand 12 1940 

Big Injun sand (gas, 1942'; oil, 1964') 46 1986 

Shot with 40 qts. at 1961'-1986'. 10" casing, 260 feet; 8^" casing, 
760 feet; 6%" casing, 1804 feet. 

The well starts 5 to 10 feet above the top of the Sewick- 
ley (Rock Creek) sandstone, or no to 120 feet above the 
Pittsburg coal horizon. The two following logs are from wells 
located in the western edge of the pool in Walton district : 

John Summers No. i Well Record (R 215), Walton District. 

Located near the head of Left fork of Green creek. Authority, 
Louis F. Payn Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 1140' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 750 750 

Sand, Little Dunkard ? (Saltsburg) 45 795 

Unrecorded 5 800 

Sand, Big Dunkard ? (First Cow Run) 50 850 

Unrecorded 580 1430 

First Salt sand (water, 1450') 330 1760 

Little Lime 30 1790 

Pencil cave 4 1794 

Big Lime 160 1954 

Unrecorded 1 1955 

Keener sand 25 1980 

Break 4 1984 

Big Injun sand (oil throughout) 11 1995 

Unrecorded to bottom 7 2002 

10 bbl. well in Big Injun sand. 10" casing, 248 feet; SW casing, 
800 feet; 6%" casing, 1804 feet. 

C. C. Hively No. 6 Well Record (R 216), Walton District. 

Located at head of Anderson Lick run of Green creek. Author- 
ity, L. F. Payn Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 1075' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 2106 2106 

Keener sand 14 2120 

Big Injun sand (oil throughout) to bottom 25 2145 

Shot at 2120'-2145'. 10 bbl. well in Big Injun sand. 10" casing, 
230 feet; 8i/4" casing, 945 feet; 6%" casing, 1976 feet. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 403 

The first well drilled in the Walton field was A- W. Sum- 
mers No. I well (R 217), located on Rock creek at the north- 
west edge of the oil pool. The well was drilled by the Louis 
F. Payn Oil Co. It is located slightly too far down the struc- 
tural slope to catch the main belt of Big Injun sand oil, but a 
light oil well was obtained at the latter horizon, and other 
wells soon followed to the south and east. It has now become 
the largest developed oil field in Roane county. Along the 
ridge road, three-fourths mile northwest from Ambler P. O. 
and near the Walton-Harper district line, there occur two or 
three oil wells in the Salt sand. These wells had an initial 
production of 20 barrels daily and are situated near the mid- 
dle of the western end of the Big Injun sand oil belt. North- 
west from these wells about one mile, are four or five gas 
wells also in the Salt sand. 

Southeast from the Big Injun sand oil pool in Walton 
district, there occurs a great gas field from the same horizon 
on Rush fork of Green creek, Little Sandy and Lefthand 
creeks, and Cottontree run- According to the "anticlinal the- 
ory" for the accumulation of oil and gas pools, the location 
of this gas field is ideal, as a glance at the structure map ac- 
companying this report will readily show. The following 
well records give a great fund of information as to the vol- 
ume of gas encountered, its rock pressure, the thickness and 
character of the "pay" horizons and other sands, and the 
presence of apparently commercial coal beds in this portion 
of Walton district. The Big Injun sand ranges from 40 to 
60 feet in thickness in this part of Roane county, and the gas 
"pay" occurs in the bottom division of the same: 

W. S, Lewis No. 4 Well Record (R 198), Walton District. 

Located on Hardcamp run of Cottontree run, one mile and a 
half Southeast of Virgil. Authority, United Fuel Co. Completed in 
1902. 

(Elevation = 790' LA. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 450 450 

Coal, (Lower Freeport) 6 456 

Unrecorded 444 900 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Salt) 30 930 

Unrecorded 95 1025 



404 MINERAL. RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Thickness. Total. 
Feet. Feet. 

Salt sand (gas, 1030') 225 1250 

Unrecorded 250 1500 

Pencil cave 10 1510 

Big Lime 140 1650 

Big Injun sand (gas, 1670') 60 1710 

Unrecorded to bottom 25 1735 

1st minute pressure, 325 lbs. 4th minute pressure, 455 lbs. 

2nd minute pressure, 410 lbs. 5th minute pressure, 465 lbs. 

3rd minute pressure, 440 lbs. Rock pressure, 500 lbs. 

Size of tubing, 3". Size of packer, 3" x 6%". 

Kind of packer. Dresser; set 95 feet from bottom. 

The well is located close the axis of the Arches Fork 
anticline and starts about 270 feet below the base of the Se- 
wickley (Rock Creek) sandstone, or 200 feet below the hori- 
zon of the Pittsburg coal bed. 



Effie Morgan No. i Well Record (R 200), Walton District. 

Located four-tenths mile South of Virgil. Authority, United 
Fuel Co. 

(Elevation = 881' L-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 530 530 

Coal, (Upper Freeport ?) 2 532 

Unrecorded 98 630 

Coal, Lower Freeport 3 633 

Unrecorded 77 710 

Coal, (Middle Kittanning ?) 3 713 

Slate 7 720 

Sand, (Gas sand) 65 785 

Slate 195 980 

Sand 30 1010 

Slate 215 1225 

Salt sand (oil show, 1225') 355 1580 

Slate 10 1590 

Little Lime 58 1648 

Pencil cave 5 1653 

Big Lime 110 1763 

Big Injun sand 39 1802 

Slate to bottom 8 1810 

The well mouth is about 70 feet below the base of the 
Sewickley (Rock Creek) sand, or almost flush with the hori- 
zon of the Pittsburg coal bed. Three coal beds are recorded 
in the log, all of which apparently come in the Allegheny 
series. The top coal, however, may correlate with the Ma- 
honing bed of the Conemaugh series- 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 405 

John Cromwell No. i Well Record (R 203), Walton District. 

Located on Cottontree run, one mile and three-fourths North of 
Cotton P. O. Authority, United Fuel Co. Completed Dec. 22, 1905. 

(Elevation = 688' L-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Drift 113 113 

Slate 87 200 

Sand (Big Dunkard, and Burning Springs) 240 440 

Coal, (Middle Kittanning ?) 1 441 

Sand (Gas sand) 59 500 

Shale 65 565 

Slate 85 650 

Sand 50 700 

Shale ■ 100 800 

Salt sand ? (show of oil, 1030'; show of gas, 1200') 544 1344 

Red rock 15 1359 

Slate 51 1410 

Little Lime 20 1430 

Slate 2 1432 

Sand ? 15 1447 

Pencil cave 5 1452 

Big Lime 123 1575 

Big Injun sand (gas, 1599'-1620') to bottom 50 1625 

"Size of tubing, 3". Size of packer, 3" x 6%". Kind of packer, 
Dresser. Set 60 feet from bottom." 

The well mouth is about 300 feet below the horizon of 
the Pittsburg coal bed. The 240 feet of sand at 200 feet in 
depth appears to represent both the Big Dunkard and Burn- 
ing Springs sands, and probably includes the top portion of 
the Lower Freeport sandstone of the Allegheny series. There 
is a small showing of both oil and gas in the Salt sand. It 
is likely the same showing as encountered at this horizon in 
the wells on Hurricane creek. 

M. M. Boggs No. I Well Record (R 204), Walton District. 

Located on Lefthand creek, three-fourths mile Northwest of Cot- 
ton P. O. Authority, United Fuel Company. Completed Aug. 22, 1906. 

(Elevation = 646' L-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Drift 78 78 

Slate 392 470 

Coal, (Lower Kittanning) 5^ 475 

Slate 25 500 

Sand, (Second Gow Run) 50 550 

Slate 110 660 

Sand 30 690 

Slate 70 760 



406 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-BOANE-CALHOUN AREA, 

Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Sand 45 805 

Slate 75 880 

Sand 35 915 

Slate 20 935 

Salt sand 400 1335 

Shells 50 1385 

Maxton sand 5 1390 

Little Lime 30 1420 

Pencil cave 7 1427 

Big Lime 130 1557 

Big Injun sand (gas) 51 1608 

Slate to bottom 3 1611 

"Size of tubing, 3". Size of Packer, 3" x 6%". 

The well mouth is about 350 feet below the horizon of 
the Pittsburg coal bed. 

S- L. Casey No. i Well Record (R 205), Walton District. 

Located on Lefthand creek, one-eighth mile Northwest of Cot- 
ton P. O. Authority, United Fuel Co. Completed March 8, 1906. 

(Elevation = 622' L-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Slate 300 300 

Coal, Lower Freeport 1 301 

Slate 134 435 

Coal, Lower Kittanning 2 437 

Sand (Second Cow Run, etc.) 383 820 

Salt sand (oil, 1 bbl. at 825'; water, 895') 540 1360 

Little Lime 30 1390 

Pencil cave 10 1400 

Big Lime 113 1513 

Keener sand (no gas) 15 1528 

Slate 11 1539 

Big Injun sand (gas, 1530'-1550') 14 1553 

Slate to bottom 5 1558 

"Size of tubing, 4". Size of packer, 4" x 6%". Kind of packer. 
Dresser. Set 110 feet from bottom." 

The well mouth is about 400 feet below the horizon of the 
Pittsburg coal bed. At 825 feet in depth the well would have 
made i barrel of oil daily from one of the divisions of the 
Salt sand. The oil was not saved for the reason that a much 
more profitable pay of gas occurs on below in the Big Injun 
sand. 

The following is the log of a well located one-half mile 
southwest of the S. L. Casey No. i : 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 407 

Frank Pickering No. i Well Record (K 206), Big Sandy Dis- 
trict, Kanav^^ha County. 

Located on Gabes creek, one-half mile Southwest of Cotton. Au- 
thority, United Fuel Co. Completed Jan. 27, 1909. 

(Elevation = 640' L-A, T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Sand and slate 550 550 

Slate 290 840 

Sand 25 865 

Slate 15 880 

Salt sand (show of oil, 847'; show of gas, 948') 370 1250 

Coal, (No. 2 Gas ? ) 1 1251 

Sand 129 1380 

Little Lime ? 22 1402 

Slate 2 1404 

Black lime 8 1412 

White lime 10 1422 

Pencil cave 6 1428 

Big Lime (show of gas, 1442'-1523') 124 1552 

Big Injun sand (no gas first 20' in) 40 1592 

Slate to bottom 5 1597 

"Size of tubing, 3". Size of packer, 3" x 6%". Kind of packer. 
Dresser." 

The well mouth is about 375 feet below the horizon of 
the Pittsburg coal bed. The coal at 1250 feet in depth, 177 
feet above the top of the Big Lime and about 700 feet below 
the top of the Pottsville series, is probably the same as noted 
in the oil wells in the northern portion of Smithfield district, 
and may correlate with the No. 2 Gas bed of the Kanawha 
(Upper Pottsville) series. 

The following data show the rock pressure of a gas well 
near the axis of the Arches Fork anticline where the latter 
intersects the Roane-Kanawha county line : 

Sen. Adam Littlepage No. i Well Record ( K 208), Big Sandy 

District, Kanawha County. 

Located at Kanawha-Roane county line, one mile and three- 
fourths West of Cotton. Authority, United Fuel Co. Completed Apr. 
18, 1907. 

(Elevation = 795' B-A. T.) 
1st minute pressure, 340 lbs. 10th minute pressure, 410 lbs. 
2nd minute pressure, 380 lbs. 20th minute pressure, 431 lbs. 
3rd minute pressure, 390 lbs. 30th minute pressure, 490 lbs. 
4th minute pressure, 400 lbs. Rock pressure, 515 lbs. 

"Size of packer, 3" x QVz" x 16"; anchor, 68' 10"; tubing, 3". 

The rock pressure of the gas wells from the Big Injun 



408 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

sand in this part of Roane county is 450 pounds less than for 
the same in the gas wells from the Berea sand immediately 
west and southwest from Spencer. Their daily volume, how- 
ever, is about the same in each case. Ten to 15 million cubic 
feet daily is about the maximum initial production of a single 
well from either field. 

The following is the log of a well located just across the 
southern boundary line of Walton district in the edge of 
Jackson county, one mile and a half east from the common 
corner to Harper, Poca and Elk districts : 

Chas. Stewart No. i Well Record (K 209), Big Sandy Dis- 
trict, Kanawha County. 

Located on Buckner fork of Little Sandy creek, three miles 
Southeast of Kettle. Authority, United Fuel Co. Completed Sept. 30, 
1907. 

(Elevation = 760' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Drift 13 13 

Red rock 207 220 

Shale 160 380 

Sand, (Big Dunkard and Burning Springs) 172 552 

Slate 23 575 

Sand, (Gas and Second Cow Run) 125 700 

Slate 240 940 

Broken sand 120 1060 

Salt sand (gas show, 1160'; water, 1270') 424 1484 

Broken sand 16 1500 

Maxton sand 42 1542 

Little Lime 43 1585 

Pencil cave 7 1592 

Big Lime 133 1725 

Big Injun sand (gas) 46 1771 

Slate to bottom 4 1775 

Size of tubing, 3". Size of packer, 3" x 6%". Kind of packer. 
Dresser. 

The well mouth is about 150 feet below the horizon of 
the Pittsburg coal bed. A small showing of gas was encoun- 
tered in the Salt sand. The great sand mass at 380 feet in depth 
appears to represent both the Big Dunkard and Burning 
Springs sands. 

HARPER DISTRICT. 

Harper district occupies the southwestern portion of 
Roane county, and its area is traversed in a north and south 
direction by the Flat Fork anticline. Where the latter fold 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 409 

intersects the western slope of the Arches Fork anticline, it 
forms a structural terrace, and here we find the western ter- 
minus of the Walton oil field. In the northern point of the 
district there occurs a pool of 40 to 50 oil wells in the Salt 
sand along the eastern slope of the Flat Fork anticline, and 
two miles southwest of this oil pool there occur several gas 
wells from the same horizon The two following records 
are from wells located in the extreme northern end of Har- 
per district on the head of Flat fork: 

Oscar Kelley No. 2 Well Record (R 242), Harper District. 

Located on Cox fork of Flat fork, two and one-half miles South- 
west of Vandalia. Authority, Carter Oil Co. Completed Aug. 11, 1909. 

(Elevation = 829' L-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 630 630 

Cave 60 690 

Unrecorded 300 990 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Burning Springs) 60 1050 

Unrecorded 335 1385 

Salt sand 30 1415 

Unrecorded 100 1515 

Salt sand 15 1530 

Unrecorded 16 1546 

Salt sand (water, 1633' and 1635') to bottom 102 1648 

10" casing, 600 feet; 8^" casing, 990 feet; 6%" casing, 1400 feet. 

Oscar Kelley No. i Well Record (R 243), Harper District. 

Located on Cox fork of Flat fork, two and three-fourths miles 
Southwest of Vandalia. Authority, Carter Oil Co. Completed March 
26, 1909. 

(Elevation = 815' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 915 915 

Sand, Cow Run (Dunkard) 5 920 

Unrecorded 445 1365 

Salt sand 25 1390 

Unrecorded 173 1563 

Salt sand (gas, 1569'; gas and oil, 1587'; water, 1625') — 1563 

Unrecorded to bottom 1112 2675 

Casing, 13", 32 feet; 10", 583 feet; 814", 979 feet; 6%", 1607 feet; 
5 3-16", 2014 feet. 

The following is the record of a dry hole near the north- 
western point of Harper district, just across the county line 
in the edge of Jackson county. The well penetrated below 
the Berea sand and the record shows the absence of that 
formation at this locality: 



410 MINERAL BESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Eliza Anderson No. i Well Record (R 248), Washington 
District, Jackson County. 

Located on Billy run of Elk fork, one mile and a half Northwest 
of Red Knob. Authority, Carter Oil Co. Completed Aug. 12, 1909. 

(Elevation = 770' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 723 723 

Cave 47 770 

Unrecorded • • 200 970 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Big Dunkard) 85 1055 

Unrecorded 220 1275 

Salt sand, (Second Cow Run) 40 1315 

Unrecorded 25 1340 

Salt sand 28 1368 

Unrecorded 127 1495 

Salt sand (gas, 1500' and 1540'-1545'; oil, 1565'; 

water, 1580' and 1585') 297 1792 

Big Lime 90 1882 

Keener sand — 1882 

Unrecorded 18 1900 

Big Injun sand — 1900 

Unrecorded (no Berea sand) to bottom 592 2492 

Salt sand gas well. Cased with 10", 8^", 6%" and 5 3-16" cas- 
ing. 

The well starts almost flush with the crop of the Wash- 
ington coal bed, giving the Washington coal-Big Lime inter- 
val as 1790 to 1800 feet. 

The following is the record of the Thos. Hughes No. i 
well, now owned by the American Oil and Development Com- 
pany, that was drilled two-thirds mile up Wolf Camp run 
of Flat fork of Poca river, one mile and a half south wesu of 
Harmony P. O. This was the first paying well for either 
oil or gas drilled in Roane county, and the log is as published 
by Dr. I. C- White in Vol. I, page 2.6J, of the W. Va. Geol. 
Survey Reports: 

Thos. Hughes No. i Well Record (R 245), Harper District. 

Drilled by the McCalmont Oil Company; David Kirk, President, 
authority. Washington coal crops 90 feet above well mouth. 

(Elevation = 760' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 275 275 

Sand, Sewickley ? (Rock Creek) 60 335 

Unrecorded 100 435 

Sand 35 470 

Red shale 35 505 

Unrecorded • • 330 835 

Sand (Little Dunkard), little oil 10 845 

Unrecorded 75 920 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 411 

Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Sand, (Big Dunkard) 40 960 

Unrecorded 45 1005 

Sand, (Burning Springs) 40 1045 

Slate, black 30 1075 

Gas sand (show of dark oil) 66 1141 

Slate black 18 1159 

Sand, pebbly for 35 feet (Second Cow Run) 60 1219 

Slate, black 58 1277 

Sand, mixed with limestone 29 1306 

Shale, gray and black 87 1393 

Limestone 31 1424 

Salt sand (gas at 1438'; oil spray at 1458') 35 1459 

Slate 4 1463 

Salt sand (salt water at 1535') to bottom 160 1623 

The record shows the gas horizon at Flat Fork P. O. to 
be the Salt sand. 

The four following records of wells from the oil pool just 
north of Zona P. O. show the producing horizon to be the Salt 
sand and not the Big Injun as first identified by drillers in 
this vicinity. The log of the Eliza Anderson No. i well 
(R 248), (see page 410), gives the Washington coal-Big Lime 
interval as 1790 to 1800 feet for this locality: 

I. F. Conley No. 2 Well Record (R 238), Harper District. 

Located on Flat fork, one-fourth mile North of Zona. Authority, 
American Oil and Development Co. 

(Elevation = 790' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor , 15 15 

Unrecorded (hole full of water, 60') 281 296 

Sandstone, (Sewickley and Upper Pittsburg) 85 381 

Unrecorded 73 454 

Sandstone, (Lower Pittsburg) 30 484 

Unrecorded 19 503 

Sand 13 516 

Unrecorded 4 520 

Reds 15 635 

Unrecorded 2 537 

Reds 75 612 

Sand 20 632 

Unrecorded 196 828 

Sand 10 838 

Unrecorded 97 935 

Sand, Big Dunkard) 31 966 

Unrecorded 42 1008 

Sand 18 1026 

Unrecorded 28 1054 



412 MINERAL RESOURCES OP WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Sand 27 1081 

Black sand 37 1118 

White sand (Gas sand) 52 1170 

Black slate 18 1188 

Sand, (Second Cow Run) 69 1257 

Unrecorded 53 1310 

Sand 72 1382 

Unrecorded 93 1475 

Salt sand (gas, 1480'; oil, 1500'-1512') to bottom 74 1549 

10" casing, 537 feet; 8^4" casing, 900 feet; 6%" casing, 1264 feet. 

Shot with 20 qts; 6 ft. shell; 4 ft. anchor. 5 bbl. well. 

The well starts 65 feet below the crop of the Washing- 
ton coal bed, giving the Washington coal-Salt sand interval 
as 1540 feet. 

S. S. Hickle No. 2 Well Record (R 240), Harper District. 

Located on Flat fork, one mile Northeast of Zona. Authority, 
Carter Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 805' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

■ Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 557 557 

Cave 43 600 

Unrecorded 40 640 

Cave 80 720 

Unrecorded 230 950 

Sand, Cow Run (Big Dunkard and Burning Springs) 100 1050 

Unrecorded 260 1310 

Salt sand 160 1470 

Unrecorded 42 1512 

Salt sand (oil, 1567'-1577') to bottom 70 1582 

10" casing, 572 feet; 8%" casing, 1065 feet; 6%" casing, 1265 feet. 

Well mouth is 25 to 30 feet below, the level of the Wash- 
ington coal. 

G- M. Karrickhoff No. i Well Record (R 239), Harper 

District. 

Located on Flat fork, four-tenths mile Northeast of Zona. Au- 
thority, American Oil & Development Co. 

(Elevation = 800' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor 14 14 

Unrecorded (hole full of water at 20') 281 295 

Sandstone, (Sewickley and Upper Pittsburg) 85 380 

Unrecorded 65 445 

Sandstone, (Lower Pittsburg) 79 524 

Reds • • 12 536 

Unrecorded 39 575 

Sand, (Minshall) 63 628 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SUBVEY. 413 



Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Sand 12 640 

Unrecorded 280 920 

Sand (Dunkard) 60 980 

Unrecorded 48 1028 

Sand (water, 1074') (Burning Springs) 70 1098 

Unrecorded 6 1104 

Sand 77 1181 

Break 12 1193 

Sand, (Second Cow Run) 39 1232 

Unrecorded 110 1342 

Sand 50 1392 

Unrecorded 100 1492 

Salt sand (gas, 1495'; oil show, 1521'; oil, 1541'-1551') to 

bottom 70 1562 

10" casing, 551 feet; Shi" casing, 998 feet; 6^" casing, 1247 feet. 
Well completed in 1907. Still making 5 bbl. (1909). 

J. F. Hersman No. i Well Record (R 241), Harper District. 

Located on Hanna run of Flat fork, one mile and a fourth North 
of Zona. Completed May 25, 1909. 

(Elevation = 855' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 890 890 

Cave 110 1000 

Unrecorded 230 1230 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Gas sand) 45 1275 

Unrecorded 215 1490 

Salt sand 95 1585 

Unrecorded 104 1689 

Salt sand (oil, 1694'-1699') to bottom 12 1701 

The well starts about 20 feet above the level of the Wash- 
ington coal. 

The wells in this pool are light producers, ranging from 
5 to 20 barrels daily. The following is the record of a well 
from a small pool located one mile and a half due south from 
the above wells. The log shows the oil belongs at the same 
horizon : 

S. N. Curry No. i Well Record (R 237), Harper District. 

Located near the mouth of Cabbage fork of Flat fork, one mile 
South of Zona. Authority, American Oil & Development Co. 

(Elevation = 845' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 1286 1286 

Sand, Salt ? (Second Cow Run) 42 1328 

Unrecorded 35 1363 



414 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Thickness. Total. 
Feet Feet. 

Sand, Maxton ? 20 1383 

Unrecorded 142 1525 

Big Lime ? 20 1545 

Sand, Big Injun ? (Salt) (oil, 1605'-1615') to bottom 70 1615 

10" casing, 655 feet; 8^" casing, 1150 feet; 5 3-16" casing, 1534 
feet. 

The well starts 25 to 30 feet below the level of the Wash- 
ington coal bed. Hence, the driller has evidently made a 
mistake in calling the producing sand at 1545 feet the "Big 
Injun", since the latter belongs here at least 1800 feet below 
the Washington coal, as shown by numerous logs already 
given for the western portion of Roane county. 

The following is the log of a dry hole located three- 
fourths mile south of Harmony P. O. on the main branch of 
Flat fork of Pocatalico river. A light show of oil and gas 
was encountered in the Salt sand, but both the Big Injun and 
Berea sands were dry : 

J. F. Jones No. i Well Record (R 247), Harper District. 

Located on Flat fork, one-half mile Northwest of Woodyard. Au- 
thority, Carter Oil Company. Completed May 26, 1908. 

(Elevation = 715' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 780 780 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Big Dunkard) 100 880 

Unrecorded 53 933 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Gas sand) 105 1038 

Unrecorded 237 1275 

Salt sand 25 1300 

Unrecorded 50 1350 

Salt sand 15 1365 

Unrecorded 10 1375 

Salt sand (gas show, 1445'; oil show, 1465'; water, 1482') 215 1590 

Unrecorded 130 1720 

Big Lime 45 1765 

Keener sand 10 1775 

Unrecorded 50 1825 

Big Injun sand 75 1900 

Unrecorded 325 2225 

Berea sand 25 2250 

Unrecorded to bottom (dry) 74 2324 

10" casing, 414 fefet; 8%" casing, 788 feet; 6%" casing, 1720 feet. 

The following is the log of a gas well from what appears 
to be the Salt sand in the southern portion of Harper district 
near the crest of the Flat Fork anticline : 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAX. SURVEY. 415 

Laura (John) Hunt No. i Well Record (R 254), Harper 

District. 
Located on branch of Rock creek, two and three-fourths miles 
Southwest of Walton. Authority, Carter Oil Co. Completed October 
9, 1909. 

Thickness. Total. 
Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 830 830 

Sand, Cow Run ? 40 870 

Unrecorded 20 890 

Sand, Cow Run ? 134 1024 

Unrecorded 382 1406 

Salt sand (gas, 1416'-1436') 30 1436 

Unrecorded to bottom 5 1441 

10" casing, 200 feet; 8%" casing, 930 feet; 6%" casing, 1441 feet. 

As mentioned above, the Big Injun sand oil pool of Wal- 
ton district extends westward to Mattie P. O- in Harper dis- 
trict. The two following records are from wells in this 
region : 

John Jarvis No. i Well Record (R 255), Harper District. 

Located one mile and a half East of Mattie. Authority, Jarvis 
Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 1018' L-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 1900 1900 

Big Lime 144 2044 

Big Injun sand (oil, 2050'-2080') 36 2080 

Unrecorded to bottom 9 2089 

(Shot at 2050'-2080'. 15 bbl. well.) 

The well mouth is about 200 feet below the level of the 
horizon of the Washington coal. 

John Jarvis No. 6 Well Record (R 256), Harper District. 

Located one mile Southeast of Mattie. Authority, Jarvis Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 983' L-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor 14 14 

Red rock and slate 126 140 

Sandstone, (Sewickley and Upper Pittsburg) 100 240 

Slate 95 335 

Sandstone Connellsville (Minshall) 65 400 

Red rock 112 512 

White slate 8 520 

Sand '. 10 530 

Slate and shells 70 600 

Red rock 25 625 

Sand 10 635 



416 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Slate 75 710 

Sand, Little Dunkard (First Cow Run) 5 715 

Pink rock 85 800 

Sand, Big Dunkard, and Burning Springs.. •• ..118 918 

Slate and shells 52 970 

Coal, (IVIiddle Kittanning ?) 6 976 

Slate 9 985 

Water sand (Gas sand) . . • • 65 1050 

Dark slate 35 1085 

Sand, (Second Cow Run) 35 1120 

Lime 48 1168 

Black slate 252 1420 

Slate and shells 15 1435 

Little Salt sand 125 1560 

Big Salt sand (first water, 1570'; big water, 1580') 210 1770 

Maxton sand • • . . 30 1800 

Slate and shells 25 1825 

Little Lime 25 1850 

Pencil cave 6 1856 

Big Lime 144 2000 

Big Injun sand, (gas pay, 2010'; oil pay, 2019'-2032') 32 2032 

Unrecorded to bottom 71/2 2039V2 

10" casing, 265 feet; 8^4" casing, 840 feet; 6%" casing, 1868 feet. 
"Completed December 3, 1909. Shot Dec. 6, 1909, with 40 qt. tor- 
pedo. 6%" packer. 1868 feet of 6%'' casing left in well." 

The following is the record of a Big Injun sand gas well 
located in the extreme southern point of Harper district. The 

well penetrated to a depth of 978 feet below the Big Injun, 
but the log fails to show any good sand: 

Jas. M. Summers No. i Well Record (R 258), Harper District. 

Located near Roane-Kanawha county line, one mile and three- 
fourths Southeast of Kettle. Authority, South Penn Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 1060' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 50 50 

Sand, (Lower Pittsburg) 60 110 

Unrecorded 75 185 

Sand, (Murphy) 110 295 

Unrecorded 385 680 

Sand, (Burning Springs and Gas sands) • -190 870 

Unrecorded 85 955 

Sand, (Second Cow Run) • • 20 975 

Unrecorded 60 1035 

Sand 35 1070 

Unrecorded 40 1110 

Sand 40 1150 

Unrecorded 275 1425 

Salt sand • • 215 1640 

Coal 2 1642 

Salt sand 113 1755 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 417 

Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Little Lime 120 1875 

Big Lime (gas, 1910') 125 2000 

Unrecorded 5 2005 

Big Injun sand (gas, 2010') 25 2030 

Unrec6rded 15 2045 

Sandy lime 110 2155 

Unrecorded 275 2430 

Sandy lime 15 2445 

Unrecorded to bottom • • 563 3008 

The well starts about no feet above the base of the Se- 
wickley ? (Rock Creek) sandstone, or 310 feet below the hori- 
zon of the W^ashington coal. Hence, the well mouth is very- 
near the horizon of the Pittsburg coal bed, possibly 40 feet 
above the level of same. 

In the extreme southwestern portion of Harper district 
a dry hole was drilled on Redoak run to a depth of 2000 feet- 
The log of this well is published on page 76 in connection 
with the Cicerone P. O. section. About 4 miles northwest 
of Cicerone P. O. a small oil well was struck on the Benjamin 
Smith farm (R 250) on the head of Wolf run of Pocatalico 
river. Two dry holes were drilled near by on the south and 
southeast. The oil show was encountered in the Salt sand, 
and is reported to have had an initial production of 5 to 25 
barrels daily, and before abandonment to have produced a 
total of 500 barrels. The oil from this well is said to have 
been used as fuel in drilling the two dry holes in the vicinity. 

CALHOUN COUNTY WELL RECORDS. 

The accompanying table of 120 wells contains the abbre- 
viated logs of 93 borings as well as tidal elevations of the 
well mouth of 27 other wells of which no records were ob- 
tained. As in the tables for Wirt and Roane counties, these 
wells have been chosen from the great number drilled in the 
county on account of their wide distribution and in several 
cases for some special feature attached to the well. The wells 
are numbered from 259 to 376, and grouped by magisterial 
districts, the serial number in each instance corresponding to 
the number of the same well on the economic geology map 
accompanying this report in a separate cover (See explana- 
tions preceding the table of Wirt county wells on page 294. 
27 



418 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Under the column "Owner" in the table of wells for Cal- 
houn county, the following abbreviations are used : 

Bonds Crk. Co Bonds Creek Company. 

' Carter Carter Oil Company^ 

Consolidated Consolidated Oil Company. 

Eastern Eastern Oil Company. 

; Guaranty Guaranty Oil Company. 

LoW'-Kauf man . . . . Lowther-Kaufman Oil & Coal Co. 

Mt. State Mountain State Gas Company. 

Murphy Bros Murphy Bros. & Company. 

Potomac Potomac Oil Company. 

Purdy O. Co Purdy Oil Company. 

South Pehn South Penn Oil Company. 

Stumptown Stumptown Oil & Gas Company. 

Yellow Creek Yellow Creek Oil Company. 

Although the accompanying table of wells contains quite 
a fund of information as to three main oil and gas horizons ; 
viz-, Big Lime, Big Injun and Berea sands, yet it is quite 
necessary to publish the complete logs of a number of these 
wells, as has been done for Wirt and Roane counties, not 
only to preserve the records from loss, but for the great 
amount of information they contain as to other oil and gas 
bearing rocks and the presence or absence of commercial coal 
beds. The accurate location of any well is readily determined 
by its serial number published in the table and in the head- 
ing of the complete well record, and also on the economic 
geology map accompanying this report. Oil and gas in pay- 
ing quantity have been produced in the northern half of Cal- 
houn county, but thus far not much development has taken 
place in the southern half. 

CENTER DISTRICT. 

Center district occupies the northeastern central portion 
of Calhoun county, and its area is traversed in a northeast- 
southwest direction by the Arches Fork anticline. Within its 
area the structural conditions are ideal for the accumulation 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 419 

of oil and gas into commercial pools. The northeastern end 
of the Yellow Creek field occurs about half way down on the 
western slope of the Arches Fork anticline. This same oil 
pool again enters Center district at the southwestern edge 
one mile due south of Big Bend P. O. (Brooksville). North- 
east from Grantsville along the crest of the Arches Fork 
anticline we find a large number of gas wells mostly from 
the Salt sand. The territory immediately south of Grants- 
ville along the crest of this same fold, or the dividing ridge 
between Pine and Philip runs looks very favorable for gas, 
and apparently no test wells have been drilled in this region 
to condemn the same- 



420 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Summarized Record ol 



ea 


NAME OF WELL 


Location— District 


Owner 


Elevation A J 


259 


N. E. Sommers No. 2 

W. L. Camden No. 1 


Center 


South Penn 

South Penn 

South Penn 

Eastern .... 


1215B 


260 


Center . 


925B 


261 


W. L. Camden No. 2 


Center 


1215B 


261A 


M. M. Tingler No. 1 


Murphy (Ritchie) 
Center 


875B 


262 


J. E. Snider No. 4 


Carter 


990B 


263 


Grant Hickman Lot No. 1 . . . . 
E. E. Wilson No. 1 


Center 


South Penn 

Carter 


1090B 


264 


Center 


975B 


265 


H. I Jackson No 16 


Center 


South Penn 

Carter .... 


846L 


266 


L. G. Fluharty No. 4 . . . . 


Center 


970B 


267 


L. G. Fluharty No. 2 


Center 


Carter 


103 OB 


268 


L. G. Fluharty No. 1 


Center 


Carter 


995B 


269 


John Cornell No. 1 


Center 


Court'y & McD'mott 

Low-Kaufman 

Low-Kaufman 

Low-Kaufman 

Low-Kaufman 

G. L. Cabot 

Carter 


825B 


270 


J. T. Richards No. 1 

F. M. Depue No. 1 


Center 


725B 


271 


Center 


715B 


272 


Jas. Metz No. 1 


Center 


720B 


273 


Susannah Taylor No. 6 

John Wilson No. 3 


Center 


745B 


274 


Center 


880B 


275 


Jas. Wilson No. 1 


Center 


795B 


276 


F. S. Wilson, Lot No. 1 

Robt. Smith No. 4 


Center 


Guaranty 


818L 


277 


Center 


Murphy Bros 

South Penn 

Low-Kaufman 

Low-Kaufman 

G. L. Cabot 

G. L. Cabot 

G. L. Cabot 

Bickle Bros 

G. L. Cabot 

G. L. Cabot 

South Penn 

J. M. Guffey 

Carter 

South Penn 

South Penn 

South Penn 

South Penn 

G. L. Cabot 

G. L. Cabot 

Potomac 


860B 


278 ' 


R. E. Gardner No. 1 


Center 




279 


C. J. Thomas No. 1 


Center 


1130B 


280 


Mike Wilson No 1 


Center 


1040B 


281 


Rosa Givens No 1 


Center 


870B 


282 


Prank Wilson No 1 


Center 


785B 


283 


J. H. Martin No 1 


Center 


685L 


284 


S. T. Stump No. 1 


Center 


755B 


285 


Frank Smith No. 1 


Center 


695B 


286 


G. L. Cabot No. 1 (J.S.Silcott) 

Luverina E. Betts No. 1 

Al Hardman No. 1 


Center 


670B 


287 


Center 


680L 


288 


Center 


690B 


289 


Al Hardman No. 1 

Geo. Smith No. 1... 


Center 


(670B) 
685B 


290 


Center 


291 


Geo. Smith No. 2 


Center 


680B 


292 


(N.T.)Sam McConaughey No.l 
(N.T.)S.McConaughey & Co. 2 
Al Hardman No. 2 


Center 


675B 


293 
294 


Center 

Center 

Center 

Center 

Center 

Sheridan 

Sheridan 

Sheridan 

Sheridan 

Sheridan 

Sheridan 


(700B) 

(905B) 

730B 


295 


Al Hardman No. 5 


296 


Lewis Bennett No. 2 


1080B 


297 
298 


Pell-Greathouse No. 2 

Pell-Greathouse No. 1 

E. A. Silcott No. 6 

S. K. Wolverton No. 2 

(S.L.) B. B. (P.) Ferrell No. 1 

W. B. Paden No. 1 

Camden Summers No. 1 


Carter 

Carter 


685B 


299 
300 
301 
302 


South Penn 

South Penn ' 

South Penn ', 

Carter 


965B 
lOlOB 
(660B) 

780B 


303 




(870B) 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



421 



Wells in Calhoun County. 



BIG LIME 


BIG INJUN SAND 


BBRBA 


SAND 


a 


Producing Sand 




Deplh 
Top 


Elevation 

Below 
Tide Top 


Tlilck- 
ness 


Depth 
Top 


Thick- 
ness 


Depth 
Top 


Thick- 
ness 


s 


1995 


780 


60 


2065 


80 


2509 


7 


2544 

2332 
2441 


Keener & Maxton .... 
Keener 


259 
260 


......|...... 














261 


1730 


855 
918 


50 
60 


1780 
1968 


45 

75 


2222 
2405 


6 
33 


Maxton gas 


261A 


1908 


Berea & Salt 


262 




Berea 


263 


1886 


911 
812 
873 
890 
908 
975 
855 
860 
861 


74 

102 

102 

110 

72 

90 


1960 
1760 
1945 
2030 
1975 
1890 


75 
90 
75 
45 
92 
30 


2392 
2177 
2349 
2401 
2373 


6 
30 
32 
32 
30 


2927 
2207 
2384 
2435 
2407 
2334 
2118 
2128 
2150 
1545 
2178 
1520 
2190% 

1785 
2465 
1632 
2441 
1811 




264 


1658 


Berea 


265 


1843 


Berea 


266 


1920 


Berea 


267 


1903 


Berea 


268 


1800 


Salt 


269 


1580 


2107 
2105 
2111 


11 




270 


1575 








Berea 


271 


1581 








Berea 


272 










Maxton 


273 


1720 


840 


80 


1800 


60 


2139 


38 


Berea 


274 




Maxton 


275 


1669 


851 
(850) 








2155% 
(2240) 




Berea 


276 


(1710) 








Berea 


277 










Maxton 


278 


2030 


900 








2431 


34 


Berea 


279 










Salt 


280 


1625 


755 

820 


80 


1705 


70 


2142 


3 


Salt 


281 


1605 


Salt 


282 














Salt 


283 
















iioo 

2540 


Salt & Big Injun 

Salt 


284 
















285 


1500 


830 


135 










Second Cow Run 

Salt 


286 












287 


(1597) 


(907) 
(950) 










' 




288 


1620 


70 


1695 


80 
1 


2130 


8 


Big Injun 


289 




Rie Tniun 


290 


















291 


















292 
















Big Injun 


293 
















2700 
1894 
2145 
2080 
2215 
2419 
2461 
2980 
2653 




294 


1660 


930 
915 

875 














295 


1995 


75 


2070 








Big Injun & Maxton . . 


296 


1560 




2059 
2189 
2390 
2431 


29 
30 


297 










Berea & Salt 

Berea 

Berea 


298 
299 
300 


1910 
1935 


945 
925 

905 


90 
65 
85 
90 


2000 
2010 
1645 
1795 


80 
65 
40 


1560 




301 


1685 


2171 


15 




302 






303 






: 













422 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Summarized Record of 



NAME OF WELL 



J. P. Knight No. 1 

A. E. Kenny No. 1 

B. P. Ferrell No. 3 

B. H. Ferrell No. 1 

Jas. M. Wolverton No. 1 . . . 

Nutter Webb No. 5 

J. W. Rogers No. 2 

J. W. Rogers No. 1 

Thos. K. Farrell No. 8 

Bennett Heirs No. 2 

Atwell Taylor No. 1 

Tasrill Taylor No. 3 

W, H. Watson No. 1 

Sam'l Bothman No. 1 

W. C. Wilson No. 1 

B. S. Raybuck No. 1 

James C. Woodring No. 1. 

Allen Campbell No. 1 

Samuel Cooper No. 4 

Samuel Cooper No. 1 

Samuel Cooper No. 2 

Abe H. Jones No. 1 

Wm. Greathouse No. 1 . . . . 

J. R. Pell No. 1 

H. Riggs Hrs. No. 2 

Peter Hicks No. 1 

E. C. Chidester No. 2 

Frank Fore No. 2 

Rebeca Curry No. 5 

E. A. Fore No. 2 

Rebecca Curry No. 8 

Rebecca Curry No. 2 

Rebecca Curry No. 16.... 

S. C. Wright No. 1 

Delia Connally No. 1 

G. W. Bee No. 1 

Mary Bee No. 1 (?) 

Mary Bee No. 2 

Meredith & Hassig No. 3 . . 
Meredith & Hassig No. 1 . . 
Meredith & Hassig No. 9 . . 

G. W. Starcher No. 1 

G. W. Hardman No. 1 

G. W. Hardman No. 2 . . . . 

Jacob Morgan No. 1 

S. A. Hayes No. 1 



{Locaiioii— District 



Owner 



South Penn. 



Sheridan .... 
Sheridan .... 
Sheridan .... 
Sheridan .... 
Sheridan .... 
Sheridan .... 
Sheridan .... 
Sheridan .... 
Sheridan .... 
Sheridan .... 
Sheridan .... 
Sheridan .... 
Sheridan .... 
Sheridan .... 
Sheridan .... 
Sheridan .... 

Lee 

Lee 

Lee 

Lee 

Lee 

Lee 

Lee 

Lee 

Lee 

Lee 

Lee 

Lee 

Lee 

Lee 

Lee 

Lee 

Lee 

Lee 

Lee 

Lee 

Lee 

Lee 

Lee 

Lee 

Lee 

Lee 

Lee 

Lee 

Lee I Bonds Crk 

Lee^^. Murphy . . 



G. L. Cabot. . . 
Purdy O. Co. . 
South Penn. . 
Low-Kaufman 
Guaranty . . . . 
Guaranty . . . . 
Low-Kaufman 
Yellow Creek. 
Low-Kaufman 
Low-Kaufman 
South Penn . . 
South Penn. . 
South Penn. . 
G. L. Cabot. . . 
Geo. Heasley. 
Geo. Heasiey . 

Pierce 

Barnsdale . . . 
Barnsdale . . . 

Carter 

Carter 

Carter 

Carter 

Gillespie .... 

Carter 

Carter 

Carter 

Carter 

Carter 

Carter 

Carter 

Carter 

Carter 

Carter 

Carter 

Carter 

Carter 

Carter 

Carter 

South Penn. . . 



Co. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 
Wells in Calhoun County. — Continued. 



423 



BIG LIMB 


BIG INJDN SAND 


BEREA SAND 


a 

i 


Produclag Sand 




Depth 
Top 


Elevation 

Below 

Tide Top 


Thick- 
ness 


Depth 
Top 


Thick- 
ness 


Depth 
Top 


Thiek- 
■ess 


e 


1580 


(910) 


50 


1630 


80 






2168 
2106 




304 




(2200) 
2073 


"so" 


Berea 


305 


1565 


875 


90 


1655 


70 


Berea 


306 


Berea & Keener 


307 








1744 


29 






2213 
2439 
2167 
2287% 

2164 
1670 


308 


1915 


905 
908 




2405 
2108 
2187 
2100 
2150 
2118 
2128 


34 

21% 

31% 

28 

27 

30 


Berea 


309 


1615 
1683 


85 


1697 


83 


Big Lime 


310 


Berea 


311 












Berea 


312 


1630 


870 








Berea 


313 










Berea 


314 












Berea 


315 














316 


















317 


(1720) 


(920) 








2248 


2 


! 2270 




318 








Salt 


319 


















Salt 


320 








> 










Salt 


321 


















Salt 


322 


1695 


880 


80 


1775 


25 


2224 


10 


2240 
1637 
2193 
2381 
2400 
2295 


Berea 


323 




Salt 


324 


1546 


886 
900 
745 
938 


76 

145 

80 

85 


1639 
1880 
1920 
1840 


66 
10 
70 
35 


2090 
2253 
2355 
2224 


30 

12 

6 

26 




325 


1735 


Berea 


326 


1840 


Berea 


327 


1728 




328 






329 
















Big Ijime oi! 


330 


















Big Lime 


331 


1750 


1009 

985 

915 

985 

997 

1018 

1030 

1038 

1024 

1016 

1031 

(1128? 

1055 

1028 

924 

929 


165 

74 
140 
160 
145 
128 
136 

95 
105 

67 

119 

) 110 

120 

82 


1915 
1744 
2115 
1825 
1922 
1806 
1920 
1805 
1799 
1773 
1820 
1910 
1850 
(1800) 
1830 
1840 


15 
84 
15 
15 
15 
10 
18 
28 
47 
35 
40 
23 
40 1 
(40) 


2234 
2192 
2514 
2195 
2289 
2165 
2285 
2212 
2202 
2246 
2219 
2306 
2249 


26 
28 
28 
27 
27 
5 
21 
14 
42 
24 
28 
28 
14 


2260 
2219 
2550 
2230 
2319 
2262 
2306 
2277 
3338 
2245 
2270 
2250 
2324 
2798 
2250 

(2600) 
(2800) 


Berea . 


332 


1670 


Berea 


333 


1975 


Berea 


334 


1665 


Berea 


335 


1777 


Berea 


336 


1678 




337 


1780 


Berea 


338 


1710 




339 


1694 


Berea 


340 


1706 


Berea 


341 


1701 


Berea 


342 


1790 


Berea 


343 


1730 




344 


(1718) 




345 


1734 


2216 
2226 




Big Injun 


346 


1744 


Big Injun 


347 






348 








(1800) 










349 












...... 1 







424 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Summarized Recbrd ( 



NAME OF WELL 



350 S. W. White No. 1 

351 Geo. Jackson No. 1 

352 Andrew Mace No. 1 

353 Louis Bennett No. 1 

354 Camden-Summers No. 1.... 

355 Marion Radabaugh No. 1 . . 

356 Jas. G. West No. 1 

357 W. L. Camden No. 1 

358 M. H. Kight No. 1 

359 W. L. Camden No. 1 

360 Pranlc Gainer No. 1 

361 Granville Rice No. 1 

362 Jas. McDonald No. 1 

363 Ernest Bennett No. 1 

364 N. M. Bennett No. 1 

365 Jas. Swentzel No. 1 

366 A. R. Reed No. 1 

367 W. Ellsworth Stump No. 1. 

368 C. V. Stump Hrs. (No. 1).. 

369 H. C. Lockney No. 1 

37a H. C. Lockney No. 2 

371 Lewis Bennett No. 1 

372 W. A. Stalnaker No. 1 

372A D. E. Parsons No. 1 

373 Geo. Sherry No. 1 

374 T. P. Jarvis No. 1 

375 E. C. Knotts Heirs No. 1... 

376 (P.) D. O. Chenoweth No. 1 



Location— District 



Lee 

Lee 

Lee 

Lee 

Sherman 

Sherman 

Sherman 

Sherman 

Sherman 

Sherman 

Sherman 

Sherman 

Sherman 

Sherman 

Sherman 

Sherman 

Sherman 

Sherman 

Sherman 

Sherman 

Sherman 

Center (Gilmer) 
Washington . . . . 
Washington . . . . 
Washington . . . . 
Washington . . . . 
Washington . . . . 
Washington . . . . 



Owner 



Elevation A 



Consolidated 


715B 


H. Jeff Simmons. .. 


725B 


Carter 


730B 


Murphy 


(860B) 


South Penn 


1210B 


Mt. State 


1120B 


Mt. State 


1180B 


South Penn 


805B 


G. L. Cabot 


1125B 


Meade Bros 


.... 


Southern 


.... 


Carter 


695B 


Carter 


845B 


T. R. Cowell 


705B 


R. N. Miles 


700L 


F. P. Grosscup 


.... 


F. P. Grosscup 


815B 


F. P. Grosscup 


790B 


Stumptown 


700L 


N. Y. Petroleum. . . 


838L 


N. Y. Petroleum. . . 


845B 


South Penn 


825B 


Calroane 


745B 


Bickle Bros 


750B 


Calroane 


930B 


South Penn 


850B 


South Penn 


775L 


South Penn 


880B 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 
Wells in Calhoun County. — Continued. 



425 



BIG LMB 


BIG mjDN SAITD 


1 BEREA SAND 


1 

2085 
(2650) 
(2300) 



2419 

1852 

2901 

2648>^ 

1650 


Producing Sand 




Depth 
Top 
I 


Elevation 

Below 
Tide Top 


Thick- ! 
ness 


X 


Thick- 
ness 


t 


Thick- 
iess 


m 




850 
(770) 


1401 
none 


(none) 
1648 










350 


1575 




351 


(1500) 


30 


2008 




Big Injun 


352 


Salt 


353 
















Berea 


354 


1920 


800 


55 


1975 


80 


2395 


17 


Berea 


355 




Berea ? 


356 


1690 


885 
879 


118 
93 


1808 
2097 


64 
93 






Salt 


357 


2004 


2515 


5 




358 






359 


















360 


1625 
1800 


930 
955 


100 
90 


1725 
1890 


90 
140 


2170 


5 


2663 
2930 


Salt & Big Injun 

Big Injun 


361 
362 










363 


1375 


675 


' 6 


1381 


204 






2340 


Maxton 


364 








Salt 


365 
















1700 
3200 


Salt 


366 
















Salt 


367 


















368 


1580 


742 


35 


1615 


89 






1736 


Salt & Squaw 

Big Injun 


369 








370 


1585 


760 
955 
935 
1013 
642 
685 
733 


60 
160 


1645 


140 






2668 
1870 


Gordon or Fifth 

Salt 


371 


1700 






372 


(1685) 












372A 


1943 


165 1 

218 

178 

92 


(none) 




2460 


16 


2885 
3007 
2302 
3200 




373 


1492 




374 


1460 


1638 
1705 


42 
102 






Big Injun 


375 


1613 






Big Injun 


376 













426 MINERAL EESOUBCES OF WIRT-BOANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

The following is the log of a well in the extreme north- 
eastern corner of Center district : 

N. E. Sommers No. 2 Well Record (C 259), Center District. 

Located at the Calhoun-Gilmer county line, two miles Northeast 
of Big Springs. Authority, South Penn Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 1215' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 1020 1020 

Little Dunkard sand 30 1050 

Unrecorded 72 1122 

Big Dunkard sand 18 1140 

Unrecorded 125 1265 

Gas sand 55 1320 

Unrecorded 50 1370 

First Salt sand 210 1580 

Unrecorded 95 1675 

Second Salt sand 65 1740 

Unrecorded 150 1890 

Maxton sand (gas, 1900') 60 1950 

Unrecorded 5 1955 

Little Lime 40 1995 

Big Lime 60 2055 

Keener sand (gas, 2055') 10 2065 

Big Injun sand 80 2145 

Unrecorded 364 2509 

Berea sand 7 2516 

Unrecorded to bottom 28 2544 

The well mouth is 140 to 150 feet above the crop of the 
Washington coal bed. 

The eleven following well records scattered over the Yel- 
low Creek field of Center district show that the Berea sand 
is the main oil horizon. Sometimes a showing of oil and gas 
is encountered in the Salt and Maxton sands: 

J. E. Snider No. 4 Well Record (C 262), Center District. 

Located one mile and a fourth North of Big Springs P. O. Au- 
thority, Carter Oil Co. Completed July 12, 1905. 

(Elevation = 990' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 400 400 

Coal, (Sewickley) 2 402 

Unrecorded 53 455 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Upper Pittsburg) 20 475 

Unrecorded 578 1053 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Big Dunkard) 37 1090 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL, SURVEY. 427 

Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 240 1330 

Sand, Salt ? (Second Cow Run) 90 1420 

Unrecorded 15 1435 

Salt sand 105 1540 

Unrecorded 85 1625 

Salt sand (gas, 1670') 55 1680 

Unrecorded 100 1780 

Maxton sand 45 1825 

Unrecorded 50 1875 

Cave 33 1908 

Big Lime 60 1968 

Big Injun sand 76 2044 

Unrecorded 361 2405 

Berea sand (oil and gas pay, 2421'-2438') 33 2438 

Unrecorded to bottom 3 2441 

The well starts almost flush with the crop of the Wash- 
ington coal bed, possibly lo to 25 feet below the level of the 
latter seam ; hence the 2 feet of coal at 400 feet evidently cor- 
relates with the Sewickley of the Monongahela series. The 
oil and gas pay is 17 feet thick and occurs in the bottom por 
tion of the Berea sand. 

E. E. Wilson No. i Well Record (C 264), Center District. 

Located on head of Leading creek, one mile and a half North- 
west of Big Springs. Authority, Carter Oil Co. Completed Dec. 10, 
1905. 

(Elevation — 975' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 1148 1148 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Burning Springs) 12 1160 

Unrecorded 70 1230 

Sand, Salt sand (Gas and Second Cow Run) 140 1370 

Unrecorded 60 1430 

Salt sand 40 1470 

Unrecorded 155 1625 

Salt sand 30 1655 

Unrecorded 137 1792 

Maxton sand ^ 50 1842 

Unrecorded 24 1866 

Cave 20 1886 

Big Lime 74 1960 

Big Injun sand 75 2035 

Unrecorded 90 2125 

Squaw sand 20 2145 

Unrecorded 247 2392 

Berea Grit sand 6 2398 

Unrecorded 342 2740 

Gordon sand 12 2752 

Unrecorded to bottom ". 175 2927 



428 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

The well starts 25 to 30 feet above the crop of the Wash- 
ington coal bed; hence the horizon of the Pittsburg coal be- 
longs at a depth of about 525 feet. The driller has made his 
usual mistake as to the Cow Run sand. The Gordon sand 
group does not appear to be productive of either oil or gas 
throughout the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area. 

L. G. Fluharty No. 4 Well Record (C 266), Center District. 

Located one mile Northwest of Big Springs. Authority, Carter 
Oil Co. Completed Aug. 11, 1905. 

(Elevation = 970' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 930 930 

Sand, Cow Run ? (First Cow Run) 20 950 

Unrecorded 350 1300 

Salt sand 200 1500 

Unrecorded 240 1740 

Maxton sand (water, 1760') 50 1790 

Unrecorded 43 1833 

Cave : 10 1843 

Big Lime 102 1945 

Big Injun sand (little gas, 1950') 75 2020 

Unrecorded 329 2349 

Berea Grit sand (oil and gas, 2367'-2375') 32 2381 

Unrecorded to bottom 3 2384 

The well starts 25 to 30 feet below the crop of the Wash- 
ington coal bed. A small gas show was encountered in the 
Big Injun sand. The oil pay occurs in the bottom portion of 
the Big Injun sand and is only 8 feet thick. 

L. G. Fluharty No. 2 Well Record (C 267), Center District. 

Located nine-tenths mile Northwest of Big Springs. Authority, 
Carter Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 1030' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 870 870 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Saltsburg) 20 890 

Unrecorded 100 990 

Sand, Cow Run ? (F^irst Cow Run) ' 15 1005 

Unrecorded 305 131C 

Salt sand . 350 1660 

Unrecorded 150 1810 

IVIaxton sand 35 1845 

Unrecorded 75 1920 

Big Lime 110 2030 

Big Injun sand 45 2075 

Unrecorded .326 2401 

Berea sand (oil, 2412'-2416', and 2420'-2431') 32 2433 

Unrecorded to bottom 2 2435 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 429 

The well starts about 25 feet above the horizon of the 
Washington coal bed. Two oil pays were struck in the 
Berea; the first, 4 feet thick, 11 feet below the top of the 
sand ; the second, 1 1 feet thick, 2 feet above the bottom of the 
sand. The initial production of the Berea sand wells in this 
field ranges from 5 to 100 barrels daily. The production of 
the large wells, however, falls ofT rapidly. 

L. G. Fluharty No. i Well Record (C 268), Center District. 

Located three-fourths mile Northwest of Big Springs. Authority, 
Carter Oil Company. Completed June 5, 1905. 

(Elevation = 995' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 820 820 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Saltsburg) 30 850 

Unrecorded 530 1380 

Second Cow Run sand 70 1450 

Unrecorded 285 1735 

Salt sand 35 1770 

Salt sand (gas, 1735') 32 1802 

Unrecorded 33 1835 

Maxton sand 58 1893 

Unrecorded 10 1903 

Big Lime 72 1975 

Keener sand 25 2000 

Big Injun sand 67 2067 

Unrecorded 306 2373 

Berea sand (oil, 2390'-2400') 30 2403 

Unrecorded to bottom 4 2407 

The well mouth is 10 to 15 feet below the horizon of the 
Washington coal bed. Gas was encountered in the Salt sand 
as well as oil in the Berea. The pay in the latter occurs in 
the bottom portion, as usual, and is 10 feet thick, 3 feet above 
the bottom of the sand. 

The following is the log of a gas well in the Salt sand, 
drilled near the head of Road run of Yellow creek by Court- 
ney & McDermott of Morgantown, W. Va. The top of the 
Berea sand in this region comes about 500 feet below the top 
of the Big Lime ; hence the Cornell well penetrated below the 
former horizon : 



430 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

John Cornell No. i Well Record (C 269), Center District. 

Located one mile North of Ayers. Authority, Courtney & Mc- 
Dermott. Completed Sept. 4, 1901. 

(Elevation = 825' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor 16 16 

Unrecorded 1084 1100 

Sand, Salt (Gas and Second Cow Run) 200 1300 

Coal, (Mercer) 8 1308 

Unrecorded 192 1500 

Salt sand (stray gas, 1510'-1525') 60 1560 

Unrecorded 140 1700 

Maxton sand 40 1740 

Unrecorded 13 1753 

Little Lime 45 1798 

Unrecorded 2 1800 

Big Lime 90 1890 

Big Injun 30 1920 

Lime and sand shells 130 2050 

Slate 75 2125 

Black shale and slate 125 2250 

Gray sand and slate to bottom 84 2334 

10" casing, 250 feet; 6%" casing, 1800 feet. 

The well starts about 120 feet below the Washington 
coal. 

The following well record was published by I. C. White 
on pages 395-396 of Vol. II of the W. Va. Geol. Survey re- 
ports. The Washington coal-Big Lime interval in this region 
is about 1925 feet; hence the well starts about 270 feet be- 
low the Washington coal : 

Jackson No. i Well Record, Center District. 

Located on Yellow creek, near Ayers P. O. Authority, Hon. J. M. 
Guffey, Pittsburg, Pa. 

Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 45 

Sand, (Arnoldsburg) 15 60 

Red rock 15 75 

Lime 15 90 

Slate 15 105 

Lime 10 115 

Red rock 20 135 

Slate ••.■•• 85 220 

Red rock HI 331 

Shell 5 336 

Red rock 20 356 

Slate 10 366 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 431 



Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Sand, white (Minshall) 15 381 

Red rock 71 452 

Sand, white (Murphy) 23 475 

Slate • 10 485 

Lime 20 505 

Red rock 10 515 

Sand, white (Grafton) 45 560 

Lime 10 570 

Red rock 122 692 

Slate 53 745 

Sand 1 40 785 

Slate )■ (Big Dunkard) 30 815 

Sand I 15 830 

Slate 10 840 

Sand, (Burning Springs) 20 860 

Broken lime 35 895 

Sand, (Gas and Second Cow Run) 200 1095 

Black shale 40 1135 

Sand 30 1165 

White lime 10 1175 

Black shale •. 34 1209 

White sand 26 1235 

Slate and shell 50 1285 

Lime 20 1305 

Sand 25 1330 

Slate • 30 1360 

Lime 15 1375 

Slate and shale 90 1465 

Sand 25 1490 

Slate 10 1500 

Sand 30 1530 

Lime 10 1540 

Red rock 20 1560 

Slate 10 1570 

Lime 20 1590 

Sand, (IVIaxton) 30 1620 

Little Lime 25 1645 

Slate 10 1655 

"Big Lime" 70 1725 

"Big Injun" 45 1770 

White slate 40 1810 

Slate and shell 270 2080 

Black shale 26 2106 

Berea sand . 12 2118 

Slate, black 5 2123 

Slate and shell 246 2369 

Slate and shell to bottom 73 2442 

"As will be perceived, no coal whatever is recorded from this 
well, but it is possible that the black shale struck at 1095 feet may hold 
the coal reported in the Cornell well by Courtney & McDermott, since 

the bottom of this stratum (1135) comes 590 feet above the top of 
the Big Injun Oil sand, or exactly the same as the top of the eight-foot 

coal in the Cornell farm well, so that there may be un-noted by the 

drillers, a coal bed of good thickness masked In the forty feet of 
black shale in question." 



432 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

The detailed log of the John Wilson No. 3 well (C 274) 
also shows the absence of the Pottsville coal of the Cornell 
well (C 269). 

F. M. Depue No. i Well Record (C 271), Center District. 

Located on Yellow creek, one-half mile West of Ayers. Author- 
ity, Lowther-Kaufman Oil & Coal Co. 

(Elevation = 715' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 2105 2105 

Berea sand (oil and gas, 2117') to bottom 23 2128 

13" casing, 40 feet; 6%" casing, 1575 feet; production, 100 bbls. 
per day. 

James Metz^ No. i Well Record (C 272), Center District. 

Located on Yellow creek, one-half mile West of Ayers. Author- 
ity, Lowther-Kaufman Oil & Coal Co. 

(Elevation = 720' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 2111 2111 

Berea sand (oil pay at 2}iO') 

Unrecorded to bottom 39 2150 

125-barrel natural, January, 1901; 15-barrel June, 1904. 

Susannah Taylor No. 6 Well Record (C 273), Center District. 

Located on Spring fork of Yellow creek, one-fourth mile East 
of Ayers P. O. Authority, Lowther-Kaufman Oil & Coal Co. Com- 
pleted Aug. 13, 1908. 

(Elevation = 745' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor 14 14 

Unrecorded 1501 1515 

Maxton sand (show of black oil, 1519'; oil pay, 1530') 27 1542 

Unrecorded to bottom 3 1545 

12-bbl. well. 

The well mouth is about 275 feet below the horizon of 
the Washington coal bed; hence the oil pay occurs in the 
Maxton sand. The Washington coal-Big Lime interval in 
this region should be about 1925 feet. 



'W. Va. Geological Survey, Vol. I (A), page 395. 




PLATE XIV. (a)— Oil Wells along the Little Kanawha River, Calhoun 
County. 




PLATE XIV. (b)^View Showing the Court House at Grantsville, Calhoun 
County. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 433 

John Wilson No. 3 Well Record (C 274), Center Dictrict. 

Located on Spring fork of Yellow creek, one mile and a fourth 
East of Ayers. Authority, Godfrey L. Cabot. 

(Elevation = 880' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor ' 10 10 

Red rock 45 55 

Sand, Arnoldsburg 70 125 

Slate and shells 95 220 

Sand, (Upper Pittsburg) 40 260 

Red rock 85 345 

Lime and sand 50 395 

Slate and shells 55 450 

Red rock 45 495 

Slate 60 555 

Sand, ( M urphy) 60 615 

Red rock 75 690 

Slate and shells 80 770 

Slate 35 805 

Sand, (Big Dunkard) 35 840 

Slate 60 900 

Sand, (Burning Springs) 30 930 

Slate 40 970 

Sand, (Gas sand) 125 1095 

Slate 65 1160 

Sand, (Second Cow Run) 75 1235 

Slate and shells 45 1280 

Sand 50 1330 ' 

Shale 50 1380 

Lime 20 1400 

Slate 10 1410 

Salt sand 75 1485 

Shale 25 1510' 

Lime 20 1530 

Slate 45 1575 

Sand 20 1596 

Slate and shells 40 1635 

Slate 45 1680 

Lime 25 1705 

Slate 15 1720 

• Big Lime 80 1800 

Big Injun 60 1860 

Slate 244 2104 

Unrecorded 35 2139 

Berea sand (oil pay,2164'-2169') 38 2177 

Unrecorded to bottom 1 2178 

10" casing, 140 feet; 8%" casing, 810 feet. 

The well starts about 220 feet below the horizon of the 

Washington coal bed, or 270 feet above the horizon of the 

Pittsburg seam ; hence the several identifications in paren- 
theses by the writer. 
28 



434 MINERAL RESOURCES OP WIRT-ROANE-CAliHOUN AREA. 

James Wilson No. i Wdl Record (C 275), Center District. 

Located on Yellow Creek, one-third mile Southeast of Big 
Springs. Authority, Carter Oil Company. 

(Elevation = 795' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 740 740 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Big Dunkard) 30 770 

Unrecorded 48 818 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Burning Springs) 60 878 

Unrecorded 237 1115 

Salt sand 25 1140 

Unrecorded i 90 1230 

Salt sand 55 1285 

Unrecorded 177 1462 

Salt sand 35 1497 

Unrecorded 6 1503 

Maxton sand (gas, 1505'-1510') to bottom 17 1520 

The well mouth is about 300 feet below the horizon of 
the Washington coal bed. It is a fair gasser from the Max- 
ton sand. 

Southeast up the structural slope several gas wells have 
been drilled on the waters of Big Root and Leafbank runs. 
Godfrey L. Cabot of Boston, Mass., furnished the following 
interesting data about the Frank Wilson No. i well (C 282), 
near the head of Leafbank run : 

Frank Wilson No. i Well Record (C 282), Center District. 

Located on Leafbank run, two and one-half miles North of Grants- 
ville. Authority, Godfrey L. Cabot. 

(Elevation = 785' B-A. T.) Feet. 

Well came in June 6th. 1" in 8^/4" casing. 

Conductor 13 

10" casing 215 

8%" casing 800 

Top of Salt sand 1375 

First gas at 1455 

Last gas at 1475 

Total depth 1515 

8%" hole when finished; 10" casing all pulled. 

"Gas stopped in 1907 by reason of a cave-in. In April, 1908, we 
cleaned out this cave, revived the gas in the Salt sand and drilled 
it down, getting more gas in the Big Lime, so that they could not pour 
water down the hole, but had to lower it in a bailer and it sometimes 
blew it out of the bailer. They found gas in an excessively hard 
rock in the bottom of the Salt sand. They set the 6%" in the 
break of the Salt sand and took this lower streak of Salt sand gas 
out of the 6%". At ' the pencil cave they put in three joints of 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 435 

5 3-16" and drilled to the bottom through this. In cleaning out 
this well, we had trouble getting the 6%" casing down on account of 
the cave. We had to lower it as far as it would go and clean out 
ahead with the tools as far as we could and then lower casing again, 
which we had to do three different times before we got bottom. When 
we got the hole cleaned to the bottom, the gas seemed to be the 
same as it was when I drilled the well. The casing was standing on 
an elevator at that time about sixty feet above the sand, but the hole 
was caving so fast that it was not possible to pull it out or put a 
packer in of any kind and the only thing to do was to set it on the 
bottom and let the gas flow between the 6%" and 8^" casing till the 
well was drilled down and then perforate it from the inside with the 
tools if necessary. 

"When we set the casing on the bottom, all of the gas came out- 
. side between the casing and came good and plenty and seemed to 
come very freely. You could not drop a feather down the 6" hole. We 
then started to drill and had made about 3 feet of 6" hole in good 
open sand and the gas came through out of the 6" hole, and you could 
drop the feather down between the casing, and the flow was good and 
strong. Whether we got any more gas there or not, we could not say. 
The opening was good and the gas seemed to come stronger and con- 
tinued to do so all the time we were drilling down. It certainly 
gave a natural flow through the sand into the six inch hole and let 
it away from the cave for all time. There was no gas come between 
the casing which we were drilling, and if there should ever be any, 
it all would go into the line, as the well is capped from the 8". 
There is no cave in the well that can affect any of the gas and the 
hole will remain clean to the bottom if it stands 10 years. The only 
trouble is the oil, — the well should be rodded and pumped once or 
twice a week and you will get all the gas from all the sands. There 
is very little Injun gas and what there is came in with the oil. Don't 
think there is enough Big Injun gas to flow the well from the bottom 
even if it was packed." 

"Oct. 1, 1908 — Amount of casing in well: 8%", 700 feet; 6%", 
1515 feet; 5 3-16" for trimmer to cover pencil cave, 48 feet. 

"First gas got in Salt sand at 1475 feet. 

"Through at 1518 feet equals 43 feet of sand. 

"Got gas in Lime at 1605 feet, equals 10 feet of pay. 

"Got oil and light gas in Injun, 1776 feet, equals 20 feet pay. 

"Finished well at 1811 feet through sand. 

"Made about 2,500,000 cubic feet of gas daily." 

J. S. Silcott No. I Well Record (C 286), Center District- ■ 

Located on Kanawha river at Carbon Mill, one mile West of 
Grantsville. Authority, G. L. Cabot. 

(Elevation = 670' B-A. T.) " Thickness. Total, 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 650 650 

Lime 50 700 

Sand, (Gas and Second Cow Run) (gas, 750') f .265 965 

Limestone 17 982 

Sand 48 1030 

Slate 15 1045 

Limestone 25 1070 

Sand, Salt 85 1155 



436 MINERAL EESOUBCES OF WlBT-ROANB-CALiHOUN AREA. 

Thickness. Total. 
Feet. Feet. 

Black slate 35 1190 

Sand, Salt 125 1315 

Slate and limestone 45 1360 

Lime shells and sand (salt water, 1420') 140 1500 

Big Lime 135 1635 

White slate to bottom ! .126 1761 

13" drive pipe, 54 feet; 10" casing, 145 feet; 8%" casing, 650 feet. 

The well starts about 450 feet below the horizon of the 
Washington coal bed, or 50 feet above the horizon of the 
Pittsburg seam ; hence the gas flow at 750 feet evidently oc- 
curs in the top portion of the Gas sand. 

Allen Hardman No. i Well Record (C 288), Center District. 

Located on the Little Kanawha river, two and one-fourth miles 
due West of Grantsville. Authority, J. M, Guffey. Drilled in 1895-6. 

(Elevation = 690' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded (water, 120') 1335 1335 

Salt sand (oil show, 1380'; salt water, 1400') 200 1535 

Unrecorded (oil show in lime, 1597') 117 1652 

Big Injun sand (break of lime, 1674' and gas show in 

lime, 1693') 48 1700 

Lime 4 1704 

Slate to bottom 96 1800 

In the extreme western portion of Center district there 
occurs a pool of several oil wells along both banks of the 
Little Kanawha river. The 3 following logs of wells in this 
field show the oil and gas horizons in this region : 

Allen Hardman No. i Well Record (C 289), Center District, 

. Located on the east bank of Little Kanawha river, one mile and 
a half South of Brooksville. Authority, Carter Oil Co. Completed 
December 17, 1901. 

(Elevation = 670' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 890 890 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Gas sand) (light gas, 890') 100 990 

Unrecorded 350 1340 

Salt sand 280 1620 

Big Lime 70 1690 

Unrecorded 5 1695 

Keener sand 35 1730 

Unrecorded 45 1775 

Big Injun sand (light gas, 1785') 20 1795 

Unrecorded 335 2130 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 437 

Thickness. Total. 
Feet. Feet 

Berea sand, hard 8 2138 

Unrecorded 232 2370 

Gordon sand, shell — 2370 

Unrecorded to bottom 170 2540 

The well mouth is about 350 feet below the horizon of 
the Washington coal bed. A flow of gas vvas encountered in 
both the Gas and Big Injun sands- The log shows that the 
Gordon sand group is represented by only a shell in this por- 
tion of the State. 

Lewis Bennett No. 2 Well Record (C 296), Center District. 

Located at Center-Sheridan district line, two miles South of 
Brooksville. Authority, Potomac Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 1080' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total 

Feet. Feet. 

Surface , 30 30 

Black shale • • 165 195 

Red shale 56 251 

Black shale and limestone • • 54 305 

Sand, Pittsburg ? (Sewickley) 45 350 

Unrecorded 380 730 

Sand, "Hurry Up" (Murphy 25 755 

Unrecorded 175 930 

Sand, Dunkard ? (First Cow Run) 15 945 

Unrecorded 210 1155 

Sand, Second Cow Run ? (Gas sand) 60 1215 

Unrecorded 5 1220 

Sand, Tionesta ? (gas, 1340'), (Second Cow Run) 125 1345 

Unrecorded 235 1580 

Salt sand. Upper 30 1610 

Unrecorded 102 1712 

Salt sand. Middle (gas at 1738', estimated 750,000 ft.; 

oil at 1856', 5 bbl.) 153 1865 

Unrecorded 13 1878 

Maxton sand (salt water, 4 bbl. per hour; oil show, 

25 bbl. per day) 85 1963 

Unrecorded 2 1965 

Little Lime 25 1990 

Pencil cave 5 1995 

Big Lime — 

Unrecorded 75 2070 

Keener and Big Injun sand to bottom (not through sand; 

gas at 2100'-2130') 75 2145 

"Rock pressure, 888 lbs.; stopped drilling on account of gas." 

The well starts about 50 feet above the level of the Wash- 
ington coal bed. A strong flow of gas was encountered in the 
Salt sand as well as in the Big Injun. 



438 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIBT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Pell-Greathouse No. 2 Wdl Record (C 297), Center District. 

Located on the east bank of Little Kanawha river, one mile 
South of Brooksville. Authority, Carter Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 685' B-A, T.) Top. 

Feet. Feet. 

Big Lime 1560 

Berea sand (gas, 2062'; oil, 2073'-208r) 2059 

Total depth 2080 

SHERIDAN DISTRICT. 

Sheridan district occupies the extreme northern point of 
•Calhoun county. Its area is traversed by two structural folds; 
viz.. the Big Moses anticline along the western border, and 
the Burchfield syncline across the central portion. The east- 
ern part of the district is situated on the western slope of the 
Arches Fork anticline, and there we find the southwest exten- 
sion of the Yellow Creek oil field. Within the area of the 
district several dry holes have been drilled on the waters of 
Leading creek, and along the banks of the Little Kanawha 
below the mouth of Yellow creek. The eight following well 
records, arranged from northeast to southwest, show the oil 
and gas horizons for the southwestern end of the Yellow 
Creek field, as well as other data of interest: 

Atwell Taylor No. i Well Record (C 314), Sheridan District, 

Located on Yellow creek, one-fourth mile East of Rhoda. Au- 
thority, Lowther-Kaufman Oil & Coal Co. Completed March, 1902. 

(Elevation = 707' L-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 2118 2118 

Berea sand (oil and gas, 2134') 30 2148 

The well mouth is about 270 feet below the level of the 
Washington coal bed. Many of the records, kept by the 
operating companies in 'this field, are very meagre, as shown 
by the above log. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 439 

Bennett Heirs No. 2 Well Record (C 313), Sheridan District. 

Located north of Yellow creek and one-fourth mile North of 
Rhoda P. O. Authority, Yellow Creek Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 760' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor 16 16 

Unrecorded 1614 1630 

Big Lime — 1630 

Unrecorded 520 2150 

Berea sand 27 2177 

10" casing, 250 feet; 8%" casing, 940 feet; 6%" casing, 1630 feet. 

The well starts about 200 feet below the horizon of the 
Washington coal, and 15 feet above the Uniontown coal, crop- 
ping near the well. 

Thos. K. Farrell No. 8 Well Record (C 312), Sheridan 

District. 

Located on Yellow creek, one-fourth mile Southwest of Rhoda 
P. O. Authority, Lowther-Kaufman Oil & Coal Co. Completed Nov. 
5, 1904. 

(Elevation = 690' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 2100 2100 

Berea sand (oil, 2119') 28 2128 

The well mouth is about 270 feet below the level of the 
horizon of the Washington coal bed. As in Center district, 
the oil pay occurs in the bottom portion of the Berea sand. 
The latter does not appear quite so thick as farther to the 
northeast. 

J. W. Rogers No. i Well Record (C 311), Sheridan District. 

Located on Yellow creek, one mile and three-fourths Northeast 
of Brooksville. Authority, Guaranty Oil Co. Completed June 30, 1905. 

Thickness. Total. 
Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 840 840 

Sand, Little Dunkard 35 875 

Unrecorded 497 1372 

Salt sand (gas, 1375'; water, 1535') 178 1550 

Unrecorded 121 1671 

Maxton sand 10 1681 

Pencil cave 2 1683 

Big Lime (some gas; oil, 1787'-1794') Ill 1794 

Big Injun sand 61 1855 

Unrecorded 332 2187 

Berea sand (gas, 2198'; oil pay, 2202'-2212') 311/2 22181/2 

10" casing, 210 feet; SV4," casing, 840 feet; 6%" casing, 1700 feet. 



440 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

The w.ell starts about 150 feet below the Washington coal 
bed. A flow of gas was encountered at three different hori- 
zons ; viz., Salt sand, Big Lime, and Berea sand. Also oil 
was struck in both the Big Lime and the Berea sand. The 
initial production of the well was about 80 bbls. daily. 

J. W. Rogers No. 2 Well Record (C 310), Sheridan District. 

Located on Yellow creek, one mile and three-fourths Northeast 

of Brooksville. Authority, Guaranty Oil Co. Completed Sept. 2, 1905. 

(Elevation = 707' L-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor 28 28 

Unrecorded 1262 1290 

First Salt sand 95 1385 

Unrecorded 13 1398 

Second Salt sand (gas, 1414'; water, 1452') 147 1545 

Unrecorded 10 1555 

Maxton sand 25 1580 

Unrecorded 16 1596 

Little Lime .' 15 1611 

Unrecorded 4 1615 

Big Lime (oil, 1633') 82 1697 

Big Injun sand (gas, 1699') 83 1780 

Unrecorded 328 2108 

Berea sand (light oil show) 21% 2129^^ 

Unrecorded to bottom 37% 2167 

10" casing, 158 feet; 8^4" casing, 778 feet; 6%" casing,"^1630 feet. 

The well starts about 250 feet below the level of the 
^^'ashington coal bed- The Berea sand appears much thinner 
than usual in this field and only a light show of oil was en- 
countered at the latter horizon. The well made one barrel 
of dark oil daily from the Big Lime, 18 feet below the top of 
the latter. A flow of gas was struck in both the Salt and Big 
Injun sands. 

Nutter Webb No. 5 Well Record (C 309), Sheridan District. 

Located one mile and three-fourths due Bast of Brooksville. Au- 
thority, Lowther-Kaufman Oil & Coal Co. Completed Feb. 10, 1906. 

(Elevation = 1010' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet, 

Unrecorded 2405 2405 

Berea sand (oil and gas, 2422'-2433') to bottom 34 2439 

The well starts 25 to 30 feet above the Washington coal 
bed. The initial production of the well was 65 barrels daily, 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 441 

mostly from the Berea sand, but this had fallen to only 3 bar- 
rels daily, mostly from the Big Lime, in September, 1909, ac- 
cording to W. B. White, foreman for the Low^ther-Kaufman 
Oil & Coal Co. The oil pay occurs near the top of the Big 
Lime, and sometimes this pay is shut off in the wells by the 
casing intended to shut oflF the Pencil cave immediately above 
the Big Lime. 

This oil pool continues on southwest in Sheridan district 
and about 25 producing oil wells within the latter area occur 
on the south side of the Little Kanawha river, immediately 
south of Brooksville- The two following records are from 
wells in this portion of the field: 

E. A. Silcott No. 6 Well Record (C 299), Sheridan District. 

Located three-fourths mile South of Brooksville. Authority, 
South Penn Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 965' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 1120 1120 

Sand. Big Dunkard ? (Burning Springs) 47 1167 

Gas sand 48 1215 

Unrecorded 143 1358 

Salt sand 552 1910 

Big Lime 90 2000 

Big Injun sand (390?) 2390 

Berea sand (oil, 2405') to bottom 29 2419 

The well starts 10 to 25 feet above the level of the Wash- 
ington coal bed. The oil pay occurs in the bottom portion 
of the Berea sand. An error has evidently been made in re- 
cording 390 feet of Big Injun sand, since the latter in this 
region is quite generally less than 100 feet in thickness. 

Pell-Greathouse No. i Well Record (C 298), Sheridan 

District. 

Located on the west bank of Little Kanawha river, one mile 
South of Brooksville. Authority, Carter Oil Co. Completed Decem- 
ber 21, 1905. 

Top. 

Feet. Feet. 

Salt sand (show of oil, gas, and water, 1550'-1565') 1410 

Berea sand (oil and gas pay, 2206'-2214') 2189 

Total depth 2216 

The well starts 180 to 200 feet below the level of the 



442 MINERAL RESOURCES OP WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Washington coal bed. Oil and gas were struck in both the 
Salt and Berea sands- A dry hole was drilled at the mouth 
of Lemuels run on the Ferrell land (C 301), and another far- 
ther up the latter stream on the W. B. Paden land (C 302). 
In the southern point of Sheridan district, a dry hole (C 303) 
was drilled on the Camden Summers land near Rattlesnake 
knob on the head of Annamoriah run. The following is the 
record of a dry hole on the south side of the Little Kanawha 
river on the peninsula formed by the "Big Bend" of the latter 
stream : 

J. P. Knight No. i Well Record (C 304), Sheridan District. 

Located on Kanawha river, one mile and three-fourths Northeast 
of Annamoriah. 

(Elevation = 670' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 800 800 

Sand, (Big Dunkard and Burning Springs) 90 890 

Unrecorded 360 1250 

Sand, Gas ? (Second Cow Run) 90 1340 

Unrecorded 44 1384 

Salt sand 196 1580 

Big Lime 50 1630 

Big Injun sand 80 1710 

Unrecorded to bottom 458 2168 

The well starts about 225 feet below the horizon of the 
Washington coal bed; hence the sand at 800 feet represents 
both the bottom portion of the Big Dunkard, and the Burning 
Springs. No Berea sand is recorded in the log, although the 
well evidently penetrated 50 to 75 feet below the horizon of 
the latter. 

The following is the record of a light gas well located 
near the axis of the Burchfield syncline: 

W. H. Watson No. i Well Record (C 316), Sheridan District. 

Located on Bell run of Leading creek, one mile and three-fourths 
Northeast of Industry. Authority, Southern Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 705' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor 16 16 

Unrecorded 1429 1445 

Sand, Gas ? (Salt) 7 1452 

Unrecorded 35 1487 

Salt sand (first gas show, 1495'; second, 1565'-1585') 

to bottom 183 1670 

10" casing, 134 feet; 814" casing, 794 feet; 6%" casing, 1301 feet. 

"Not enough gas to pay." 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 443 

The well starts about i6o feet below^ the level of the 
Washington coal bed. The gas was struck in the Salt sand, 
but the pressure was so light that the well was abandoned. 

The following is the log of a well in the extreme northern 
part of Sheridan district that starts 25 to 30 feet below the 
level of the Washington coal bed : 

B. S. Raybuck No. i Well Record (C 319), Sheridan District. 

Located on Two Mile run of Leading creek, one and one-half 
mile North of Freed P. O. Authority, Godfrey L. Cabot. Completed 
in 1903. 

(Elevation = 835' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 1150 1150 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Gas sand) 30 1180 

Unrecorded 270 1450 

Sand, Gas (Salt) 31 1481 

Unrecorded 159 1640 

Salt sand 

"Good show of oil in Salt sand, light in color, 1658'-1675'. Second 
pay looked like 20 to 25 bbl. well, but was not handled right and 
choked off by water. Salt water, 1681 feet. Shot with three shells, 
20, 30 and 20 qts. with 6^^ feet of anchor. Not enough gas to run a 
boiler." 

About one mile due south of the well a dry hole (C 318) was 
drilled on the W. C. Wilson farm, and another about one-half 
mile up Threemile run of Leading creek. On the head of Bell 
run of Leading creek, 2^ miles northeast from Industry P. O., 
a dry hole (C 317) was drilled on the land of Samuel Both- 
man. 

LEE DISTRICT. 

Lee district occupies the central and western portions of 
Calhoun county. Its principal structural features are the 
Burning Springs and Arches Fork anticlines, the Richardson 
basin, and the Robinson syncline. The largest developed oil 
pool within the area of the district occurs near Richardson 
and northeast on the waters of Little Rowles and Rowles runs. 
The oil in this pool is found mostly in the Berea sand, with 
a small production from the Big Lime. Northward near the 
head and mouth of Little creek of West Fork river, a few light 
oil wells from the Salt sand were drilled several years ago- 
Southeast from the mouth of Little creek for 5 miles to Rattle- 



444 MINERAL RESOURCES OP WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

snake knob there occurs a wide structural terrace, hav- 
ing an average width of almost 2 miles. In view of the oil 
showing of the Salt sand wells above on Little creek, it is quite 
probable that an oil pool occurs on this terrace northwest from 
Rattlesnake knob along the Sheridan-Lee district line to a 
point three-fourths mile due south of Annamoriah P. O., 
thence west to the mouth of Bear fork of Little creek. At any 
rate, the structural conditions are favorable for the accumula- 
tion of an oil pool. The writer was unable to obtain the rec- 
ord of the wells near the mouth of Little creek, but the two 
following logs are from wells near the head of the latter 
stream : 



Samuel Cooper No. i Well Record (C 323), Lee District. 



Located on Little creek, two and one-fourth miles due South of 
Annamoriah. Authority, Barnsdale and Marshall. Completed May 5, 
1903. 

(Elevation = 815' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor 16 16 

Unrecorded 859 875 

Sand, First Cow Run ? (Big Dunkard, Burning Springs, 

and Gas sands) 225 1100 

Unrecorded 400 1500 

Sand, Gas ? (Salt) 30 1530 

Unrecorded 28 1558 

Salt sand (oil, estimated 5 bbl., 1575'; water, 1575') 32 1590 

Unrecorded 10 1600 

IVIaxton sand 15 1615 

Unrecorded 80 1695 

Big Lime 80 1775 

Big Injun sand 25 1800 

Unrecorded 424 2224 

Berea sand (enough gas to run 1 boiler) 10 2234 

Unrecorded to bottom 6 2240 

13" casing, 53 feet; 10" casing, 370 feet; 8" casing, 875 feet; 6%" 
casing, 1324 feet. 

"Shot in Salt sand with 80 qts. Could not handle water with 
2" tubing. Five barrel well in Salt sand." 

The well starts about 160 feet below the level of the 
Washington coal bed. A light flow of gas was encountered 
in the Berea sand which has thinned down here to only to 
feet in thickness. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 445 

Samuel Cooper No- 2 Well Record (C 324), Lee District. 

Located on Little creek, two and one-half miles South of Anna- 
moriah. Authority, Barnsdale and Marshall. Completed January 4, 
1904. 

(Elevation = 835' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor 10 10 

Unrecorded 840 850 

Sand, Cow Run (Big Dunkard and Burning Springs) 150 1000 

Unrecorded 542 1542 

Gas ? sand (Salt) 23 1565 

Unrecorded 28 1593 

Salt sand (oil, 3 bbl., 1605'; water, 1608') to bottom.. .. 44 1637 

10" casing, 300 feet; 8" casing, 850 feet; 6%" casing, 1220 feet. 

"Shot in Salt sand with 40 qts." 

The well starts about 150 feet below the level of the 
Washington coal bed; hence the 150 feet of sand at 850 feet 
in depth evidently represents both the Big Dunkard and 
Burning Springs. The drillers may have failed to record their 
parting slates. 

The following is the log of a dry hole drilled by the Car- 
ter Oil Company 2 miles southwest from the above well, one- 
fifth mile above the mouth of Barnes run : 



Abe H. Jones No. i Well Record (C 325), Lee District. 



Located on the east bank of West Fork river, near the mouth of 

Barnes run, two miles Northwest of Richardson. Authority, Carter 
Oil Co. Completed August 31, 1907. 

(Elevation = 660' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 788 788 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Burning Springs) 34 822 

Unrecorded 86 908 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Gas and Second Cow Run sands) 163 1071 

Unrecorded 170 1241 

Salt sand (water, 1291') 23 1264 

Unrecorded 56 1320 

Salt sand 130 1450 

Unrecorded 35 1485 

Maxton sand 10 1495 

Unrecorded 51 1546 

Big Lime 76 1622 

Keener sand 17 1639 

Big Injun sand 66 1705 

Unrecorded 385 2090 

Berea sand 30 2120 

Unrecorded to bottom 73 2193 



446 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

The well mouth is about 300 feet below the level of the 
Washington coal bed. Both the Keener and Big Injun sands 
are represented. 

The three following logs are from wells located near the 
axis of the Burning Springs anticline, immediately northeast 
from the oil field on Rowles run : 

Wm. Greathouse No. i Well Record (C 326), Lee District 

Located on Little Rowles run, two miles Northeast of Richard- 
son. Authority, Carter Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 835' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 995 995 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Burning Springs) 30 1025 

Unrecorded 490 1515 

Salt sand 30 1545 

Unrecorded 30 1575 

Salt sand 130 1705 

Unrecorded 30 1735 

Big Lime 145 1880 

Big Injun sand 10 1890 

Unrecorded 363 2253 

Berea sand (poor and broken; small gas at 2254') 12 2265 

Unrecorded to bottom 56 2321 

The well starts 140 to 150 feet below the level of the 
Washington coal bed. The Berea sand is only 12 feet thick. 
A light flow of gas was encountered at the latter horizon. 

J. R. Pell No. I Well Record (C 327), Lee District. 

Located between Little Rowles and* Big Rowles runs, one-half 
mile North of Donze. Authority, Carter Oil Co. Completed May 5, 
1905. 

(Elevation = 1095' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 970 970 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Saltsburg) 15 985 

Unrecorded 80 1065 

Cow Run sand (First Cow Run) 15 1080 

Unrecorded 520 1600 

Salt sand 45 1645 

Unrecorded 5 1650 

Salt sand (water, 1610' and 1660') 110 1760 

Unrecorded 10 1770 

Coal (No. 2 Gas ?) 5 1775 

Unrecorded „ 55 1830 

Cave 10 1840 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL. SURVEY. 447 

Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Big Lime 80 1920 

Big Injun sand 70 1990 

Unrecorded 365 2355 

Berea sand 6 2361 

Unrecorded to bottom 39 2400 

The Well starts about 120 feet above the level of the 
Washington coal bed- The 5 feet of coal, 65 feet above the 
top of the Big Lime is probably the same bed as recorded in 
the wells near Richardson in the edge of Roane county, and 
may correlate with the No. 2 Gas seam of the Kanawha series. 
Its interval in the above mentioned wells in Roane county, 
however, is 140 to 150 feet above the Big Lime. 

H. Riggs Heirs No. 2 Well Record (C 328), Lee District. 

Located on Hardman fork of Rowles run, one mile and a fourth 
Northeast of Donze. Authority, Carter Oil Co. Completed March 30, 
1907. 

(Elevation = 790' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 1007 1007 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Burning Springs and Gas sands). ... . 149 1156 

Unrecorded 254 1410 

Salt sand 52 1462 

Unrecorded 53 1515 

Salt sand (water, 1520') 85 1600 

Unrecorded 27 1627 

Maxton sand 26 1653 

Unrecorded 75 1728 

Big Lime 85 1813 

Keener sand (gas, 1818') 12 1825 

Unrecorded 15 1840 

Big Injun sand 35 1875 

Unrecorded 349 2224 

Berea sand 26 2250 

Unrecorded 45 2295 

The well starts about 150 feet below the level of the 
Washington coal bed. The Berea sand was barren, but a light 
flow of gas was struck in the Keener. The log fails to record 
the Pottsville coal mentioned above. 

Immediately southwest from the above wells there occurs 
a very prominent structural feature that the writer has 
named the "Richardson basin," an account of which is given 
on page 272 in the Chapter on Structure. Since the Berea 



448 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CAL.HOUN AREA. 

sand in this county is dry as regards water, the conditions 
are ideal, according to the "anticlinal theory", for the accumu- 
lation of a commercial pool of oil at that horizon in this por- 
tion of Lee district. The twelve following records from wells 
on Rowles run and the vicinity of Richardson contain much 
data of interest concerning this oil field: 

Rebecca Curry No. 5 Well Record (C 332), Lee District. 

Located on Rowles run at Donze P. O. Authority, Carter Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 741' L-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 207 207 

Sand (Sewickley) 20 227 

Unrecorded 513 740 

Cave 302 1042 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Gas sand) 30 1072 

Unrecorded 498 1570 

Salt sand 140 1710 

Unrecorded 10 1720 

Little Lime 15 1735 

Cave 15 1750 

Big Lime 165 1915 

Big Injun sand 15 1930 

Unrecorded 304 2234 

Berea sand (gas, 2236'; oil, 2256') to bottom 26 2260 

The well starts about 180 feet below the level of the 
Washington coal bed; hence the sands at 207 and 1042 feet 
represent the Sewickley and Gas, respectively. As in the Yel- 
low Creek field, the oil pay occurs in the bottom portion of 
the Berea sand. The gas pay, as it almost invariably does in 
any stratum, comes higher up in the sand, only 2 feet below 
the top. 

E. A. Fore No. 2 Well Record (C 333), Lee District- 
Located on Rowles run, one-fourth mile Southwest of Donze P. O. 
Authority, Carter Oil Co. Completed Feb. 13, 1904. 

(Elevation = 685' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 500 500 

Cave • 200 700 

Unrecorded 157 857 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Big Dunkard) 10 867 

Unrecorded 73 940 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Burning Springs) 5 945 

Unrecorded 543 1488 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 449 

Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Salt sand (oil show, 1495') 150 1638 

Unrecorded '..... 27 1665 

Cave 5 1670 

Big Lime 74 1744 

Big Injun sand 84 1828 

Unrecorded 364 2192 

Berea sand (oil and gas, 2204'-2212') to bottom 27 2219 

The well starts about 210 feet below the level of the 
Washington coal bed. The drillers here have made their 
usual mistake as to the "Cow Run" sand. A show of oil was 
struck in the Salt sand, but the main production of the well 
comes near the bottom portion of the Berea. 

Rebecca Curry No. 8 Well Record (C 334), Lee District. 

Located one-fourth mile Northwest of Donze. Authority, Carter 
Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 1060' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 1050 1050 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Big Dunkard) 40 1090 

Unrecorded 155 1245 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Gas sand) 30 1275 

Unrecorded 345 1620 

Salt sand 25 1645 

Unrecorded 181 1826 

Salt sand (water, 1880') 145 1971 

Unrecorded 4 1975 

Big Lime 140 2115 

Big Injun sand 15 2130 

Unrecorded 384 2514 

Berea sand (oil and gas pay, 2532'-2538') 28 2542 

Unrecorded to bottom 8 2550 

The well mouth is 135 to 140 feet above the level of the 
Washington coal bed. The Berea sand in this field ranges 
from 20 to 40 feet in thickness. The oil pay ranges from 5 to 
8 feet in thickness, and most generally comes in the bottom 
portion of the sand. 

Rebecca Curry No. 2 Well Record (C 335), Lee District. 

Located on Rowles run, one-half mile Southwest of Donze. Au- 
thority, Carter Oil Co. Completed October 15, 1903. 

(Elevation = 680' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 745 745 

Cave 200 945 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Burning Springs) 30 975 

29 



450 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 545' 1526 

Salt sand (water, 1525' and 1560') 90 1610 

Unrecorded 50 I66O 

Cave 5 1665 

Big Lime 160 1825 

Big Injun sand 15 i840 

Unrecorded 355 2195 

Berea sand (oil, 2214') 27 2222 

Unrecorded to bottom 8 2230 

The well mouth is about 200 feet below the level of the 
Washington coal' bed. As would be expected in such a struc- 
tural basin, plenty of water is encountered in the Salt sand. 

Rebecca Curry No. 16 Well Record (C 336), Lee District. 

Located on Rowles run, three-fourths mile Northeast of Rich- 
ardson. Authority, Carter Oil Co. Completed December 27, 1905. 

(Elevation = 780' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 900 900 

Sand, Cow Run (Big Dunkard) 10 910 

Unrecorded 92 1002 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Burning Springs) 30 1032 

Unrecorded 520 1552 

Salt sand (water, 1567') 160 1712 

Unrecorded 53 1765 

Cave 12 1777 

Big Lime ......145 1922 

Big Injun sand 15 1937 

Unrecorded 352 2289 

Berea sand (oil, 2306'-2314') 27 2316 

Unrecorded to bottom 3 2319 

10" casing, 445 feet; 8%" casing, 1092 feet; 6%" casing, 1805 feet. 

The well mouth is 90 to 100 feet below the level of the 
Washington coal bed. The Big Lime is much thicker than 
in the northern portion of Calhoun, and it even gets thicker 
southwest across Roane to the Walton region. 

S. C. Wright No. i Well Record (C 337), Lee District- 
Located on Rowles run, three-fourths mile North of Richardson. 
Authority, Carter Oil Co. Completed August 30, 1904. 

(Elevation = 660' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 425 425 

Cave 370 795 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Big Dunkard) 30 825 

Unrecorded 129 954 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Gas and Second Cow Run sands) 191 1145 

Unrecorded : 119 1264 

Salt sand 110 1374 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL, SURVEY. 451 

I 

Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet 

Unrecorded 48 1422 

Salt sand 16 1438 

Unrecorded 59 1497 

Salt sand (water, 1522') 50 1547 

Unrecorded 80 1627 

Maxton sand 41 1668 

Pencil cave 10 1678 

Big Lime 128 1806 

Big Injun sand 10 1816 

Unrecorded 349 2165 

Berea sand 5 2170 

Unrecorded to bottom 92 2262 

10" casing, 225 feet; 8%" casing, 960 feet; 6%" casing, 1678 feet. 
Dry hole. 

The well mouth is 210 to 220 feet below the level of the 
Washington coal bed. 

Delia Connally No. i Well Record (C 338), Lee District. 

Located one-third mile East of Richardson. Authority, Carter 
Oil Co. Completed October 20, 1906. 

(Elevation = 750' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 1030 1030 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Burning Springs) 20 1050 

Unrecorded 30 1080 

Sand.'Cow Run ? (Gas sand) 80 1160 

Unrecorded 280 1440 

Salt sand 25 1465 

Unrecorded 85 1550 

Salt sand (water, 1560') 100 1650 

Unrecorded 60 1710 

Maxton sand 10 1720 

Unrecorded 60 1780 

Big Lime 136 1916 

Unrecorded 4 1920 

Big Injun sand 18 1938 

Unrecorded 347 2285 

Berea sand (oil, 2299'-2304') 21 2306 

The well mouth is 90 to 100 feet below the level of the 
Washington coal bed. 

G. W. Bee No. i Well Record (C 339), Lee District. 

Located on West Fork river at Richardson. Authority, Carter 
Oil Co. Completed July 23, 1907. 

(Elevation = 672' L-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 860 860 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Big Dunkard) 30 890 

Unrecorded 85 97i 



452 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Gas sand) lOO 1075 

Unrecorded 287 1362 

Salt sand 53 1415 

Unrecorded 69 1484 

^alt sand (water, 1500') 108 1592 

Unrecorded 33 1625 

Maxton sand 10 1635 

Unrecorded 75 1710 

Big Lime 95 1805 

Big I njun sand 28 1838 

Unrecorded 379 2212 

Berea sand 14 2226 

Unrecorded to bottom 51 2277 

The well mouth is 190 to 200 feet below the level of the 
Washington coal bed. This is a dry hole, which fact is prob- 
ably accounted for by the sudden thinning down of the Berea 
sand, since it is surrounded on all sides, except the north, by 
wells producing oil from the latter sand. 

Mary Bee No. i Well Record, (C 340), Lee District. 

Located on West Fork river at Richardson. Authority, Carter 
Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 662' L-A. T.) Thicknesst Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 1190 1190 

Sand, Cow Run (Second Cow Run) 70 1260 

Unrecorded 280 1540 

Salt sand 20 1560 

Unrecorded 5 1565 

Salt sand (water, 1570') 95 1660 

Unrecorded 130 1790 

Big Lime .110 1900 

Unrecorded 10 1910 

Big Injun sand 23 1933 

Unrecorded 373 2306 

Berea sand (oil pay, 2322'-2330') 28 2334 

Unrecorded to bottom 1004 3338 



The well mouth is 116 feet (hand-level measurement) be- 
low the level of the base of the Mannington sandstone, or 185 
feet below the horizon of the Washington coal bed. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 453 

Mary Bee No. 2 Well Record (C 341), Lee District. 

Located at Richardson. Authority, Carter Oil Co, 

(Elevation = 670' L-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 994 994 

Coal, Pittsburg ? (Lower Freeport) 8 1002 

Sand, Cow Run (Gas sand) 40 1042 

Unrecorded 183 1225 

Sand, Salt ? (Second Cow Run) 33 1258 

Unrecorded 116 1374 

Salt sand 40 1414 

Unrecorded 221 1635 

Maxton sand 12 1647 

Unrecorded 47 1694 

Big Lime 105 1799 

Big Injun sand 47 1846 

Unrecorded 356 2202 

Berea sand (oil pay, 2216'-2224') 42 2244 

Unrecorded to bottom 1 2245 

The w^ell mouth is 108 feet (hand-level measurement) be- 
low the level of the base of the Mannington sandstone, or 180 
feet below the level of the Washington coal bed ; hence the 8 
feet of coal at 994 feet in depth represents the Lower Freeport 
and not the Pittsburg bed. The Pittsburg coal horizon belongs 
at a depth of about 300 feet in the well. The Berea sand is 
the thickest recorded in any of the logs of the wells obtained 
by the writer in this field, and the oil pay in this well occurs 
near the middle of the Berea. 

Meredith and Hassig No. 3 Well Record (C 342), Lee District. 

Located near West Fork river, three-fourths mile South of Rich- 
ardson. Authority, Carter Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 690' L-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 960 960 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Burning Springs) 30 990 

Unrecorded 33 1023 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Gas sand) . 143 1166 

Unrecorded 211 1377 

Salt sand 55 1432 

Unrecorded . . t 35 1467 

Salt sand (water, 1485') 78 1545 

Unrecorded 92 1637 

Maxton sand 15 1652 

Unrecorded 54 1706 

Big Lime 67 1773 

Big I njun sand 35 1808 

Unrecorded 438 2246 

Berea sand (oil, 2260'-2268') 24 2270 



454 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALiHOUN AREA. 

The well mouth is 150 to 160 feet below the level of the 
Washington coal bed. 

Meredith & Hassig No. i Well Record (C 343), Lee District. 

Located on West Fork river, one mile South of Richardson. Au- 
thority, Carter Oil Co. Completed September 3, 1906. 

(Elevation = 670' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 950 950 

Sand, Cow Run • ? (Burning Springs) 20 970 

Unrecorded 20 990 

Sand, Cow Run (Gas sand) 154 1144 

Unrecorded 226 1370 

Salt sand 30 1400 

Unrecorded 75 1475 

Salt sand 95 1570 

Unrecorded 112 1682 

Maxton sand 9 1691 

Unrecorded 10 1701 

Big Lime 119 1820 

Big Injun sand 40 1860 

Unrecorded 359 2219 

Berea sand (oil, 2232'-2240') 28 2247 

Unrecorded to bottom 3 2250 

The well mouth is 175 to 180 feet below the level of the 
Washington coal bed. 

The following is the record of a dry hole on the same 
farm. The Berea sand is only one-half as thick as in the last 
Well (C 343) above, the latter being distant barely one-half 
mile to the northwest- This decrease in thickness no doubt 
accounts for the Berea's being dry, even though the well is 
located in the low part of the basin : 

Meredith & Hassig No. 9 Well Record (C 344), Lee District. 

Located on West Fork river, one mile and a fourth South of 
Richardson. Authority, Carter Oil Co. 

(Elevation = 675' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 850 850 

Sand, Cow Run (Big Dunkard) 50 900 

Unrecorded 100 1000 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Gas sand) 162 1162 

Unrecorded 102 1264 

Salt sand 50 1314 

Unrecorded 168 1482 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 455 

Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Salt sand ' 138 1620 

Unrecorded 65 1685 

Maxton sand 45 1730 

Big Lime 120 1850 

Big Injun sand 40 1890 

Unrecorded 359 2249 

Berea sand 14 2263 

Unrecorded to bottom 61 2324 

The vv^ell starts 165 to 175 feet below the level of the 
Washington coal bed. 

The following is the log of a dry hole located 2 miles 
southeast from the southern extension of the Richardson oil 
pool : 

G. W. Starcher No. i Well Record (C 345), Lee District. 

Located on the east bank of Henrys fork, three-fourths mile 
South of Rocksdale P. O. Authority, South Penn Oil Co. Drilled in 
1899. 

(Elevation = 690' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 100 100 

Sand Bluff ? (Sewickley) 78 178 

Unrecorded 572 750 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Big Dunkard) 15 765 

Unrecorded 195 960 

Gas sand (Gas and Second Cow Run) 210 1170 

Slate 300 1470 

Salt sand 112 1582 

Slate 46 1628 

Maxton sand 48 1676 

Black slate and sand 42 1718 

Big Injun sand 122 1840 

Slate 160 2000 

Berea sand ? 25 2025 

Slate 669 2694 

Gordon sand, lime-shell-sands 50 2744 

Slate to bottom 54 2798 

The well mouth is about 250 feet below the level of the 
Washington coal bed. The Big Lime appears to have been 
replaced by black slate and sand, while the Big Injun is the 
thickest recorded in any of the wells yet published for Cal- 
houn county. The sand at 2000 feet cannot represent the 
Berea as given by the driller, since the latter belongs about 
2400 feet below the Washington coal bed in this region- It 



456 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

may possibly correlate with the Squaw division of the original 
Big Injun. The well also penetrates the Gordon group of 
sands and the latter are shown to be quite shelly in this por- 
tion of Calhoun county. 

About 2 miles southwest of Mlt. Zion P. O., two light gas 
wells have been drilled on Barnes run on the crest of the 
Arches Fork anticline in the low point of the fold. The fol- 
lowing log of one of the w'ells shows that gas was encountered 
in both the Big Dunkard and Big Injun sands, also a show- 
ing of coal at the Elk Lick horizon : 

G. W. Hardman No. i Well Record (C 346), Lee District. 

Located on Barnes run, one mile and a half West of Mt. Zion. 
Authority, C. W. Criswell. 

(Elevation = 810' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 400 400 

Red rock cave 15 415 

Little coal and gas (Elk Lick coal) — 416 

Red rock cave 215 630 

Unrecorded 170 800 

Big Dunkard sand (gas) — 800 

Unrecorded 614 1414 

First Salt sand 246 1660 

Break of slate 14 1674 

Maxton sand 3 1677 

Break of slate 8 1685 

Little Lime 40 1725 

Pencil cave . ; 9 1734 

Big Lime 96 1830 

Big Injun sand (gas, I860') — 1830 

Unrecorded 365 2195 

Brown shale 21 2216 

Berea sand to bottom 34 2250 

The well' mouth is about 300 feet below the level of the 
Washingon coal bed. 

In the extreme southern portion of Lee district a well was 
drilled during the year 1909 on Beech fork of Henrys fork, one 
mile northwest from Beech P. O., the log of which is published 
on page 229 in connection with the section for the latter place. 
The log of this well is interesting in that it records the absence 
of both the Big Injun and Berea sands, and the presence of 
three coal beds. A light show of gas and oil was encountered 
in the Salt sand. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 457^ 

The following is the log of a dry hole drilled near where 
the axis of the Robinson syncline crosses the West Fork river: 

Andrew Mace No. i Well Record (C 352), Lee District- 
Located on the east bank of West Fork, one mile South- 
east of Arnoldsburg. Authority, Carter Oil Co. Completed March 24, 
1904. 

(Elevation = 730' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 750 750 

Sand, Cow Run (Gas sand) 150 900 

Unrecorded 380 1280 

Salt sand (water, 1520') 300 1580 

Big Lime None 

Keener sand None 

Unrecorded 68 1648 

Big Injun sand (gas show, 1668') 30 1678 

Unrecorded 330 ' 2008 

Berea sand (shells) — 2008 

Unrecorded 40 2048 

Shells — 2048 

Unrecorded to bottom 2 2050 

The well mouth is about 400 feet below the horizon of the 
Washington coal bed. A light show of gas was struck in the 
Big Injun. The Berea sand is represented only by shells. 

Other dry holes in Lee district are: Jacob Morgan No. i 
(348) at the mouth of Sinking Spring run, 3 miles northwest 
from Arnoldsburg; S. W. White No. i (C 350), one-half mile 
east from Pink P. O. on Henrys fork; S. A. Hayes No. i 
(C 349), about one mile northwest from Arnoldsburg; and 
Louis Bennett No. i (353), in the extreme eastern point of Lee 
district, on the head of Right fork of Crummis creek. The 
dry hole (C 350) on the White farm near Pink P. O., another, 
2 miles northward on the Starcher farm on Little Leatherbark 
creek, and G. W. Starcher No. i (C 345), three-fourths mile 
south of Rocksdale P. 0-, appear to shut off a northeast ex- 
tension of the Big Injun sand oil pool of Clover run, Roane 
county, into Calhoun. In view of the oil showing in the wells 
(370 and 369) on the head of Little Bear run of Bear fork, 3 
miles southwest from Stumptown, the conditions are favorable 
for an oil pool on the waters of left fork of Crummis creek. 



458 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

SHERMAN DISTRICT. 

Sherman district lies northeast from Lee and occupies the 
northeast corner of Calhoun county. Its area is traversed in 
a northeast-southwest direction by two great structural folds ; 
viz., the Arches Fork anticline and the Robinson syncline. 
The former fold, however, catches only the northern point of 
the district. In the northern portion of Sherman, two oil wells 
and about one-half dozen gas wells have been drilled, in addi- 
tion to several dry holes down near the axis of the syncline. 
In the southern portion, a small oil pool of only three wells 
was opened near Dodrill P. O. on Rush run of Steer creek. 
Also two very light oil wells in the Big Injun sand on Little 
Bear fork of Bear fork. 

The following is the log of an oil well in the Berea sand 
in the extreme northern point of Sherman district : 

Marion Radabaugh No. i Well Record (C 355), Sherman 

District. 

Located at Calhoun-Gilmer county line, three-flfths mile North 
of Nobe. Authority, Mountain State Gas Co. 

(Elevation = 1120' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 1620 1620 

Salt sand 48 1668 

Unrecorded 149 1817 

Maxton sand 30 1847 

Unrecorded 73 1920 

Big Lime 55 1975 

Big Injun sand 80 2055 

Unrecorded 340 2395 

Berea sand (oil, 2404'-2412') 17 2412 

Unrecorded to bottom 7 2419 

The well mouth is about 40 feet above the level of the 
Washington coal bed. 

The log of the M. H. Kight gas well (C 358), located i 
mile west of Whitepine P. O., is found on page 115. The 
record of the W. L. Camden No. i (C 357), near Whitepine 
P. O., is published on page 113 in connection with the section 
for the latter place. The following is the log of a dry hole 
located on Laurel creek, a short distance above the mouth of 
the latter stream : 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 459 

Granville Rice No. i Well Record (C 361), Sherman District. 

Located on Laurel creek, three-fourths mile from its mouth and 
three miles East of Grantsville. Authority, Carter Oil Co. Completed 
July 23, 1904. 

(Elevation = 695' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 650 650 

Cave 50 700 

Unrecorded 125 825 

Sand, Cow Run ? (Burning Springs) 60 885 

Unrecorded 595 1480 

Salt sand (gas show) 145 1625 

Big Lime 100 1725 

Big Injun sand (little gas, 1775') 90 1815 

Unrecorded 355 2170 

Berea sand (shells) 5 2175 

Unrecorded 255 2430 

Gordon sand (shells) 2 2432 

Unrecorded to bottom 231 2663 

Dry well. 10" casing, 208 feet; 8%" casing, 830 feet; 6%" cas- 
ing, 1630 feet. 

The well mouth is about 300 feet below the horizon of the 
Washington coal bed. The Berea and Gordon sands are repre- 
sented by only 5 and 2 feet of shells, respectively. A light 
flow of gas was struck near the middle of the Big Injun sand. 
The Washington coal-Big Lime interval is about 1925 feet. 

The following is the log of a well drilled on the north 
bank of Steer creek, 2^ miles northwest from Stumptown- 
The well mouth is about 430 feet below the horizon of the 
Washington coal and 70 feet above the Pittsburg bed. A 
showing of gas and oil was struck in the top portion of the 
Big Injun sand which appears unusually thick for this region. 
Mr. Bennett was in doubt as to whether the driller furnished 
him the true record of the well : 

N. M. Bennett No. i Well Record (C 364), Sherman District. 

Located on Steer creek at the mouth of Wolf run, one mile and 
three-fourths Northwest of Stumptown. Authority, Robert Bennett. 

(Elevation = 700' L-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor 15 15 

Sand, (Upper Pittsburg) 30 45 

Red rock 55 lOQ 

Sand, (Lower Pittsburg) 20 120 

Red rock 190 310 

Lime 10 320 



460 MINERAL RESOURCES OP WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Red rock 280 600 

Sand, (Big Dunkard) 30 630 

Slate 50 680 

Sand, (Burning Springs) (salt water at 700') 20 700 

Slate 130 830 

Lime 100 930 

Sand, (Second Cow Run) 120 1050 

Salt sand 325 1375 

Big Lime 6 1381 

Big Injun sand (gas, 1400'; oil, 1432') 204 1585 

Blue slate 25 1610 

Limestone, shales and sand 200 1810 

White slate 390 2200 

Black slate 40 2240 

White slate and lime shells to bottom 100 2340 

The well evidently penetrated through the Gordon group 
of sands. 

The writer was unable to obtain the record of any of the 
three oil wells located immediately west from Dodrill P. 0-, 
but it is reported that the oil was encountered in the Salt sand. 
The wells were very light, since the James Swentzel No. i 
(C 365) produced only i barrel of oil daily, and the W. Ells- 
worth Stump No. I (C 367) only 5 barrels daily. 

In the southern point of Sherman district there occur two 
wells near the head of Little Bear run in which a showing of 
oil was struck in the Big Injun sand. The following is the 
log of one of the wells as published by I. C. White in Vol- 
I (A), pages 395-396, of the State Survey reports: 

H. C. Lockney No. i Well Record (C 369) , Sherman District. 

Located on the head of Little Bear fork of Bear fork of Steer 

creek, three miles Southwest of Stumptown. Authority, New York 
Petroleum Co. 

(Elevation = 838' L-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Soft shale 410 410 

Unrecorded 220 630 

Sand, First Cow Run ? (Big Dunkard) 12 642 

Unrecorded 38 680 

Sand, Second Cow Run 150 .830 

Unrecorded 140 970 

Sand, "Gas" 30 1000 

Unrecorded 6 1006 

Shale and blossom of coal (Lower Kittanning) . — 

Unrecorded 269 1275 

Black limy slate, having smell of oil 25 1300 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 461 

Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 122 1422 

Salt sand (little gas at 1428') 38 1460 

Unrecorded 64 1524 

Maxton sand — 

Unrecorded 51 1576 

Pencil cave — 

Unrecorded 30 1605 

Break — 

Unrecorded 10 1615 

Big Injun sand — 

Unrecorded 75 1690 

Squaw sand (light show of oil) 14 1704 

Unrecorded to bottom of hole 32 1736 

"Finished in black sand and slate (dry hole)." 

8" casing, 955 feet; &V4," casing, 1580 feet. 

The well starts almost flush with the base of the Sewick- 
ley sand, and about 435 feet below the horizon of the Wash- 
ington coal bed. It is quite probable that the sand at 1690 
feet is really a part of the Big Injun, and that the horizon of 
the Squaw lies lower in the measures, since the thickness of 
the former in the Granville Rice well (C 361), page 459, about 
seven miles northward, is 90 feet. 

The following is the record of a well drilled 4I/2 miles due 
south of StumptowTi, in the western edge of Gilmer county. 
It penetrates almost 300 feet below the Gordon group of sands- 
The log is as published in Vol, I (A), pp. 385-386, of the State 
Survey reports, except a few insertions in parentheses: 

Louis Bennett No. i Well Record (371), Center District. 

Gilmer County. 

Located at the mouth of Standingstone run of Bear fork of Steer 
creek. Authority, South Penn Oil Co. 

Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor 20 20 

Red rock 30 50 

Blue sand, (Minshall) 35 85 

White slate 15 loo 

Red rock (cased 10-inch, 200') 100 200 

White slate 50 250 

Red rock . . 50 300 

White slate 35 335 

Green sand 15 350 

Red rock 50 400 

White slate 65 465 

White sand, (Big Dunkard) 35 500 



462 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Thickness Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

White slate 75 575 

White sand, (Gas sand) 110 685 

Black slate 10 695 

Limestone 10 705 

White sand 30 735 

White slate 75 810 

White sand 20 830 

Black slate 13 843 

White sand, gas (Second Cow Run) (cased 8^", 851') ... 25 868 

White slate 35 903 

White sand 40 943 

Black slate 57 1000 

White sandstone 75 1075 

Sand, shells and black slate 205 1280 

White sand 55 1335 

Black slate 96 1431 

White sandstone (Maxton ?) (cased 6%", 1455') 50 1481 

Pencil slate 3 1484 

Limestone 11 1495 

Sand, hard {.^ , 14 1509 

Sandstone, soft ^ ^iviaxton; 27 1536 

Pebbles 29 1565 

Black slate 20 1585 

Big Ljme, hard 60 1645 

White sand (Keener) 10 1655 

Limestone 55 1710 

White sandstone (Big Injun) 75 1785 

Sand and shells 100 1885 

White slate 200 2085 

Slate and shells 200 2285 

Black slate, hard, sandstone and shells 100 2385 

Sand (gas), (Gordon, or Fifth) 2 2387 

Slate and shells 163 2550 

Slate, white and soft to bottom 118 2668 

"The sand struck at 1280 feet is most probably the one in which 
the Stumptown Oil & Gas Co. obtains its gas." 

The well starts 50 feet below the level of an opening in 

the Pittsburg coal bed. A flow of gas was obtained in one of 
the Gordon group of sands at a depth of 2385 feet. 

The following is the log of a dry hole drilled in the south- 
west corner of Sherman district : 

James McDonald No. i Well Record (C 362), Sherman 

District. 

Located on Mudlick run of Sycamore creek, three-fifths mile 

East of Mt. Zion. Authority, Carter Oil Co. Completed April 1, 1905. 

(Elevation = 845' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 775 775 

Cave 250 1025 

Unrecorded 555 158a 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 463 

Thickness. Total. 
Feet. Feet. 

Salt sand (water, 1620') 220 1800 

Big Lime 90 1890 

Big Injun sand (gas at 2000' and 2010') 140 2030 

Unrecorded to bottom 900 2930 

10" casing, 338 feet; 8%" casing, 1115 feet; 6%" casing, 1980 feet. 

The well mouth is 200 to 210 feet below the level of the 
Washington coal bed. A light flow of gas was obtained in the 
Big Injun sand. 



WASHINGTON DISTRICT. 

Washington district occupies the extreme southern por- 
tion of Calhoun county. Its area is traversed in a northeast- 
southwest direction by two structural folds; viz., the Robin- 
son syncline and the Chestnut Ridge anticline. The former 
crosses the western portion of the district, and the latter the 
eastern part. Not much drilling has yet been done within the 
area. The territory along the crest of the Chestnut Ridge 
arch from 2 miles due north of Nicut P. O. southwest via Stin- 
son, is quite favorable for gas from a structural standpoint. 

The following is the log of a well in the north central por- 
tion of Washington district, one-half mile southeast of Orma 
p. O., in which a good showing of oil was encountered in the 
lower half of the Big Lime or possibly the Keener portion of 
the Big Injun, since the latter is not recorded in the well. It 
seems quite likely that this oil showing may be a northeast ex- 
tension of the Tariff oil pool, as the structure contours on the 
Washington coal bed (see map) place it at only a slightly 
lower structural level, and the thickening up of the Pottsville 
series southward should readily account for the difference in 
level. At any rate, it looks like good territory for a test well 
, near by or on the straight line joining Tariff and Orma post 
offices : 



464 MINERAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

W. A. Stalnaker No. i Well Record (C 372), Washington 

District. 

Located two miles North of Minnora at mouth of Wolf run of 
West Fork river. Authority, F. M. Arbuckle, Ex-Secy., Calroane Oil 
& Gas Co. Completed in 1908. 

Thickness. Total. 
Feet. Feet. 

Unrecorded 610 610 

Sand, First Cow Run (Burning Springs) 40 650 

Unrecorded 60 710 

Sand, Gas and Second Cow Run (water, 770') 220 930 

Unrecorded 395 1325 

Salt sand, First 60 1385 

Unrecorded 110 1495 

Salt sand, Second (oil and water, 1600') 115 1610 

Unrecorded • • 45 1655 

Little Lime 35 1690 

Pencil cave 10 1700 

Big Lime (little oil, 1790'-1793'; little gas, 1820'-1825') 160 1860 

Slate to bottom 10 1870 

Conductor, 15 feet; 10" casing, 132 feet; 8%" casing, 725 feet; 
6%" casing, 1700 feet. 

The well starts almost flush with the horizon of the Pitts- 
burg coal bed. 

The following log of a dry hole drilled along the western 
margin of Washington district near the low point of the Rob- 
inson syncline is an evidence that the Tariff oil pool does not 
continue its course immediately along the east side of the axis 
of the latter fold in this district: 

Geo. Sherry No. i Well Record (C 373), Washington District- 
Located on Sams run of Beech fork, three and one-half miles 
West of Minnora. Authority, Ora Mead. 

(Elevation = 930' B-A. T.) Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

Conductor 14 14 

Slate 76 90 

Sand 40 130 

Red rock and slate 580 710 

Sand, (Saltsburg) 30 740 

Reds 40 780 

Limy sand 35 815 

Black slate 10 825 

Sand, (Big Dunkard) .105 930, 

Limestone and slate 70 1000 

Gas sand (water enough to drill) 195 1195 

Slate 15 1210 

Second Cow Run sand 45 1255 

Slate, white 35 1290 

Sand 40 1330 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 465 

Thickness. Total. 

Feet. Feet. 

•Slate 160 1490 

Limestone 20 1510 

Slate 30 1540 

Black slate 20 1560 

Coal 3 1563 

Slate and shells 47 1610 

Sand 15 1625 

Slate 5 1630 

Limy shells 40 1670 

Salt sand (big water, 1725') 110 1780 

Black limestone 20 1800 

Black slate 20 1820 

Maxton sand (water) 40 1860 

Black lime 40 1900 

Little Lime 33 1933 

Pencil cave 10 1943 

Big Lime (small gas, 1990') 165 2108 

Big Injun sand (big gas, 2010'-2015', but did not stay) — 

Slate and shells 117 2225 

Squaw sand (oil) 5 2230 

Black slate 190 2420 

Lime shell 20 2440 

Black slate 20 2460 

Berea sand (not solid, limestone and shells) 16 2476 

Unrecorded 260 2736 

Gordon sand, shell — 2736 

Unrecorded 124 2860 

Shells (possibly Fifth sand) — 2860 

Unrecorded to bottom 25 2885 

10" casing, 137 feet; 8%" casing, 825 feet; 6%" casing, 1946 feet. 

The well starts about 150 feet below the level of the hori- 
zon of the Washington coal bed. Quite a flow of gas was en- 
countered in the Big Injun sand, but it proved to be only a 
pocket since it soon blew out. This result should be expected 
near the axis of a syncline. A showing of oil was struck in 
the Squaw sand. The Berea and Gordon group are represent- 
ed by shells only. 

The South Penn Oil Co. drilled a well on West Fork river, 
one-fifth mile below Minnora in which a light flow of gas was 
encountered in the Big Injun- The log of this well is pub- 
lished in connection with the section for the latter place on 
page 118. 

The same company drilled a dry hole (C 374) in the south- 
western part of Washington district, near the head of Beech 
fork and one mile north of Oka P. O. The log of this well is 
published on page 121 in connection with the section for the 
30 



466 MINERAL RESOURCES OP WIRT-ROANE^ALHOUN AREA. 

latter point. The well penetrates 577 feet below the Gordon 
sand and records slate only in this portion of the rock column. 

In the eastern portion of the district the South Penn Oil 
Co. drilled a light gas well at Nicut P. O., three-fourths mile 
east from the axis of the Chestnut Ridge anticline on the D, 
O. Chenoweth land (C 376). The log of this well is found 
on page 119 in connection with the section for Nicut P. O. 
The gas was struck in both the Salt and Big Injun sands. The 
well penetrated to a depth of 1495 feet below the top of the Big 
Injun sand. 



EFFECT OF GEOLOGIC STRUCTURE IN OIL AND 
GAS DISTRIBUTION. 

An examination of the structure map accompanying this 
report and the position of the oil and gas fields will readily 
convince the most skeptical that geologic structure 
plays the principal part in the accumulation of oil 
and gas into pools of commercial value. This is strik- 
ingly shown along the Burning Springs arch, at Rich- 
ardson, Walton, on Yellow creek, and north of Grants- 
ville. It will be readily noticed that the majority of the gas 
wells occur along the crests of the anticlines, or a short dis- 
tance down their slope from the axes of the same, and that 
a good gas well is seldom found in a syncline, unless the whole 
general rock series occupies a high structural level as happens 
on the waters of Hurricane creek northeast from Cotton P. O. 
The oil pools generally appear to arrange themselves along 
the flanks of the anticlines approximately parallel with the 
structure contours, as is strikingly shown by the Big Injun 
sand oil pool southeast from Walton. When the sand does 
not carry any water, the oil drops dowtt into a basin as at 
Richardson. The oil pools on the flattened top of the Burning 
Springs arch in Wirt county, occupy flats or terraces longi- 
tudinally along the crest of the arch itself. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAX. SURVEY. 467 

PROSPECTIVE OIL AND GAS TERRITORY. 

In the discussion of the various oil and gas fields by magis- 
terial districts, the writer has endeavored to outline territory 
in v^hich the structural conditions were most favorable for the 
drilling of test wells for that particular region. It is much 
easier for the geologist to select possible gas territory than it 
is for oil, for the reason that the former is generally confined 
to an area along the crest of an anticlinal fold, while the oil 
belt may occur most anywhere down the slope of the arch even 
to the axis of the corresponding syncline. The latter feature 
is well illustrated by the Tariff^ oil pool. However, the oil 
and gas operators will be greatly aided in their search for these 
valuable hydro-carbons by the accurate map of the three coun- 
ties accompanying this report, showing the oil and gas wells 
and dry holes, as well as a fairly accurate structure map, ex- 
hibiting approximately the amount and direction of the dip of 
the rocks at all points of the area. 



CHAPTER IX. 

THE COAL RESOURCES OF THE WIRT- 
ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



The geology, structure, and character of the coal beds of 
the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area have already been described in 
the foregoing pages of this report. The purpose of this chap- 
ter is to take up the chemical composition and character more 
in detail of the probable commercial beds, as well as their 
probable available area in the three counties. There are no 
commercial mines within the area, so that the writer in get- 
ting samples for analysis and sections of the several coals has 
had to depend largely upon openings made by farmers for local 
domestic fuel. 

COALS OF THE WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

There are probably seven or eight different coal beds of 
workable thickness and purity in the area under discussion 
in addition to about the same number of seams which are too 
thin to be of any economic importance. The probable work- 
able beds are, in descending order, the Washington, Pitts- 
burg, Bakerstown, Brush Creek, Lower Freeport, Lower Kit- 
tanning, Stockton?, and No. 2 Gas? Only the first four men- 
tioned outcrop in the area. 

The chemical analyses and calorific results, given on sub- 
sequent pages, were determined by J. Berghius Krak, Assistant 
Chemist of the Survey, under the direction of Prof. B. H- 
Hite, Chief Chemist. The same methods of analysis were 
used as by the Fuel Testing Department of the U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey. 

The calorific value of the coals is expressed in terms of 
British Thermal Units, the unit of heat measurement more 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 469 

commonly used in the United States. This unit of heat meas- 
urement, usually marked B. T. U., represents the amount of 
heat required to raise one pound of w^ater one degree Fahren- 
heit in temperature. 

In any analysis showing the B. T. U. result, the number of 
heat units given represents the number of units stored up in 
one pound of the coal. Along with both the proximate and 
ultimate analysis is also given the heat value both calculated 
by calorimeter, as well as the ratio of the total carbon to the 
oxygen plus ash. It has only recently been ascertained that 
the oxygen has about the same deteriorating eflfect on the cal- 
orific value of a coal as thie ash content, and the above men- 
tioned ratio, proposed by David White^ of the National Mu- 
seum and U. S- Geological Survey, is the best yet devised for 
the classification of coals in order to show their relative rank 
as to heat value. 

The probable commercial coals of the area under dis- 
cussion will now be described in descending order. 



'See "Science" N. S., Vol. XXVII, No. 692, pp. 537-538, April 13, 1908. 



470 



COAL RESOURCES OP WIRT-ROANE-OAL.HOUN AREA. 



Washington coal 

Interval 

Waynesburg "A" coal. 

Interval 

Waynesburg coal 

Interval 

Uniontown coal 

Interval 

Lower Uniontown coal 

Interval 

Sewickley coal 

Interval 

Pittsburg coal 

Interval 

Harlem coal 

Interval 

Bakerstown coal 

Interval 

Brush Creek coal 

Interval 

Upper Freeport coal . . 

Interval 

Lower Freeport coal . . 

Interval 

Lower Kittanning coal 



Interval . 



Feet. 

70 



60 Base — Dunkard Series. 

90 Top — Monongahela Series. 

80 

90 



110 Base — Monongahela Series. 



Top — Conemaugh Series. 



300 



100 



100 



100 Base — Conemaugh Series. 



75 Top — Allegheny Series. 



125 



Base — Allegheny Series. 



Top — Upper Pottsville Series. 



500 



No. 2 Gas coal 

Fig. 3. — Diagram showing the relative position of the coals in the 
Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 471 

THE COALS OF THE DUNKARD SERIES. 

The Washington Coal. 

The only coal bed of the Dunkard series that appears to 
attain commercial thickness, purity and persistence in the 
three counties is the Washington seam. A full description of 
this vein and its geology is found on pages 156-163. There 
is given a section and analysis of the coal from an opening 
near Kyger, Roane county, and the same from tvvro openings 
in northern Calhoun county. The bed comes only 125 to 130 
feet above the base of the Dunkard series; hence, a fair idea 
of its outcrop can be obtained both from the structure con- 
tours and the base of the Dunkard series as outlined on the 
economic geology map accompanying this report. 

In the area under discussion the Washington coal appears 
to be very irregular and patchy in its nature, often being rep- 
resented by a streak of dark shale immediately over the Wash- 
ington fire clay shale. At some points, however, as in north- 
ern Calhoun, it reaches a thickness of 35^ feet of fairly pure 
coal. 

In addition to the sections and analyses of this coal given 
under the discussion of the geology of the bed, several will 
now be given to demonstrate its character and quality where 
opened by the farmers in the three counties. 

The writer collected a sample of the Washington coal 
from a stock pile near an opening in this bed on the land of 
S. F. Riley in the northern "pan-handle" of Wirt county, near 
the head of Second Big run of Goose creek. The opening had 
fallen shut, but Mr. Riley gives the following section of the 
bed as exhibited at this mine which is located just across the 
Wirt-Wood county line in the edge of Wood county : 

S. F- Riley Mine. 

Ft. In. 

1. Coal, good, 4" to 10 

2. Slate, black 0% 

3. Coal, good 1 2 

Total 2 0% 



472 COAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

The coal is mostly mined from the bottom portion (3) 
of the bed. Prof. Hite, Chief Chemist, reports the following 
for the composition and calorific value of the sample collected : 



Proximate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Moisture 1 . 35 

Volatile Matter 28.03 

Fixed Carbon 49.52 

Ash 21.10 



Ultimate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Carbon 56.31 

Hydrogen 4 . 25 

Oxygen 8.84 

Nitrogen 0.70 

Sulphur 8.80 

Ash 21.10 



100.00 

Sulphur 8.80 

Phosphorus 0.004 100.00 

Calorimeter B. T. U 10808 

Calculated B. T. U 10400 

Carbon 56.31 

Fuel ratio = = = 1.87 

Oxygen + Ash 8.84 + 21.10 



The fuel ratio of this sample is much reduced on account 
of the high ash content, the latter being almost double what is 
usually found in the lower division of the Washington bed 
in the three counties as is well illustrated by the following 
section and sample collected by the Writer from an opening 
on the land of Schofield Matic in the extreme northern edge 
of Roane county near the head of Coal' run of Spring creek, 
3 miles due east of the town of Reedy : 



Schofield Matic Mine. 



Ft. In. 

Slate, black 2 

Coal, good 2 2 

Whitewash, blue (fire clay) — — 



The opening had fallen shut, but the above section is 
as given the writer by Monroe Cheuvront, brother-in-law of 
Mr. Matic. Prof. Hite reports the following as the composi- 
tion and calorific value of the sample, collected from coal in 
stock owned by Mr. Matic : 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



473 



Proximate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Moisture 1.57 

Volatile Matter 30.73 

Fixed Carbon 58.95 

Ash 8.75 



Ultimate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Carbon 73 . 06 

Hydrogen 5 . 15 

Oxygen 9.43 

Nitrogen 0. 89 

Sulphur 2 . 72 

Ash 8.75 



100.00 

Sulphur 2.72 

Phosphorus 0.012 100.00 

Calorimeter B. T. U 13338 

Calculated B. T. U 13200 

Carbon 73 . 06 

Fuel ratio = = =4.02 

Oxygen + Ash 9.43 + 8.75 

The above results show that the Washington coal in por- 
tions of the area ranks quite high as a fuel, comparing favor- 
ably with the famous Pittsburg bed in some portions of the 
State. 

The coal has been opened by farmers at several points 
along the waters of both Reedy and Spring creeks in Roane 
county where it varies in thickness from a few inches to two 
feet- The writer collected a sample for analysis and measured 
the following section of the bed at an opening near the head 
of Left fork of Little Spring creek, three-fourths mile west 
from Morford P. O., on the land of Chas. Hanger: 

Chas. Hanger Mine. 

Ft. In. 

Sandstone, shaly, Mannington 10 

Fire clay, bluish 6 

Coal, good 10 

Fire clay — — 

Mr. Hanger reports the coal varying from 6 to i8 inches 
in thickness. Prof. Hite reports as follows for the composi- 
tion and calorific value of the sample obtained : 

Proximate Analysis. 



Per cent. 

Moisture 1 . 31 

Volatile Matter 33.85 

Fixed Carbon 52.99 

Ash 11.85 



100.00 

Sulphur 3 . 68 

Phosphorus . 016 



Ultimate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Carbon 70.32 

Hydrogen 5 . 14 

Oxygen 8.38 

Nitrogen 0.63 

Sulphur 3.6<? 

Ash 11.85 



100.00 



474 



COAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Calorimeter B, T. U 13131 

Calculated B. T. U 12919 



Carbon 



70.32 



Fuel ratio = 



Oxygen + Ash 



8.38 + 11.85 



= 3.42 



The Washington coal reaches its best development in the 
Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area in the northern point of Calhoun 
on the waters of Leading creek. This fact is well illustrated 
by the section and analysis given for the Ben Dye mine on 
page i6i and also the following data obtained by Robert D. 
Hennen from an opening on the land of H. A. Freed, at the 
mouth of Fivemile run of Leading creek, one mile west from 
Freed P. O. 

H. A. Freed Mine. 

Ft. In. 

1. Roof, concealed — — 

2. Fire clay 3 6 

3. Coal 3 4 

4. Fire clay 3 

"Altitude, 850' above sea level. Used for local domestic pur- 
poses. This bank was opened and a few bushels dug. The mine 
mouth has now fallen shut and coal is concealed. The above cross 
section is according to Mr. Freed. The sample was selected by Mr. 
Freed from coal house. Mr. Freed says this coal is very oily." 



Prof. Hite reports as follows for the composition and 
calorific value of the above sample : 



Proximate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Moisture 1 . 04 

Volatile Matter 35.19 

Fixed Carbon 51.55 

Ash 12.22 



100.00 

Sulphur 1.69 

Phosphorus 0.009 



Ultimate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Carbon 70.65 

Hydrogen 4 . 73 

Oxygen 9.74 

Nitrogen 0.97 

Sulphur 1.69 

Ash 12.22 



100.00 



Calorimeter B. T. U 12764 

Calculated B. T. U 12521 

Carbon 70.65 
Fuel ratio = = = 3 . 21 



Oxygen + Ash 



9.74 + 12.22 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



475 



Mr. Robert D. Hennen also obtained the following data 
from an opening in the Washington coal on the land of Gar- 
rett Elliott near the head of Fivemile run of Leading creek, 
two miles northwest from Freed P. O. : 

Garrett Elliott Mine. 



Ft. In. 

1. Sandstone, massive, Lower Marietta 22 

2. Fire clay, stiff, hard and slaty 3 6 

3. Slate 11 

4. Coal, good-- 1 10 

5. Floor, concealed — — 

"This bank is being opened. Sample was taken from No. 4 above. 
Altitude, 870 feet above tide, aneroid measurement." 

Prof. Hite reports the composition and calorific value of 
the sample collected as follows: 



Proximate Analysis. 

Per cent 

Moisture 1.10 

Volatile Matter 23 . 04 

Fixed Carbon 30.03 

Ash 45.83 



100.00 

Sulphur 3.07 

Phosphorus 0.028 



Ultimate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Carbon 39.58 

Hydrogen 3.10 

Oxygen 7.82 

Nitrogen 0.60 

Sulphur 3.07 

Ash 45.83 



100.00 



Calorimeter B. T. U 7172 

Calculated B. T. U.. - 7195 



Carbon 



39.58 



Fuel ratio 



Oxygen + Ash 



7.82 + 45.83 



= 0.74 



The above results show the coal very poor in quality at 
this opening. The average of the eight samples of the Wash- 
ington coal already published in this report gives a fair idea 
as to its composition and heat value. This average is as fol- 
lows: 



476 



COAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Proximate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Moisture 1 . 65 

Volatile Matter 31.39 

Fixed Carbon 50.59 

Ash 16.37 



100.00 

Sulphur 3 . 04 

Phosphorus 0.015 

Calorimeter B. T. U. 
Calculated B. T. U. . 
Carbon 
Fuel ratio = 



Ultimate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Carbon 64.60 

Hydrogen 4.71 

Oxygen 10.46 

Nitrogen 0.82 

Sulphur 3.04 

Ash 16.37 



100.00 



.11790 
.11818 



64.60 



= 2.41 



Oxygen -|- Ash 10.46 -|- 16.37 



Quantity of Washington Coal Available. 

It is a very diffifcult matter even to approximate the area 
of the Washington coal bed in the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun re- 
gion, since, as already stated in this report, the coal is very 
irregular and patchy in its nature, and its crop most often 
concealed. The several sections given for the bed give a fair 
idea of its thickness where it has been mined by farmers. So 
that the writer in estimating the available tonnage for this 
bed, feels safe in assuming an average thickness of 2 feet 
spread out over 10 square miles for eastern and western Wirt 
county ; 30 square miles for Reedy, Curtis and Spencer dis- 
tricts of Roane county; and 10 square miles for northern Cal- 
houn county. Figuring on this basis we get the following 
results : 

Table Showing Approximate Available Washington Coal 
in the Three Counties, 



County. Sq. Miles. Acres. 


Cubic Feet Short Tons 
of Coal. of Coal. 


Wirt 


10 
30 
10 


6,400 557,568,000 

19,200 1,672,704,000 

6,400 557,568,000 


22,302,720 


Roane 


66 908,160 


Calhoun 


22,302,720 


Totals 


50 


32,000 


2,787,840,000 


111,513,600 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL. SURVEY. 477 

To get the above results, the writer assumed that one cu- 
bic foot of coal weighs 80 pounds, or at the rate of 25 cubic 
feet to the 2000 pound ton- These figures agree with those 
obtained for the weight of Pittsburg coal at the Fuel Test- 
ing Plant of the U. S. Geological Survey at St. Louis, Mo. 

As to this class of coal, I. C. White has the following to 
say in Vol. II (A), pp. 693-694 of the W. Va- Geological Sur- 
vey reports : 

"This grade of fuel is, of course, not now marketable, since its 
heat units can best be rendered available through the agency of pro- 
ducer gas and the gas engine which have not yet come into general 
use, although each ton of this impure coal when so utilized will pro- 
duce more power, according to the determinations of the Technologic 
Branch of the United States Geological Survey, than a ton of the 
purest New River or Pocahontas coal, when the steam engine is the 
agency of conversion. 

"When our best coals become more expensive to win, the State 
will have a large reserve of these poorer grades of fuel which will 
doubtless then be utilized for power and thus greatly prolong the life 
of West Virginia's coal fields, since, as may be observed from the 
details given in this volume, there is a large amount of impure coal 
so inter-stratified with the purer layers in nearly every mine, that 
its precious carbon is now utterly lost, because there is no market 
for Impure coals." 

THE COALS OF THE MONONGAHELA SERIES. 

The geology of the several coal beds of the Monongahela 
series in the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area has been discussed 
in a preceding chapter of this report. These coals in de- 
scending order are the Waynesburg, Uniontown, Lower Un- 
iontown, Sewickley and Pittsburg. The latter, however, is 
the only bed that appears to attain minable thickness, purity 
and persistence. 

The Pittsburg Coal. 

A full description of the geology, character, and quality 
of the Pittsburg coal in the area under discussion is given 
on pages 213-223. The outcrop of the horizon of the coal is 
shown on the economic geology map accompanying this re- 
port. On the same map the writer has endeavored to show 
by a dotted blue line the "Approximate northwestern bound- 



478 COAL RESOURCES OP WIRT-ROANE-CAI^HOUN AREA. 

ary line where the Pittsburg coal bed of commercial thick- 
ness and purity disappears." This line as drawn on the map 
extends southwest from the Gilmer-Calhoun county line at 
the extreme eastern point of Lee district, Calhoun county, 
via Minnora, to an intersection with Beech fork of Henry fork, 
one-half mile below the mouth of Sang run ; thence southwest 
to an intersection with Henry fork three-fourths mile below 
Tariff P. O.; thence northwesterly to near Roxalana P. O.; 
thence southwest near Looneyville, Pad and Dodd post of- 
fices to an intersection with the Roane-Kanawha county line 
at the common corner to Harper, Walton and Elk magiste- 
rial districts. Hence, it appears that the Pittsburg- coal bed 
of minable thickness and persistence is absent in all that por- 
tion of the three counties northwest from this line. This fact 
is well borne out by the logs of numerous wells drilled for 
oil and gas, and by the absence of minable coal where its hori- 
zon crops at several points in this part of the area- Even in 
the portion of Roane and Calhoun counties southeast from 
this line, the coal does not appear to exceed three feet in 
thickness, and is often less than two feet. It is true that the 
records of one or two scattered wells in the area northwest 
from this line call for coal at the horizon of the Pittsburg 
bed, but the logs of other wells near by seem to indicate its 
absence or lack of persistence. 

On the head of Pocatalico river, southeast from Looney- 
ville, and on the north side branches of Big Sandy creek, Roane 
county, the Pittsburg coal bed has been mined quite frequently 
by the farmers of the region for local domestic fuel. Its thick- 
ness, composition and character at several of these openings are 
shown on pages 214-219. It has also been mined by farmers on 
the headwaters of Henry and West forks in Calhoun county 
and its thickness and composition on Sang run. Walker creek, 
and Bear fork (Gilmer county) are given on pages 220-223. 

In addition to the above mentioned openings in the Pitts- 
burg coal, interesting data as to three other mines in this 
bed in southern Calhoun and the adjoining portion of Gilmer 
county, will now be given. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 479 

The foUow^ing section was obtained by D. B. Reger, Field 
Assistant, at the mine of Herman Miller, located on a branch 
of Whiteoak run 2^ miles south, 20 to 30 degrees west from 
Minnora, Calhoun county : 

Herman Miller Mine- 

Ft. In. 

1. Sandstone, brown — — 

2. Slate, gray, with iron nodules and streaks 

of fire clay 5 

3. Coal, Pittsburg 1 6 

4. Concealed by water — — 

"Altitude, 1075 feet above sea level, aneroid measurement. This 
was a new mine and extended only about 10 feet into the hill." 

About 8 miles northeast from the above opening, Robert 
D. Hennen collected a sample for analysis and measured the 
following section at the C. M. Stump mine, located 2^ miles 
south of Stumptown, near the mouth of Spruce fork of Bear 
fork, Center district, Gilmer county : 



C. M. Stump Mine. 

Ft In. 

1. Roof, concealed — — 

2. Fire clay 1 

3. Coal 6 " 

4. Parting slate 1 

5. Coal 2 

6. Parting slate 0% [ 1' 6' 

7. Coal , 2 I 

8. Parting slate 1 

9. Coal 5^2 

10. Fire clay 6 

11. Floor, concealed — — 

"Altitude, 825 feet above sea level, aneroid measurement. Butts 
run, N. 80° W.; faces N. 10° E. This bank is just being opened, and 
the sample was taken about 5 feet from the face of the hill." 



The section shows the coal much reduced in thickness 
from an opening in the same bed a short distance away, a 
section of which is given on page 222. Prof. Hite reports the 
following composition and calorific value for the sample col- 
lected here by Mr. Hennen : 



480 



COAL RESOURCES OP WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Proximate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Moisture 1 . 76 

Volatile Matter 34.54 

Fixed Carbon 57 . 10 

Ash 6.60 



100.00 

Sulphur 1.83 

Phosphorus 0. 036 



Ultimate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Carbon 74.73 

Hydrogen 5.28 

Oxygen 10.30 

Nitrogen 1.26 

Sulphur 1.83 

Ash 6.60 



100.00 



Calorimeter B. T. U 13531 

Calculated B. T. U 13423 



Carbon 



74.73 



Fuel ratio = 



Oxygen + Ash 



10.30 -f 6.60 



= 4.42 



The following is the analysis of a sample collected by Mar- 
cellus Stump from a new opening on his land near the mine 
next above: 



Marcellus Stump Mine. 



Proximate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Moisture 1.13 

Volatile Matter 37.80 

Fixed Carbon 47.42 

Ash 13.65 



100.00 

Sulphur 7.14 

Phosphorus 0.023 



Ultimate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Carbon 67.16 

Hydrogen 4 . 48 

Oxygen 6.53 

Nitrogen 1.04 

Sulphur 7.14 

Ash 13.65 



100.00 



Calorimeter B. T. U. 
Calculated B. T. U.. 



.12605 
.12326 



Carbon 



67.16 



Fuel ratio = 



Oxygen + Ash 



6.53 + 13.65 



= 3.33 



The average of the nine samples of Pittsburg coal for 
the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area, published on preceding pages 
of this report, is as follows: 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SUBVEY. 



481 



Proximate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Moisture 1.23 

Volatile Matter 36.05 

Fixed Carbon 54.66 

Ash 8.06 



100.00 

Sulphur 2.95 

Phosphorus 0.030 



Ultimate Analysis. 

Per cent. 

Carbon 73.52 

Hydrogen 5.28 

Oxygen 9.02 

Nitrogen 1 . 17 

Sulphur 2.95 

Ash 8.06 



100.00 



Calorimeter B. T. U 13448 

Calculated B. T. U 13385 



Carbon 



73.52 



Fuel ratio =- 



Oxygen + Ash 



9.02 + 8.06 



= 4.30 



The above results show^ that the Pittsburg coal bed in the 
area under discussion runs looo to 1500 British Thermal 
Units per pound of coal higher than does the average of eight 
samples of the Washington coal for the same region (see 
page 476). 

Quantity of Pittsburg Coal Available, 

It is quite as difficult to estimate the available tonnage of 
Pittsburg coal in the three counties as was the case with the 
Washington bed- As mentioned heretofore, the writer has 
designated on the economic geology map accompanying this 
report the approximate northwestern boundary line where 
the Pittsburg coal bed of commercial thickness and purity 
disappears (see page 477). A careful determination shows 
that there remain 92.6 square miles of this coal unaffected 
by stream erosion. The several sections given for this coal 
show that it varies in thickness in the area outlined for the 
bed from 18 inches to three feet. Hence, in estimating the 
tonnage for the area under discussion, the writer feels safe 
in assuming an average thickness of two feet underlying the 
entire 92.6 square miles. Figuring on this basis, we get the 
following results: 



31 



482 



COAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Table Showing Approximate Available Pittsburg Coal 
in the Three Counties. 



County. 


Sg. Miles. 


Acres. 


Cubic Feet ' 
of Coal. 


Short Tons 
of Coal. 


Roane and Calhoun 


92.6 


59,264 


5.163,079,680 


206,523,187.2 



In obtaining the above figures, it is assumed that one 
cubic foot of Pittsburg coal weighs 8o pounds (See explana- 
tions following table of available Washington coal, page 477). 

The above estimate for the available tonnage of Pitts- 
burg coal in Wirt, Roane and Calhoun counties is almost 
double that for the Washington bed for the same area. 

THE COALS OF THE CONEMAUGH SERIES. 

The coals of the Conemaugh series in the Wirt-Roane- 
Calhoun area in descending order are the Harlem, Bakers- 
town and Brush Creek. The latter two appear to be the only- 
beds of this group of rocks to attain minable thickness in the 
area under discussion. Their geology, thickness, chemical 
composition and calorific value are given on pages 251-256 and 
261-263, respectively. 

The Bakerstown Coal. 



The minable area of the Bakerstown coal in Wirt, Roane 
and Calhoun counties appears to be confined to the eastern 
portion of Geary district, Roane county, northeast, east and 
south of Newton, covering an area of about 10 square miles. 
At Uler P. O. it has thinned down and become unimportant. 
The same is true at Wallback P. O. at the Roane-Clay county 
line, and likewise, one-half mile northwest from the mouth of 
Granny creek at an opening on the land of Nathan Jarvis 
(See page 255). The coal appears to thin away to the north- 
west from Newton. From the sections of this bed, given on 
the pages mentioned above, the writer feels safe in assuming 
an average thickness of two feet of coal covering this entire 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



483 



10 square miles, in estimating the available tonnage. Figur- 
ing on this basis, we get the following results : 

Table Showing Approximate Available Bakerstown Coal. 



County. 


Sq. Miles. 


Acres. 


Cubic Feet 
of Coal. 


Short Tons 
of Coal. 


Roane 


10 


6,400 


557,568,000 


22,302,720 





As in the preceding tables, the above figures are on the 
assumption that one cubic foot of coal weighs 8o pounds. 

The Brush Creek Coal. 

The minable area of the Brush Creek coal in the three 
counties appears to be confined to a small portion of south- 
ern Geary district, Roane county, covering probably not over 
5 square miles- An opening in this bed, 2 miles east from 
Osbornes Mills, on the land of J. H. Osborne (See page 262), 
shows the bed varying in thickness from 3' i" to 4' 5". Hence, 
in estimating the tonnage for this coal, the writer feels safe 
in assuming an average thickness of three feet underlying the 
5 square miles. Figuring on this basis, we get the following: 

Table Showing Approximate Available Brush Creek Coal. 



County. 


Sq. Miles. 


Acres. 


Cubic Feet Short Tons 
of Coal. of Coal. 


Roane 


5 


3,200 


418,176,000 


16,727,040 







THE COALS OF THE ALLEGHENY SERIES. 



Since the Allegheny measures do not outcrop in the area 
under discussion, there was no opportunity offered to examine 
from direct exposure the coal beds belonging to this group 
of rocks. Hence, the writer had to rely on the logs of wells 



484 COAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

bored for oil and gas within the three counties to obtain data 
as to the presence or absence of these deeper coals. In the 
northern end of the State, the following coals belong in the 
Allegheny series: Upper Freeport, Lower. Freeport, Upper 
Kittanning, Middle Kittanning, Lower Kittanning, and Clar- 
ion. As revealed by these borings, only two of these beds; 
viz-, Lower Freeport and Lower Kittanning, appear to attain 
minable thickness, purity and persistence in the Wirt-Roane- 
Calhoun area, and both seem to be confined to the extreme 
eastern portion of Walton and the southern half of Geary dis- 
tricts, Roane county. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



485 



LCkVar FffEEFOffT Cd/}L, 




Fig. 4. — Showing Approximate Area of Available Lower Freeport Coal 
in the Three Counties. 



486 COAL RESOURCES OP WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 




Fig. 5. — Showing Approximate Area of Available Lower Kittanning 
Coal in the Three Counties. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



487 



All the oil and gas well borings in the State are sunk by 
the "churn drill" method and, of course, are very unreliable 
as to the exact thickness and character of coals, even where 
they appear to be merchantable. The diamond drill boring 
is the only method of determining the exact thickness and 
purity of the Allegheny coals for this locality. 

The following table, taken from the logs of wells, the 
complete records of which are given on other pages of this 
report, shows the depth and thickness of the Lower Freeport 
and Lower Kittanning coals in this portion of Roane county: 

Table of Wells Showing Depth to and Thickness of the 
Allegheny Coals in the Three Counties. 



Ck 






LOWER FREEPORT 


LOWER KIHANNING 


« 




Elevation 
Well 










S 










a 


NAME OP WBI,L 


Mouth 










o 




Ft. A. T. 


Depth 


Thick- 


Depth 


Thick- 


£ 






Feet 


ness 


Fett 


ness 


sz;_ 








Feet 




Feet 




(Roane County) 












168 


W. C. Tallman No. 1 . . 








440 


10 


180 


L. B. Thompson No. 1 


668L 




... 


325 


10 


181 


John Geary No. 1 


683L 






340 


2 


184 


Wm. A. Geary No. 1 . .' 


650L 






347 


5 


184A 


M. F. Osborne No. 1. . 


648L 


250 


3 


405 


3 


185 


A. W. Goad No. 1 


656L 






417 


5 


186 


L. D. Osborne No. 1 . . 


715L 






450 


4 


188 


L. M. Bird No. 1 


622L 






425 


4 


193 


Otha Jett No. 1 


895B 


620 


5 






194 


John Parker No. 1 


905B 






675 


"i 


197 


H. M. Vineyard No. 1 


853L 


475 


3 






198 


W. S. Lewis No. 4 


790L 


450 


6 




. . . 


200 


Effie Morgan No. 1 . . . . 


881L 


630 


3 






204 


M. M. Boggs No. 1. . . . 


646L 






470 


5 


205 


S. L. Casey No. 1 


622L 


300 


i 


435 


2 



Note. — Under the columns headed "Depth" in the above table, 
the figures given express distances in feet from the top of the hole 
and not depth below drainage. Elevations are expressed in feet, fol- 
lowed by the letter "L" if determined by spirit level, or by the let- 
ter "B" if determined by aneroid. The table gives the following re- 
sults: 

Average thickness of Lower Freeport coal 3.5 feet. 

Average thickness of Lower Kittanning coal 5.0 feet. 



488 



COAL RESOURCES OP WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



The Lower Freeport Coal. 

The Lower Freeport coal belongs 50 to 75 feet below the 
top of the Allegheny series of rocks and was so named from 
the town of Freeport in the State of Pennsylvania. A full 
description of its geology, thickness, character and chemical 
composition in other portions of West Virginia, is given in 
Vols. II and 11(A) of the State Survey reports. In the Wirt- 
Roane-Calhoun area, this coal, as a merchantable bed, appears 
to be confined to a narrow strip three to four miles wide in 
extreme eastern Walton and western Geary districts, ex- 
tending from Kester P. O- south along both sides of the Wal- 
ton-Geary district line to the Roane-Kanawha county line, 
covering an approximate area of 20 square miles. 

An examination of the above table and note shows that 
the Lower Freeport coal has an average recorded thickness 
of 3.5 feet. Hence, in forming an estimate of the available ton- 
nage of this coal bed in the three counties, the writer feels 
safe in assuming an average thickness of 3 feet underlying 
the entire 20 square miles. Figuring on this basis, the fol- 
lowing results are obtained : 

Table Showing Approximate Available Lower Freeport Coal. 



County. 


Sq. Miles. 


Acres. 


Cubic Feet 
of Coal. 


Short Tons 
of Coal. 


Roane 20 


12,800 


1,W2,704,000 


66,908,160 



The Lower Kittanning Coal. 

The Lower Kittanning coal belongs 175 to 200 feet below 
the top of the Allegheny series and 50 to 75 feet above the 
top of the Pottsville series. A full description of its geology, 
thickness, character, and chemical composition in other por- 
tions of the State is given in the same reports referred to 
above in the description of the Lower Freeport bed. As a 
merchantable bed in the area under discussion, the coal ap- 
pears to be confined to the extreme southeast corner of Wal- 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



489 



ton district and the southern half of Geary district, Roane 
county, covering an approximate area of 40 square miles- 

The above table and note shows that the Lower Kittan- 
ning coal has an average recorded thickness of 5 feet. There- 
fore, the writer in forming an estimate of the available ton- 
nage of this bed in the area under discussion, feels safe in as- 
suming a thickness of 5 feet underlying the entire 40 square 
miles. Figuring on this basis, we get the following results : 



Table Showing Approximate Available Lower Kittanning 

Coal. 



County. 


Sq. Miles. 


Acres. 


Cubic Feet 
of Coal. 


Short Tons 
of Coal. 


Roane 


1 
..t 40 

1 


26,400 


5,575,680,000 


223,027,200 



THE COALS OF THE POTTSVILLE SERIES. 



Only two coals of the Pottsville measures appear to at- 
tain commercial thickness and persistence in the Wirt-Roane- 
Calhoun area. These two beds seem to correlate with the 
Stockton (Mercer) and the No. 2 Gas of the Kanawha (Upper 
Pottsville) group of rocks. Since the Pottsville measures 
lie deeply buried below drainage at every point in the three 
counties, it is not possible to examine these coals from ex- 
posure at outcrop. Hence, as was the case with the coals 
of the Allegheny series, the only source of information as to 
the thickness and persistence of these deeper veins has been 
the logs of the numerous oil and gas borings scattered over 
the area. These "churn drill" borings, of course, do not give 
accurate data as to the thickness and character of the coal 
beds penetrated. 

The following table is taken from the logs of wells (See 
other pages of this report for the complete well record) drilled 
for oil and gas in the region where these two coals appear to 
be merchantable : 



490 



COAL RESOURCES OP WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Table of Wells Showing Depth to and Thickness of the 
Pottsville Coals in the Three Counties. 



p. 

c 



i 


NAME OF WEIX 


Elevation, 

Well 

Mouth 

Feet. A. T. 


MERCER? STOCKTON? 


NO. 2 GAS? 


Depth 
Feet 


Thick- 
ness 
Feet 


Depth 
Feet 


Thick- 
ness 
Feet 


107 
108 
109 
327 

168 
169 
170 
187 
189 

374 
376 


(Richardson P. O. 
Region.) 

McConaughey 

Smith-Simmons No. 3 
Smith-Simmons No. 8 
J. R. Pell No. 1 

(South Half, Geary 
District.) 

W. C. Tallman No. 1 . . 
Brown-Goshorn No. 1 
D. Drake No. 1 

C, S. Young No. 1.... 
Mary F. Taylor No. 1 

(Southern Calhoun.) 

T. P. Jarvis No. 1 

D. 0. Chenoweth No. 1 


700B 

1095B 

765B 
745B 
730B 
621L 
649L 

850B 
880B 


526 
354 

400 
400 
580 


6 
3 
5 
4 
4 


1535 

1687 
1725 
1770 

1340 
1400 




2 
8 
5 
5 

5 

7 



Note. — Under the columns headed "Depth" in the above table, 
the figures given express distances in feet from the top of the hole 
and not depth below drainage. Elevations are expressed in feet, fol- 
lowed by the letter "L" if determined with spirit level, or by "B" if 
determined by aneroid. The table gives the following results: 

Average thickness of Stockton ? coal 4.4 feet. 

Average thickness of No. 2 Gas ? coal 5.3 feet. 

The Stockton Coal. 



At 50 to 75 feet below the top of the Pottsville series in 
the southern portion of Geary district, Roane county, there 
is recorded a coal bed that appears to correlate with the Stock- 
ton vein of the Kanawha river valley. A full description of 
the geology, thickness, character and chemical composition 
of the Stockton coal is given in Vol. 11 (A) of the State Sur- 
vey reports. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



491 




Fig. 6.— Showing Approximate Area of Available Stockton ? and No. 2 
Gas? Coals in the Three Counties. 



492 



COAL, RESOURCES OP WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



An examination of the above table and note shows the 
coal recorded in Wells scattered from Wallback P. O. west- 
ward across the southern portion of Geary district to near 
Cotton P. 0-, and the bed to have an average thickness of 4.4 
feet. If present throughout the entire designated portion of 
Geary, it would cover an area of approximately 30 square 
miles. It seems to be absent from the measures in all other 
portions of the three counties. Hence, in estimating the avail- 
able tonnage of this coal for the area under discussion, the 
writer feels justified in assuming an average thickness of 
4 feet underlying the apparent workable area of 30 square 
miles. Figuring on this basis, the following results are ob- 
tained: 

Table Showing Approximate Available Stockton (?) Coal. 



County. 


Sq. Miles. Acres. 


Cubic Feet 
of Coal. 


Short Tons 
of Coal. 


Roane 


30 


19,200 S.^4!%4n8000 


133,816,320 











The No. 2 Gas Coal- 



The wells drilled in the vicinity of Richardson and in the 
southern portion of Washington district, Calhoun county, 
record a coal near the base of the Pottsville series, 140 to 150 
feet above the top of the Greenbrier Limestone ("Big Lime"). 
The coal appears to correlate with the No. 2 Gas bed of the 
Kanawha (Upper Pottsville) measures, since the latter is a 
very persistent vein in southern West Virginia. The geology, 
character, thickness, and chemical composition of the No. 2 
Gas coal in other portions of the State are fully discussed in 
Vol. 11(A) of the W. Va. Geological Survey reports. As with 
the other deep coals, the only source of information as to the 
thickness and character of this bed where it appears mer- 
chantable in the three counties, has been the logs of the 
"churn drill" borings put down for oil and gas. 

The wells on both sides of the West Fork river in the oil 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SUBVBT. 



493 



field at Richardson, record a fair thickness of seemingly good 
coal, 140 to 150 feet above the top of the Big Lime. Its ap- 
parent vi^orkable area here is approximately 10 square miles. 
In southern Calhoun the logs of a well (C 374) near Oka 
P. O., and another (C 376) near Nicut P. O. show apparently 
the same coal for this portion of the county. It is quite likely 
that it extends southward from these two points to the Cal- 
houn-Clay county line, covering there about 20 square miles. 
This gives a total area of 30 square miles for the coal in the 
three counties. The bed seems to be absent from the meas- 
ures in all other portions of Wirt, Roane, and Calhoun. 

The above table of wells, showing the Pottsville coals, 
gives the average recorded thickness of the No. 2 Gas bed 
for both localities as 5.3 feet In forming an estimate of the 
available tonnage of this coal, the writer feels justified in as- 
suming an average thickness of 5 feet underlying the entire 
apparent workable area of 30 square miles. Making our cal- 
culations on this basis, we obtain the following results : 

Table Showing Approximate Available No. 2 Gas Coal. 



County. 


a .». A^.^- Cubic Feet 
Sq. MUes. Acres. ^j ^^^j 


Short Tons 
of Coal. 


Roane and Calhoun 


30 


19,200 


4,181,760,000 


167,270,400 



The following is a summary of the available tonnage of 
all the apparently workable coal beds in the Wirt-Roane-Cal- 
houn area: 

Summary of Available Coal in the Three Counties. 



Name of Bed. Short Tons. 

Wahington coal 111,513,600 

Pittsburg coal 206.523.187 

Bakerstown coal 22,30?.720 

Brush Creek coal 16,727,040 

Lower Freeport coal 66,908,160 

Lower Kittanning coal 223,027,200 

Stockton ? coal 133,816.320 

No. 2 Gas ? coal 167,270,400 

Grand total 948,088,627 



494 COAL RESOURCES OF WIBT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

The above estimate of available tonnage of workable 
coal in the area under discussion does not necessarily mean 
that that amount will eventually be taken out. The percentage 
of any coal bed recovered under the present mining methods 
in the State varies from 45 to 90 per cent. The writer is of 
opinion that a percentage of recovery of 60 per cent of 
the above total of available coal would be a fair approxima- 
tion of the amount eventually recovered. Figuring on this 
basis, our available tonnage of 948,088,627 in the three coun* 
ties is reduced in round numbers to 568,850,000 short tons- 



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496 COAL RESOURCES OF WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Location of Samples in Table. 

Serial 
No. 

1. Outcrop coal, on land of A. C. Calloy, near mouth of first small 

run emptying into Reedy creek, one mile north of Kyger, 
Roane county. See page 15^. 

2. Mine on land of Ben Dye, on the head of Cole run of Leading 

creek, one mile and three-fourths northeast of Freed P. O., Cal- 
houn county. See page 161. 

3. Outcrop coal on land of Geo. Buck, 2 miles S. 75° W. of Mt. 

Zion P. O., Calhoun county. See page 162. 

4. Mine on land of S. F. Riley in the northern "pan-handle" of 

Wirt county, near the head of Second Big run of Goose creek. 
See page 471. 
6. Mine on land of Schofield Matic in the extreme northern edge 
of Roane county, near the head of Coal run of Spring creek, 
3 miles due east of Reedy. See page 472. 

6. Mine on land of Chas. Hanger, near the head of Left fork of 

Little Spring creek, three-fourths mile west from Morford P. 
O., Roane county. See page 473. 

7. Mine on land of H. A. Freed, at the mouth of Fivemile run of 

Leading creek, one mile west from Freed P. O., Calhoun county. 
See page 474. 

8. Mine on land of Garrett Elliott near the head of Fivemile run 

of Leading creek, 2 miles northwest from Freed P. O., Calhoun 
county. See page 475. 

9. Mine on land of R. H. Rogers, 2 miles south of Brooksville, and 

one-half mile west of the Little Kanawha river. See page 198. 

10. Mine on land of John "Wagner, on the head of a branch of Jesse 

run of West Fork river, 2.2 miles southeast of Rocksdale P. O., 
Calhoun county. See page 199. 

11. Mine on land of Samuel Wilson, on the head of Pine run, one- 

third mile north of Mt. Zion P. O., Calhoun county See page 
200. 

12. Mine on land of Geo. Hardman, one-half mile southeast of the 

mouth of Bee run, Calhoun county. See page 205. 

13. Mine on land of Ira Starcher, one mile and a third west of Tariff, 

Roane county, on the east bank of Canoe run. See page 215. 

14. Mine on land of P. Sheridan Naylor, on the east hillside of Dog 

run, one mile and three-fourths northwest of Newton, Roane 
county. See page 216. 

15. Mine on land of J. P. Hershberger, at the head of "Poca" river, 

2% miles southeast of Looneyvllle, Roane county. See page 
217. 

16. From L. D. Chambers No. 2 well, in the northern portion of Smith- 

field district, Roane county. See page 219. 

17. Mine on land of Geo. Tucker, at the head of Sang run, 2 miles 

northwest of Oka P. O., Calhoun county. See page 220. 

18. Mine on land of Wm. M. Metheney, near the head of a small 

branch of Walker creek, 1 mile south of Douglas P. O., Calhoun 
county. See page 221. 

19. "Bear Fork Mine," on land of C. M. Stump, 2 miles due south 

of Stumptown, just across the Calhoun county line in the edge 
of Gilmer county. See page 222. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 497 

20. Mine on the land of C. M. Stump, near the mouth of Spruce fork 

of Bear fork, Center district, Gilmer county, 2^^ miles south of 
Stumptown. See page 479. 

21. Mine on the land of Marcellus Stump in Gilmer county, near by 

the last mine above. See page 480. 

22. Mine on lands of Vernon, Ashley and Hall, near the head of Lit- 

tle Island run, Wirt county. See page 251. 

23. Mine on land of Wesley K. Ellis, one-fourth mile up the mouth 

of Blowntimber run, Roane county. See page 254. 
25. Mine on land of Jas. E. Linkinnoggor, on the west edge of the 
public road, one-half mile due north of the mouth of Blown- 
timber run, Roane county. See page 253. 

25. Mine on land of J. H. Osborne on the east side of Little Laurel 
run, one-eighth mile above the mouth of same, 2 miles due 
east of Osbornes Mills, Roane county. See page 262. 



32 



CHAPTER X. 

CLAYS, ROAD MATERIALS AND BUILD- 
ING STONE. 



CLAYS AND CLAY INDUSTRY IN WIRT, ROANE AND 
CALHOUN COUNTIES. 

In Vol. Ill of the State Survey reports, G. P. Grimsley 
gives a discussion of the origin of clays, their physical and 
chemical properties, their classification and uses, as well as 
a general review of the clay industry in West Virginia. 

No fine deposits of fire clay belong in the rocks of the 
Dunkard, Monongahela and Conemaugh series; hence, it fol- 
lows that no deposits of such clays outcrop in the area under 
discussion. However, there is an abundance of alluvial clay 
along the bottoms and terraces of the Little Kanawha river 
and its tributaries in the three counties, as well as on Poca- 
talico river in southern Roane county- The economic geol- 
ogy map, accompanying this report, shows the location and 
extent of the alluvial deposits. The latter have been utilized 
both at Elizabeth and Spencer for the manufacture of build- 
ing brick. 

The Washington Fire Clay Shale.— Immediately under the 
Washington coal bed in the area under discussion, there oc- 
curs a fire clay shale, ranging in thickness from 5 to 10 feet, 
that is very persistent. On pages 163-164 is given a description 
of this stratum along with a chemical analysis of a sample 
of the same collected near Spencer. The percentages of silica, 
ferric iron, alumina, and lime as shown by this analysis, show 
that a fair quality of building brick could be made from the 
shale. The stratum comes only 120 to 130 feet above the base 
of the Monongahela series ; hence, a general idea of its distri- 
bution in the three counties may be had from the area out- 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 499 

lined for the latter measures on the economic geology map 
accompanying this report. 

The Spencer Brick Company. 

This plant is located in the south edge of the tow^n of 
Spencer, Roane county. The company manufactures brick for 
building purposes only. The clay is moulded by an Auger 
wire cut machine with a capacity of 20,000 brick for a ten 
hour day. The brick are air dried. 

Shale Pit. — ^The shale is mined in open quarry from the 
alluvial deposits on the second terrace of Spring creek, near 
the plant. The alluvium here correlates with the "Tyler silt 
loam", a mechanical analysis of which is given by Latimer 
and Meeker on a subsequent page of this report. 

Huddleston & Rhodes, of Spencer, established a tempo- 
rary brick plant on the north bank of Pocatalico river, just 
above the town of Walton, Roane county, during 1909, for the 
purpose of manufacturing brick for the construction of the 
bank building at the latter place. The plant consisted of only 
one kiln, and the brick were air dried. The alluvial clays 
along the river bottom at this point were utilized. At the 
time the plant was visited by the writer it had been abandoned. 

ROAD MATERIALS 

The public highways of the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area con- 
sist entirely of dirt roads. Even the old turnpikes were never 
anything more . These become almost impassable during the 
winter season in several portions of the three counties, due at 
this time to the heavy haulage incident to the development 
of their oil and gas fields. Hence, the subject of road mate- 
rials cannot fail to be of interest to the citizens of this portion 
of the State. 

Limestones which exhibit good wearing qualities along 
with fair cementing properties are very desirable in surfacing 
road beds. The only place within the area where limestones 
of sufficient thickness to be workable, outcrop, is in extreme 



500 CLAYS, ROAD MATERIALS AND BUILDING STONE. 

western Wirt county. There the following ledges crop near 
the summits of the hills, all in the Dunkard series: 

Middle Rockport Limestone. 

Lower Rockport Limestone. 

Nineveh Limestone- 

The geology and distribution of these limestones are taken 
up in a former chapter of this report. 

Middle Rockport Limestone. — This stratum crops along 
the road near Limestone Hill P. O. It is a dark gray in color, 
ranging in thickness from 3 to 5 feet . Prof. Hite reports the 
composition of a sample collected at the latter point as fol- 
lows : 

Analysis of Middle Rockport Limestone. 

Per cent. 

Silica (SiO,) 1.05 

Ferric Iron (Fe.Oa) 0.79 

Alumina (AlA.) 0.28 

Calcium Carbonate (CaCOj) 96.71 

Magnesium Carbonate (MgC O3) 1 . 33 

100.16 

Lower Rockport Limestone. — At 25 to 30 feet below the 
Middle Rockport limestone and 10 to 15 feet above the Nine- 
veh limestone in western Wirt county occurs the Lower Rock- 
port ledge. Its geology is discussed in a former chapter under 
the descriptions of the formations of the Dunkard series- It 
ranges in thickness from 5 to 8 feet, and crops near the sum- 
mits of the hills along the ridge leading southeast via Windy 
P. O. to the Wirt-Roane county line. Prof. Hite reports the 
following chemical composition for a sample collected near 
Limestone Hill P. O. : 

Analysis of Lower Rocl<port Limestone. 

Per cent. 

Silica (SiO^) 3.81 

Ferric Iron (FcoOa) 0.48 

Alumina (ALO3) 1.11 

Calcium Carbonate (CaCOj) 93 . 01 

Magnesium Carbonate (MgC O3) 2 . 33 

100.74 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 501 

Nineveh Limestone.— At 30 to 40 feet below the Lower 
Rockport limestone in western Wirt county there occurs a 
ledge of limestone, ranging in thickness from 5 to 8 feet. Its 
geology is also discussed in the same chapter of this report 
referred to above. It crops near the summits of the hills in 
the same area assigned above for the Lower Rockport ledge, 
and also along "Limestone Ridge" north of Morristown P. O., 
and along "Courtney Ridge" southeast of the latter point. 
The writer collected two samples from this ledge for analysis: 
one on "Limestone Ridge," and the other near Limestone Hill 
P. O. Prof. Hite reports their chemical composition as fol- 
lows: 

Analyses of Nineveh Limestone. 

Limestone Ridge Limestone P.O. 

Sample Sample 

Per cent. Per cent. 

Silica (SiOJ 2.59 1.05 

Ferric Iron (Fe,0,) 1 0.79 

I 2.08 

Alumina (AljO,) J 0.28 

Calcium Carbonate (CaCOa) 94.44 96.71 

Phosphoric Acid . 04 

Magnesium Carbonate (MgC O,) 0.39 1.33 

99.54 100.16 

The above limestones are all hard and sharp and would, 
no doubt, make excellent road material. Their area is, how- 
ever, so limited that they could hardly be considered as a re- 
source available for the three counties, but rather for the west- 
ern portion of Wirt county alone. 

All other outcropping limestones within the area, such 
as the Jollytown, Uniontown, Redstone and Ames, are too 
thin and irregular to be quarried for road purposes. 

River and Creek Gravels. — By far the greatest and cheap- 
est source of road material in Wirt, Roane and Calhoun coun- 
ties, and one that is most widely distributed, and most fre- 
quently overlooked, is gravel. An almost inexhaustible quan- 
tity of this material is deposited along the beds of the large 
streams within the three counties- The gravel is already 
pounded and worn by attrition down to a size suitable for di- 
rect application to the surface of the road bed. 



502 CLAYS, ROAD MATERIALS AND BUILDING STONB. 

BUILDING STONE. 

In Vol. IV of the State Geological reports, Prof. G. P. 
Grimsley gives a general review of the building stones of 
West Virginia, with a discussion of their origin, physical and 
chemical properties, and uses. 

None of the limestones of the area is adapted for build- 
ing purposes, since they do not possess the right degree of 
compactness, and are not sufficiently abundant to be counted 
upon for such uses. The sandstones constitute by far the 
greatest source of building material. 

The following sandstones outcrop in the Wirt-Roane-Cal- 
houn area : - 

Dunkard Series. 

1. Nineveh Sandstone (Description given on page 144). 

2. Burton Sandstone (Description given on page 145). 

3. Fish Creek Sandstone (Description given on page 146). 

4. Rush Run Sandstone (Description given on page 147). 

5. Jollytown Sandstone (Description given on page 148). 

6. Hundred Sandstone (Description given on pages 149-150). 

7. Upper. Marietta Sandstone (Description given on pages 151- 

153). 

8. Lower Marietta Sandstone (Description given on pages 155- 

159). 

9. Mannington Sandstone (Description given on pages 164-168). 

10. Waynesburg Sandstone (Description given on pages 169-170). 

Monongahela Series. 

11. Gilboy Sandstone (Description given on pages 192-193). 

12. Uniontown Sandstone (Description given on pages 193-195. 

13. Arnoldsburg Sandstone (Description given on pages 202-204). 

14. Sewickley ? (Rock Creek) Sandstone (Description given on 

pages 206-209). 

15. Upper Pittsburg Sandstone (Description given on pages 210- 

212). 

Conemaugh Series. 

16. Lower Pittsburg Sandstone (Description given on pages 232- 

234). 

17. Connellsville Sandstone (Description given on pages 234-236). 

18. Morgantown Sandstone (Description given on pages 236-238). 

19. Grafton Sandstone (Description given on pages 240-241). 

20. Saltsburg Sandstone (Description given on pages 250-251). 

21. Buffalo Sandstone (Description given on pages 256-258). 

The only sandstones in the above list that have been quar- 
ried or are available to a large extent for quarrying pur- 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 503 

poses are the Hundred, Upper Marietta, Lower Marietta, Man- 
nington, and Waynesburg of the Dunkard series; the Union- 
town, Arnoldsburg and Sewickley (Rock Creek) of the Mo- 
nongahela series; and the Lower Pittsburg, Connellsville, 
Morgantown and Buffalo of the Conemaugh series. 

The Hundred Sandstone. 

This stratum occurs 175 to 180 feet over the Washington 
coal bed. Its stratigraphy, thickness and distribution in the 
three counties are given on pages 149-150. It is a coarse, brown 
and often micaceous rock and forms great cliffs in the west- 
ern portion of Reedy and Spencer districts, and in Curtis dis- 
trict, all of Roane county. It has not been quarried to any 
extent, but would furnish an abundant supply of building 
stone that is probably best adapted to foundation work. 

The Upper Marietta Sandstone. 

The Upper Marietta sandstone occurs 75 to 100 feet over 
the Washington coal bed. Its geology, thickness and distri- 
bution in the area under discussion are described at length on 
pages 151-153. It is bluish, buff and yellowish brown in color, 
all three shades often being found in the same ledge. This 
sandstone is quarried in the east edge of the town of Reedy, 
Roane county, about 125 feet above the level of Reec^y creek. 
There it furnishes a fine quality of building stone, mostly 
bluish gray in color. It is used here largely for chimneys and 
foundations of buildings in the vicinity. No stone is shipped 
away by rail. 

The wide exposure of this stratum at outcrop in the area 
under discussion. aS well as its good thickness (30 to 40 feet), 
will enable the ledge to supply an almost inexhaustible quan- 
tity of building stone. 

The Lower Marietta Sandstone. 

The Lower Marietta sandstone is only slightly less in im- 
portance as a building rock in the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area 



504 CLAYS^ ROAD MATERIALS AND BUILDING STONE, 

than the Upper Marietta, 40 to 50 feet higher, which it re- 
sembles both in color and texture. Its geology, thickness 
and distribution are given on pages 155-156. It has been quar- 
ried considerably on Goff run of Spring creek, one-half mile 
east from the town of Spencer, to supply the local demand for 
chimneys, foundations, belt courses, and window and dooi 
caps of buildings in the town. Stone from this ledge in the 
quarry of Mr. H. B. Hughes on Goflf run was used in the con- 
struction of the present kitchen and bakery of the Second Hos- 
pital for the Insane at Spencer. 

The stone appears quite durable. In one building in 
Spencer, where it has been exposed to the elements since 1857, 
the rock shows but little signs of disintegration. It also 
should furnish a large supply of building stone for each of the 
three counties, due to its wide exposure at outcrop. 

The Mannington Sandstone. 

The Mannington sandstone along with the Sewickley 
(Rock Creek) sandstone is the most prominent clifT maker 
in the Wirt-Roane-Calhoun area. Its stratigraphy, thickness 
and distribution are given on pages 164-168. It varies from a 
bluish, fine-grained stone to a coarse brown rock, often con- 
taining large quartz pebbles. 

The ledge has been quarried a good deal in the town of 
Spencer, Roane county, for the same purposes as the Lower 
Marietta above. The stone for the foundation, belt courses, 
and window and door caps of the main building of the Second 
Hospital for the Insane at this place, was taken from the Man- 
nington sandstone ledge at creek level, directly in front of 
the structure. There it has given good satisfaction. An al- 
most inexhaustible supply of building stone from this ledge is 
available in the three counties. 

The Uniontown Sandstone. 

The Uniontown sandstone occurs 200 to 225 feet below 
the Washington coal bed. It is also a very prominent clifT 
rock in the area under discussion. A full description of its 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 505 



stratigraphy, thickness and distribution is given on pages 193- 

195. 

Where it crops in the three counties, it is bluish and buff 
in color, and generally close grained, and no doubt would 
make a fine building stone. Its great thickness, 30 to 50 feet, 
and its wide distribution over the area, makes it rank high 
as an available resource for building purposes. 



The Arnoldsburg Sandstone. 

At 40 to 50 feet below the Uniontown sandstone in the 
vicinity of Arnoldsburg, Calhoun county, there occurs a great 
massive sandstone that resembles very much both in texture 
and color the former stratum. The writer has named it the 
Arnoldsburg sandstone and given a full account of its strati- 
graphy, thickness and distribution over the three counties on 
pages 202-204. It is a very fine building stone and quite dur- 
able as is well shown by the old abandoned foundation for a 
court house at the town which bears its name. Stone from a 
quarry in this ledge near the mouth of Millstone run of West 
Fork river was used in making the latter structure, and, 
though exposed to the elements since i860, the pick marks are 
almost as sharp and distinct as when first made. 

It is a great cliff rock on Leafbank run, north of Grants- 
ville, Calhoun county, and along Steer creek below Stump- 
town. Like the Uniontown above, it should furnish an almost 
inexhaustible quantity of building material. 



The Sewickley ? (Rock Creek) Sandstone. 

The Sewickley (Rock Creek) sandstone along with the 
Mannington is the greatest cliff maker in the three counties. 
A full description of its stratigraphy, thickness, and distribu- 
tion is given on pages 206-209. The ledge has been quarried to 
a small extent on McKown creek, southeast from Walton, 
Roane county, and used in the stone work on the construction 
of the new bank building at the latter point. However, it is 



506 CLAYS, ROAD MATERIALS AND BUILDING STONE. 

too coarse and pebbly there to make very desirable building 
stone. 

It has also been quarried for the piers for the new bridge 
about one mile due south of Grantsville, Calhoun county, near 
stream level on Philip run. There it is closer grained and a 
much better building rock. The base of the quarry comes 
about 425 feet below the horizon of the Washington coal bed. 

The great cliffs of this ledge along McKown, Rock and 
Green creeks of Pocatalico river, and the waters of Big Sandy 
creek, Roane county; the waters of West Fork and Little 
Kanawha rivers, Calhoun county ; and Standingstone creek, 
Wirt county, should furnish a great supply of building ma- 
terial. 

While the standstones of the Conemaugh series have not 
been quarried to any extent in the area under discussion, yet 
they are very prominent cliff makers there, and should furnish 
a very large supply of fine building stone. They are fully de- 
scribed in the references given above for the standstones of 
the Conemaugh measures. 



CHAPTER XL 

SOIL SURVEY OF THE SPENCER AREA, 
WEST VIRGINIA. 

(Wirt, Roane and Calhoun Counties.) 
By W. J. Latimer and F. N. Meeker. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA. 

The Spencer area is located in the west-central part of 
West Virginia, and lies wholly within the Appalachian 
Plateau province. It comprises Wirt, Calhoun, and Roane 
counties, and is bounded on the north by Wood and Ritchie 
counties, on the east by Ritchie, Gilmer, Braxton, and Clay 
counties, on the south by Braxton, Clay, and Kanawha coun- 
ties, on the east by Kanawha, Jackson, and Wood counties. 
Wirt County contains about 250 square miles, Calhoun Coun- 
ty about 270 square miles, and Roane County about 540 square 
miles, making a total of 1,054 square miles, or 674,560 acres, 
covered by the present survey. North and south the area 
is about 48 miles in length, and its greatest width east and 
west is about 30 miles. 

The surface of the country, like that of most of the Ap- 
palachian region, is very rough and broken, the ridges being 
narrow and the valleys V-shaped. Only in a few places do 
the ridges broaden out into a pleateau, and the bottom land 
along the streams is usually narrow and in some places en- 
tirely wanting. Along some of the larger streams the bottom 
land attains a width of one-half mile to i mile or more and in 
such cases much of it is composed of terrace or second-bottom 
areas. Where streams have cut their way through massive 
sandstone strata the first bottom is usually lacking and the 
second bottom is found surmounting the rock strata. Viewed 



508 SOIL SURVEY OF THE SPENCER AREA, 

from the highest peaks the tops of the ridges conform to a 
general Ime, and show very plainly that they are a remnant 
of a plateau that has been dissected by erosion. In general 
the western half of the area is not so rough as the t;astern 
half, the ridges are broader, the hillsides more gently sloping, 
and the valleys contain more bottom land. Along the tribu- 
taries of the larger streams and along the "Break" and east of 
the "Break" the country is very broken, and abrupt rock cliffs 
are common along the streams. 

The lowest point— the water level of the Little Kanawha 
Krver where it leaves the area — is about 600 feet above sea 
level, and the highest point in the area, Mule Knob, in the 
southern part of Calhoun County, is 1,550 feet above sea level. 
Several high knobs occur over the area, such as Weedy Knob, 
1,450; Desert Knob, 1,400; Nichols Knob, 1,250; and Kite 
Knob, 1,269. The most of these knobs are found in the south- 
eastern part of the area. The general level of the hilltops of 
the area is about 900 to i.ioo feet above sea level, and the dif- 
ference between the hills and valleys ranges from 100 to 400 
feet. 

AH the drainage waters of the area find their way into 
the Ohio River through the Little and Great Kanawha rivers 
The divide between the drainage systems of these two streams 
passes through Roane County in a general east-and-west di- 
rection just south of Clarence and Speed ; turning in a south- 
east direction north of Roxalana it strikes the Roane-Calhoun 
county line south of Tariff and follows that line to the Kana- 
wha County line. The Little Kanawha and its tributaries 
drain the greater portion of the area. This river flows in a 
northwesterly direction through the northern part of the area. 
The West Fork of the Little Kanawha River forms part of the 
line between Roane and Calhoun counties, Henry Fork of the 
West Fork drains the southern end of Calhoun County, and 
Beech Fork receives the drainage from both Roane and Cal- 
houn counties. The northern part of Roane County is drained 
into the Little Kanawha through Reedy and Spring creeks. 
The most of Wirt County and the northern part of Calhoun 
is drained through small streams directly into the Little Kana- 
wha River. The southern part of Roane County is drained by 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



509 



Pocatalico River and Big Sandy Creek, which empty into the 
Great Kanawha River. 

Most of the early settlers came from Virginia, with a few 
from North Carolina, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. The first 
settlements in the area were made along Reedy Creek and the 
Little Kanawha River, between 1775 and 1790. The other 
parts of the area were settled gradually in the ensuing thirty 
years. The town of Elizabeth was founded in 1806. The first 
settlement in Roane County was made where Spencer now 
stands, in 1812 ; and the first in Calhoun County was made on 
West Fork in 1811. The early settlers were mostly hunters, 
trappers, and woodsmen, and only cleared small patches to 
grow a few necessaries for home consumption. The western 
part of the area developed more rapidly than the eastern part, 
as the conditions in the former section were more favorable to 
agricultural development. The grazing of cattle became the 
chief source of income in the western part, while lumbering be- 
came the chief occupation of the eastern part. 

The discovery of oil in paying quantities near Burning 
Springs, in Wirt County, in the early sixties attracted large 
numbers of people from Pennsylvania and Ohio. Since the 
discovery of oil on Flat Fork, Roane County, in 1897, and the 
subsequent opening of other fields many have come into the 
area from adjoining counties and exhausted oil fields. 

Nearly all the rural population are descended from the or- 
iginal settlers, and only a few negroes are found in the area. 
The inhabitants of the eastern part of the area are confined 
largely to the stream valleys, and the hills are pretty well cov- 
ered with timber ; the western part is largely cleared and in 
pasture. 

The following table shows the growth in population of the 
counties comprised in the Spencer area, according to the re- 
turns of the federal census : 



Counties. 


1850 


1860 


1870 


1880 


1890 


1900 






2,502 
5,381 
3,751 


2,939 
7,232 
4,804 


6,072 

12,184 

7,104 


8,155 

15,303 

9,411 


10,266 






19,852 


Wirt 


3,353 


10,284 






Total 


3,353 


11,634 


14,975 


25,360 


32,869 


40,402 







510 SOIL SURVEY OF THE SPENCER AREA. 

Spencer, the county seat of Roane County, has a popula- 
tion of about 3,000, and is the most important town in the area. 
It is the terminus of the Ravenswood and Spencer branch of 
the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, a distributing point for the 
oil fields in Roane County, and an important cattle-shipping 
point. Reedy is a small but important town in-Roane County. 
It has about 600 population and is situated upon the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad about 10 miles north of Spencer, in the 
heart of a good farming country. Newton and Walton are 
other small towns in Roane County. The latter is the center 
for the Rock Creek oil field. Elizabeth, the county seat of 
Wirt County, has a population of about 1,000 and is situated 
on the Little Kanawha River and Little Kanawha Railroad. 
Newark, Creston, and Burning Springs are small towns in 
Wirt County, all situated upon the Little Kanawha River. 
The latter place is at the head of navigation of that stream. 
Grantsville, the county seat of Calhoun County, has a popula- 
tion of about 500, and is situated on the Little Kanawha 
River. Arnoldsburg is the next town of importance in Cal- 
houn County. 

The oil and gas business and allied industries represent 
the most important interests in the area. The oil industry is 
confined largely to the region of the "Break." The Rock 
Creek and Triplet fields are producing large quantities of oil 
and are among the largest producing fields in the country. The 
development of the new oil fields in the southern part of Roane 
County is being pushed very rapidly and is giving employment 
to thousands. There are a great many small oil fields in Wirt 
County, but the most of them have decreased in production or 
failed entirely. Large quantities of gas are produced in Wirt 
and Calhoun counties, and carbon black is an important manu- 
factured product. 

Coal occurs in small quantities in nearly all parts of the 
area and is mined on a small scale for local use. In the south- 
ern part of Roane County considerable coal is mined, though 
the output does not supply the local demand. Sandstone suit- 
able for building purposes occurs in nearly all parts of the 
area, and is quarried in many places. Along the tributaries 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 511 

of the Little Kanawha River in Calhoun County lumbering is 
quite an industry. 

The area is not very well supplied with transportation fa- 
cilities, only two spur lines of railroad entering it. The Spen- 
cer and Ravenswood branch of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail- 
road connects with the main line at Ravenswood, and the Lit- 
tle Kanawha River Railroad runs from Palestine, in Wirt 
County, to Parkersburg. This gives direct connection with 
Pittsburg and the large cattle markets of the East. In addi- 
tion, the Little Kanawha River is navigable up as far as Cres- 
ton, and small boats ply between Creston and Parkersburg, 
where they connect with boats on the Ohio River. 

The public-road system of the area is very good, except 
for the main roads that lead from the distributing points to the 
oil fields. These have been deeply cut and worn by the con- 
tinued heavy hauling, especially where the roads traverse red 
clay soils. During dry weather in summer and fall the 
roads are usually in good condition. Most of them follow the 
valleys or ridge tops. 

Nearly all small towns are connected with telephone lines 
and most of the farm houses have telephones. The same co- 
operative system that is found in eastern Ohio and the part of 
West Virginia bordering the Ohio River is found in this area, 
and is very cheap and efficient. The lines are usually owned 
by the patrons. 

CLIMATE. 

The climate of the Spencer area is ideal for general farm- 
ing. A few cold spells occur during winter, when the temper- 
ature may fall to zero or below, but they are of short duration. 
The mean for the two coldest months, January and February, 
is about 32° F., while the absolute minimum recorded at Glen- 
ville station in eighteen years is — 29° F. The summers are 
warm, but not excessively hot. The mercury never rises above 
100° F. The annual average temperature is 52.5° F. The an- 
nual rainfall of about 40 inches, is well distributed for agricul- 
ture, the heaviest precipitation occuring during the growing 
season, June and July, and the least during September, Octo- 



512 



SOIL SURVEY OF THE SPENCER AREA. 



ber, and November, during the harvest season. Cattle can be 
pastured during eight months of the year, and it is not neces- 
sary to keep them closely housed during the winter, as the 
snowfall is not heavy and melts very quickly, remaining on 
the ground only a few days. 

The alternate freezing and thawing common to this sec- 
tion is a great benefit to the soil, improving its physical condi- 
tion and putting it in splendid tilth for crops the following 
spring, especially if the subsoil has been exposed by plowing 
during January and February. 

The following tables give the normal monthly, seasonal, 
and annual temperature and precipitation as recorded by the 
U. S. Weather Bureau stations at Spencer, Creston, Ryan, and 
Glenville, * and the average dates of first and last killing frost : 



Normal Monthly, Seasonal, and Annual Temperature and Precipitation. 





Spencer. 


Creston. 


Ryan. 


Glenville. 


Month. 


Tem- 
pera- 
ture. 


Pre- 
cipita- 
tion. 


Tem- 
pera- 
ture. 


Pre- 
cipita- 
tion. 


Tem- 
pera- 
ture. 


Pre- 
cipita- 
tion. 


Tem- 
pera- 
ture. 


Pre- 
cipita- 
tion. 




35 
34 
30 


Inches. 
2.8 
3.9 
2.9 


... 

35 
32 
30 


Inches. 
2.6 
3.2 
2.1 


O p 

36 
33 
31 


Inches. 
3.4 
3.5 
2.7 


o p 
35 
31 
31 


Inches 
4.0 


January 


3.8 




4.0 






Winter 


33 


9.6 


32 


7.9 


33 


9.6 


32 


11.8 


March 


47 
50 
60 


5.6 
2.9 
4.1 


50 
53 
62 


4.9 
3.0 
4.0 


47 
52 
63 


5.4 
3.4 
3.8 


42 
52 
62 


4.2 


April 


3.7 


May 


4.0 






Spring 


52 


12.6 


53 


11.9 


54 


12.6 


52 


11.9 




F 68 
73 
72 


4.8 
6.2 
3.1 


70 
74 
72 


4.4 
4.3 
3.7 


69 
73 
71 


4.6 
4.8 
4.4 


69 
76 
73 


5.0 


July 


5.4 


August 


3.6 






Summer 


71 


14.1 


72 


12.4 


71 


13.8 


73 


14.0 


September 


63 
51 
42 


2.8 
2.2 
1.7 


67 
53 
42 


2.4 
2.7 
1.6 


67 
53 
42 


2.2 
3.1 
1.8 


67 
54 
42 


3.1 




2.5 




3.6 






Pall 


52 


6.7 


54 


6.7 


54 


7.1 


54 


9.2 






Annual 


52 


43.0 


53 


38.9 


53 


33.1 


52 


46.9 



♦The data for the Glenville station is based on records for eighteen years and 
the other stations for five years. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 513 

Average Dates of Last Killing Frost in Spring and the First in Fall. 





Spencer. 


Creston. 


Ryan. 


Glenville. 




Last in 
spring. 


First in 
fall. 


Last in 
spring. 


First in 
fall. 


Last in 
spring. 


First in 
fall. 


Last in 
spring. 


First in 
fall. 


Average 


May 5 




Apr. 30 


Oct 15 


May 8 


Oct. 10 


Apr. 25 


Oct. 18 



AGRICULTURE. ,t| 

The early settlers were not agriculturally inclined, and 
lived mostly by hunting, trapping, and lumbering. They cul- 
tivated small patches and kept a few cattle. Agriculture de- 
veloped more rapidly along the lower part of the Little Kana- 
wha River in Wirt County and Reedy Creek and adjoining 
country in Roane County than in the interior and rougher sec- 
tions of the area. The settlers were attracted to this section 
by the rich bottom land and the red limestone land, that is 
so well suited for grazing. The first crops grown were wheat 
and corn for home consumption. Later on wheat was grown 
for local markets, but with the building of railroads and 
the opening of the West wheat production decreased, as the 
farmers of the area could not meet the competition of the west- 
ern wheat growers. Corn is still grown to a considerable ex- 
tent, mostly upon the bottom land, and is the most important 
crop of the area. Oats have increased in about the same pro- 
portion that wheat has decreased. 

The opening of the Staunton and Parkersburg turnpike, 
in 1850, was a great impetus to agriculture, especially to cattle 
raising, in Wirt County. The Glenville, Ripley, and Ohio 
turnpike, completed in 1855, and the Ravenswood and Spen- 
cer turnpike, in i860, were instrumental in opening Calhoun 
and Roane counties. The completion of the Ravenswood and 
Spencer branch of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, in 1891, 
and the Little Kanawha Railroad, in 1898, were both import- 
ant factors in the industrial and agricultural development of 
the region. The oil and gas industry has diverted attention 
from agriculture and taken labor from the farm, but has com- 
33 



514 



SOIL SURVEY OP THE SPENCER AREA. 



pensated somewhat by enhancing the value of farms and farm 
products. 

From the early fifties until a few years after the civil war 
tobacco was an important crop, but its culture was discontin- 
ued when the war tax was placed upon tobacco in the sixties. 
About 1880 tobacco began to be grown again to a considerable 
extent, but the production was lowered by the low prices that 
prevailed from 1890 to 1900, and only in the last few years 
has this crop been produced to any appreciable extent, and the 
output has never been as great as it was before the civil war. 
The growing of tobacco has been confined mostly to the lime- 
stone ridges in the northwestern part of the area. White and 
Yellow Burley are the varieties grown. 

Oats are grown to a limited extent, and rye and barley are 
grown very little. Extensive areas are in bluegrass pastures, 
and large quantities of timothy hay are produced and fed to 
stock, generally upon the field where it is cut. Peavine and 
timothy hay is grown to a limited extent. Very littk buck- 
wheat or millet is grown. Sweet potatoes are produced to a 
considerable extent on the sandy terrace soils in the southern 
part of the area. 

The following table gives the acreage and production of 
the principal crops grown in the Spencer area, according to 
the census of 1900: 

Acreage and Yield of Principal Crops. 



County 


Wheat 


Corn 


Oats 


Clover 


Calhoun 

Roane 

Wirt 


Acres 
5,722 

12,539 
7,577 


Bushels 
41,070 
88,720 
61,510 


Acres 
13,537 
24,787 
12,327 


Bushels 
348,970 
546,790 
274,670 


Acres 
733 
1,140 
915 


Bushels 
9,220 
13,430 
11,850 


Acres 
128 
463 
537 


Tons 
94 
365 
434 


Total 


25,838 


191,300 


50,651 


1,170,430 


2,788 


34,500 


1,128 


893 


County 


Cultivated 
grasses 


Tobacco 


Potatoes 


Miscellaneous 
vegetables 


Calhoun .... 

Roane 

Wirt 


Acres 
8,118 

13,257 
6,942 


Tons 
5,809 
8,979 
5,297 


Acres 
52 
30 
250 


Pounds 
29,270 
9,940 
160,940 


Acres 
397 
609 
506 


Bushels 
28,360 
40,683 
30,516 


Acres 
513 
536 
490 


Value 

$27,649 

28,769 

21,632 


Total 


28,317 


20.085 


332 


200,150 


1,512 


99,559 


1,539 78,050 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 515 

Small orchards are found on nearly every farm but there 
is no commercial fruit growing in the area. Apples and 
peaches are the principal fruits. Rome Beauty, Ben Davis, 
Black Ben Davis, Grimes Golden, Baldwin, Northern Spy, and 
Russets are the leading varieties of apples. Peaches do best 
upon the limestone ridges. Elberta and Crawford (late and 
early) are the principal sorts. The former is the best shipper. 
Plums do well and are found in every orchard. Bartlett and 
Kieffer pears are grown, the former giving the best satisfac- 
tion, as it is resistant to blight. Niagara and Concord are the 
principal varieties of grapes. The orchards are usually sit- 
uated convenient to the houses and with little regard to soil 
and exposure. They receive little care, are not properly 
pruned or sprayed, and usually are in bad condition. The most 
serious troubles so far encountered in growing fruit are frost, 
which injures the young fruit, and winterkilling of the trees. 

Stock raising became an important industry as early as 
1840, but it was not until the passage of the stock law, in 1885, 
that any progress was made in the way of purebred cattle. 
Before the days of railroads the cattle were driven overland to 
Baltimore and other eastern markets. The first pure breed of 
cattle to be introduced in the area was the Shorthorn, about 
1880. Next was the Herefords, about 1895, and next the Polled 
Angus, about 1899. The Herefords seem to be giving the best 
results, but the purebred cattle are about equally divided be- 
tween the three breeds. The Hereford and Polled Angus are 
strictly beef cattle, and the Shorthorn is a dual-purpose breed. 
There are no large dairy herds in the area, and no cattle are 
bred for that purpose. The growing of cattle for beef is the 
most important industry in the area, and many blooded herds 
are found. All the purebred cattle were introduced near Spen- 
cer, and that place is now the center of the cattle business. 
Large numbers of cattle are shipped from the area each year 
The most of them go to Ohio dealers, who finish them on corn 
and later sell them mostly in the Pittsburg and Baltimore 
markets. 

The raising of sheep became an important industry some 
time between i860 and 1870, and continued important until 
about 1890, when the low price of wool caused a marked de- 



516 SOIL SURVEY OF THE SPENCER AREA. 

cline in the flocks. Sheep do not pay as well as cattle, and, 
moreover, they injure bluegrass sod by close cropping and 
cause it to deteriorate rapidly. In the rougher portions of the 
area a great many sheep are raised. The first pure strain of 
sheep introduced into the area was the Merino, about 1890, near 
Garfield, Wirt County, followed by the Southdown, introduced 
near Spencer, in 1895. Merinos are not raised much now, as 
they do not thrive under the local climatic conditions. The 
Southdown is a hardier breed, gives good wool, and is the 
principal sheep raised in the area. Shropshires are used for 
both wool and mutton. 

Hogs are raised in all parts of the area for home con- 
sumption and for local markets, but none are shipped from the 
area. A few horses are raised, though not enough to supply 
the local demand. Goats are raised in small numbers in the 
rougher portions of the area. They are used by many farmers 
to keep down the weeds and brush in pastures. Chickens and 
turkeys are raised in large numbers, and a great many of the 
latter are shipped to outside markets. 

The value of the red land for grazing purposes is recog- 
nized, and upon this soil stock raising has been largely devel- 
oped. Wheat is usually grown upon the red ridges, corn upon 
the bottom land, and tobacco on the limestone ridges. Alfalfa 
is grown to a small extent on the limestone land. In general, 
the soils are too shallow and the subsoils too impervious for 
the successful growing of alfalfa. 

Rotation of crops is practiced to a certain extent upon 
the upland. Corn is rarely planted in the same fields two 
years in succession, except upon bottom land. A popular and 
good rotation for the upland in general is corn, followed by 
wheat or oats and then by timothy or red clover and bluegrass. 
The wheat is sown on the corn stubble, and the timothy and 
bluegrass are sown after harvest. The timothy is cut until it 
begins to fail. It usually lasts four to six years, and the land 
is then used as pasture. Red clover is sown instead of timo- 
thy when pasture is wanted sooner, as the red clover will all 
disappear before the third year. A rotation used on bottom 
land where mowing land is desired is corn, oats, and timothy. 
Timothy and cowpeas are often sown at the last working of 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 517 

corn and make splendid hay. Cowpeas, soy beans, and yetch 
should be used more freely in rotations, especially the latter, 
which makes an excellent winter cover crop. A rotation used 
in bringing newly cleared woodland into pasture is: Corn, 
two years ; wheat, bluegrass, and red clover, sowing the grass 
seed, usually red clover, with wheat to protect the bluegrass 
until it becomes established. The agricultural methods used 
by the more advanced and successful farmers are admirably 
suited to the conditions of the country. Stock is usually fed 
upon the ground where the hay is cut, thus returning practic- 
ally all the plant food to the soil. The hillsides are kept in 
woodland, where not in sod. Very little attempt is made to 
cultivate these steep areas except in reclaiming them for pas- 
ture. The country is well suited to the growing of apples. 
but very little attention is paid the orchards. The area is best 
adapted to stock raising, and the best farmers have reduced 
the production of cattle to a science. 

The rapid development of the oil fields has taken much 
efficient labor from the farm. Farm labor is paid $20 to $25 
a month with board. 75 cents a day with board, or $1 a day 
without board. The same class of labor in the oil fields re- 
ceives $2 a day. According to the census of 1900, 69.7 per cent 
of the farms are operated by owners and a large part of the 
field work is done by the family of the operator, very little 
outside help being used on the farms. In renting hill land, 
where the owner furnishes teams, tools, and land, the renter, 
the work and seed, each receives one-half the crops. In bot- 
tom land the owner furnishes land only and receives one-half 
the field crops. 

The following table gives the average size of farms, acres 
in farms, and value of farms and equipment, according to the 
Twelfth Census: 



518 



SOIL SURVEY OF THE SPENCER AREA. 



County 


Average 
size of 
farms 
(acres) 


Acres in 
farms im- 
proved 


Total 

acres in 

farms 


Value of 
farm lands 

and im- 
provements 
except 

buildings 


Value of 

farm 
buildinga 


Value of 
imple- 
ments 
and 
machin- 
ery 


Value of 
live 
stock 


Calhoun . 
Roane . . . 
Wirt 


92.6 

100.6 

80.7 


70,321 

166,074 

72,185 


155,046 
284,269 
123,295 


$1,277,400 $407,360 
2,706,030 697,060 
1,292,880 377,720 


$57,270 

107,880 

63,080 


$369,164 
855,337 
357,787 


Total . . . 




308,580 


562,610 


5,276,310 1,482,140 


228,230 


1,582 288 









In a country where the chief interest is the grazing of live 
stock the maintenance of good bluegrass sod is very import- 
ant. The average life of a bluegrass sod in this section usual- 
ly ranges from ten to forty years, depending upon the soil and 
the treatment it has received. Sods should be watched very 
closely and all dead spots reseeded before erosion begins. The 
application of lime (slaked or agricultural), floats (ground 
phosphate rock), ground limestone, or ground bone, in small 
quantities will rejuvenate a sod and keep it in a flourishing 
condition for a number of years. Many of the steep hillsides 
should be left in forest, as the soil is so thin that sods are of 
short duration and erosion soon carries the loose surface ma- 
terial away, leaving a surface unfit for agricultural purposes. 

Orchards should be located preferably upon the north and 
east exposures upon the shelf land near the top of the ridges 
or at the base of the ridge. Terraces that occur over 50 feet 
above the stream bed make good locations for orchards. Lit- 
tle success can be had with fruit without spraying, and for 
this reason it is not advantageous to have a commercial or- 
chard upon rough ground or steep hillsides. 

The use of cowpeas and vetch is recommended on so- 
called "wornout" soils, and all leguminous crops should be 
used more freely. In growing wheat where it is to be fol- 
lowed by grass, bone meal or floats should be used, as the ef- 
fects are felt for several years, but if cultivated crops are to 
follow wheat a more readily soluble form of phosphate should 
be used. Where manures, cover crops, and leguminous crops 
are used there is little need for applying fertilizer to the soils 
of the area. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 519 

SOILS. 

The soils of the Spencer area, ten in number, are separat- 
ed physiographically into tw^o grand divisions— bottom land, 
comprising four types, and upland, six types. The upland soils 
cover a larger part of the area and consist of gently rolling 
and steep hills. The soils of the upland division are residual 
and are derived from the shales, sandstones, and limestones 
of the Coal Measures and Permian beds of the Carboniferous 
era. The formations represented in the surface of the area are , 
the Dunkard, Monongahela, Conemaugh, and Allegheny. 

Three anticlinal folds and one syncline are found in the 
area. The greatest of these geological disturbances and the one 
that had the greatest effect upon the soil types is the extension 
of the Volcano anticline. It extends entirely through the area 
in a general northeast and southwest direction. Entering the 
area near the northern point of Wirt County, the cap of this 
anticlinal fold or "Break" passes from i to 2 miles to the east 
of the general alignment of Goose Creek to California ; turning 
at this point, it goes south to Burning Springs, where it swings 
to the southeast and follows a semicircular course through 
Hur and Altizer. Here, changing its course to the southwest, 
it passes through Beech to Linden and along the ridge by 
Nithols Knob and Kester, passing out of the county 2 to 3 
miles west of Cotton. The axis of the "Break" oscillates, but 
rises gradually to the southwest from Altizer. The formations 
to the northwest of the "Break" rise in a southeast and south- 
west direction. This brings to the surface, over the central 
part of Roane County, large areas of the strong calcareous 
shales of the Monongahela. Another small fold occurs in the 
western part of Roane County, bringing to the surface the 
upper Monongahela. 

The third fold is higher in altitude and occurs parallel to 
and 2 miles distant from the Braxton County line. This break 
brings large areas of the Conemaugh to the surface. The cen- 
ter of the syncline passes through Arnoldsburg and is par- 
allel to that portion of the Volcano "Break" that passes 
through Beech and Linden. 

Near the top of the Dunkard is found the Nineveh lime- 



520 SOIL SURVEY OF THE SPENCER AREA. 

stone, which caps the hills in the western corner of Wirt Coun- 
ty and gives rise to the Brooke clay loam. The red shales 
below upon weathering result in soils of the Upshur 
series found on the hillsides in that part of the area. The pre- 
dominance of Upshur clay in the central part of the area is 
due to the heavy red shales of the lower Dunkard and the cal- 
careous shales of the Upper Monongahela. These soils con- 
tain limestone nodules and give to Roane County one of the 
best grazing sections of the State. 

In the northern and western parts of the area the soils are 
derived largely from the Dunkard and in the southern and 
eastern parts from Monongahela and Conemaugh. 

Where the rock strata are found weathered in place and 
not aflPected by slips of other material the gray shales, shaly 
sandstones, and fine-grained sandstones weather into Dekalb 
silt loam, and the coarse-grained sandstone into Dekalb sandy 
loam, the red shales into Upshur clay, and limestones into 
Brooke clay loam. The Meigs clay loam is derived from a 
mixture or intimately associated occurrence of the shales and 
sandstones. As slips are frequent and gray shale and sand- 
stone formations are numerous in the Coal Measures. Meigs 
clay loam is the dominant type of the area. Where massive 
unweathered sandstone strata outcrop Rough stony land oc- 
curs. 

The soils that are derived from the weathering of certain 
rock strata are not always found at the same levels as the 
rocks. If rock outcrops on the top of a hill, where there is 
nothing to contaminate it from above, the soil' is character- 
istic of soils derived from that formation, but if upon the hill- 
side, slips often cover the outcrop many feet and the outcrop 
has very little or no effect upon the soil type at that point. 
Usually these slips mix the material of different strata, so that 
the resultant types are representative of these mixtures and 
have different values from the soils that are derived from the 
weathering of an individual stratum. 

Occurring over small areas in almost every upland type, 
but usually found in Meigs clay loam, are "blossoms" of coal 
that give rise to a well-marked soil phase. These spots a:re 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 521 

found along coal outcrops. They occur mostly in the south- 
eastern part of the area where the Pittsburg coal outcrops. 

Tlje soils of the upland are best adapted to grazing and 
only a few low-lying hills, level ridges, and small plateaus are 
suitable for cultivation. 

The bottom land is of Recent geological age. It occurs, 
as the name implies, along the streams, usually in narrow 
strips, but sometimes along the larger streams in bodies from 
one-fourth mile to i mile wide. It is the result of deposition 
of material by the streams upon their flood plains. As this 
material is eroded from the different rocks and soils found 
along the several streams, the resultant types vary in charac- 
ter. 

The Tyler series occurs as second bottom land on a well- 
defined terrace along the larger streams. It was deposiicd 
by these streams during a much earlier period, when their 
flood plains were at a higher level. These terraces are usually 
supported by massive sandstone strata and were formed while 
the stream slowly cut its way through the underlying rocks. 
The Tyler soils are deficient in organic matter and are like 
the upland soils in all but formation. The series is represent- 
ed by two types — a silt loam and a sandy loam, which differ 
very little in agricultural value. 

The Huntington silt loam is the only type of the Hunt- 
ington series encountered and it represents nearly all the pres- 
ent flood plains of the area. 

Where the hillsides are composed largely of Upshur clay 
the resultant bottom-land type is the Moshannon silt loam. 
The type takes some of its character from the soil from 
which it is derived and some from the conditions to which it 
is subjected. The result is the richest agricultural type of the 
area. 

The following table gives a list of the soil types, with the 
actual and relative area of each : 



522 



SOIL SURVEY OF THE SPENCER ABBA. 
Areas of Different Soils. 



Soil. 


Acres. 


Per cent. 


Soil. 


Acres. 


Per cent. 


Meigs clay loam 

Rough stony land. . . . 

Upshur clay 

Huntington silt loam . . 

Dekalb silt loam 

Tyler silt loam 


536,576 
48,256 
39,616 
20,416 
14,784 
7,040 


79.6 
7.2 
5.9 
3.0 
2.1 
1.0 


Moshannon silt loam.. 
Brooke clay loam .... 
Dekalb sandy loam. . . 
Tyler sandy loam .... 

Total 


5,248 

1,344 

832 

448 


0.8 
.2 

.1 

.1 


674,560 









Meigs Clay Loam. 

The Meigs clay loam is quite a variable soil ; in fact, it 
embraces several distinct types and gradational types so in- 
tricately associated that it was found impracticable to separate 
them. By far the greater part of the area consists of a pale- 
yellow to brownish-yellow silt loam from about 2 to 8 inches 
deep, overlying a yellowish slightly compact clay loam to clay, 
which at an average depth of about 24 inches is underlain by 
red to mottled yellow and red clay. This lower subsoil in 
many places is slightly sandy and carries a considerable quan- 
tity of sandstone fragments. Much of this character of land 
is very similar to the Dekalb clay loam. Small patches of 
Indian-red clay (Upshur clay) occur at all elevations through- 
out the type. These were not of sufficient size to map on the 
scale used. A phase of this type having a reddish cast or color 
intermediate between the yellow and red areas described above 
is of common occurrence in Roane County. On the whole the 
clay or clay loam subsoil is near enough to the surface to war- 
rant the classification as a clay loam type. Small gray shale 
and sandstone fragments are frequently encountered on the 
surface and throughout the soil mass, sometimes in sufficient 
quantity to give local areas the characteristics of a shale, or 
gravelly silt loam. These fragments are rarely abundant 
enough to cause the classification of the areas where they oc- 
cur as a gravelly loam. 

The topography is usually steep and the unweathered 
rocks are found from 2 to 5 feet below the surface. The drain- 
age is rapid and often excessive, and crops upon the type suflfer 
during droughts. Upon many of the narrow ridges the soil 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 523 

is quite sandy in texture. In Calhoun County, where the soft 
calcareous shales of the Conemaugh come to the surface, this 
type is found weathered into long steep slopes. The soil is 
usually deeper and the clay content slightly higher and the 
type supports a better bluegrass sod than is usually the case. 
This characteristic phase derived from the Conemaugh is 
found in other areas in the State. The yellow portion of the 
Meigs clay loam is derived through the place weathering of the 
soft gray shales and sandstones of the Coal Measures, while 
the included red areas are from the red shales. This is the 
most extensive type and is found in all parts of the area. The 
soil is easy to cultivate, but produces only fair crops. Erosion 
is very active, and it is advisable to cultivate only a few areas, 
such as ridge tops, shelf land, and other gently sloping sur- 
faces. In the process of changing this type from woodland 
to sod it is necessary to cultivate for several seasons. If it 
were not for the roots of the trees it would often be imprac- 
ticable to do this. These tend to hold the soil in place until 
the grass is established. The grass is generally cut for three 
to four years, when the land is ready for pasture. The type 
furnishes good grazing for about ten years ; after that time 
dead spots and broomsedge begin to show. If proper atten- 
tion is not given immediately washes start, and the hillside is 
soon stripped of its thin layer of soil. The life of a pasture 
can be prolonged many years by proper attention. The use 
of lime, phosphates, and manure are recommended to invigor- 
ate and renew the pasture sods. If the dead spots do not show 
any signs of revival after treatment with these fertilizers it is 
best to resod them. 

This type produces one-half to i ton of hay per acre. 
It is the best plan to feed the hay to stock upon the ground 
from which it is taken, and in this way to return as much or- 
ganic matter to the soil as practicable. Bluegrass makes the 
best pasture on this type. It is usually sown with clover or 
timothy, and in a few years the bluegrass predominates, form- 
ing a splendid sod. When the sod fails entirely the best plan 
is to allow the field to grow up in brush until the soil is filled 
with roots, when it may be plowed and the same rotation used 
to bring in the bluegrass again. 



524 SOIL SURVEY OF THE SPENCER AREA. 

Corn yields from 20 to 40 bushels per acre, usually of in- 
ferior grade. Wheat will produce from 5 to 15 bushels to the 
acre. All fruits, especially apples, do well, and the part of 
this type having the proper exposure would pay in orchards. 

The native growth on this type is largely oak, hickory, 
maple, walnut, and poplar. Much of the type is still in forest 
and sells for about $10 an acre. When cleared it brings about 
$20 an acre. 

Brooke Clay Loam. 

The Brooke clay loam has a dark-gray to grayish-brown 
soil, varying from 3 to 5 inches in depth. The subsoil, where 
typically developed, is an ashy-gray heavy clay to clay loam. 
In many places the subsoil is mixed with materials from the 
underlying formation, giving rise to a hillside phase of the 
type. Under these conditions the subsoil is a yellowish-gray 
to brownish-gray clay, changing to a reddish-gray color at 
about 20 inches. Light-gray mottlings occur in the upper 20 
inches of the subsoil. The red color is more pronounced and 
the texture slightly lighter in the lower parts of the profile. 
Scattered upon the surface and through the soil and subsoil 
are found fragments and boulders of gray and bluish-gray 
limestone. Irregular cracks are found upon the sun-baked 
surface, varying from one-fourth to three-fourths inch wide 
and extending through the soil into the subsoil. These "sun- 
cracks" are like those found in the Upshur clay, and are com- 
mon to many soils of heavy clay content. 

In cultivating this type care must be taken not to plow 
when it is too wet. although the results are not as disastrous 
or as lasting as upon the Upshur clay owing to the high lime 
content of the Brooke clay loam. When plowing is done un- 
der the proper moisture conditions this type is easy to manage 
and if plowed in winter it breaks down into a line mellow seed 
bed. If plowed in the fall the soil becomes compacted. 

The Brooke clay loam occurs in small areas along the 
tops of the ridges and hills in the western corner of Wirt 
County. Areas extend down the ridge between Jackson and 
Roane counties as far as Garfield. The geological formation 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. o2o 

which gives rise to this type is a remnant of the Nineveh lime- 
stone which originally covered a more extensive area, much 
of it having been removed through the agencies of weathering 
and erosion. The greater proportion of the type is derived 
from the weathering in place of a limestone stratum, which 
averages about lo feet in thickness. In many places, however, 
the limestone material is mixed with material derived from 
calcareous red shale, gray shale, and to a less extent from 
sandstone. These are usually underlying formations. In a 
few places small spots or knolls of Meigs clay loam, too lim- 
ited to be shown on the map, occur within the Brooke clay 
loam. These are derived from the shale and sandstone for- 
mations that lie immediately above the limestone in the geo- 
logical column. 

Very little erosion shows upon the surface of the type, 
as the natural bluegrass sod is vigorous and its strong root 
system prevents washing. The drainage is good and the soil 
absorbs and retains large amounts of moisture, as is shown 
by the flourishing condition of the sod during dry weather. 

The Brooke clay loam is considered the best upland soil 
of the area. It produces, under good conditions, from i,ooo to 
1, 800 pounds of tobacco, 50 to 75 bushels of corn, 20 bushels 
of wheat, 30 bushels of oats, and 2 tons of hay per acre. The 
bluegrass pastures upon this type will support a larger num- 
ber of cattle than those of any other type in the area, and pas- 
tures sodded forty years ago are still in good condition and 
show no signs of giving out. 

All leguminous crops, especially clover, do well on this 
type. It is too heavy for garden crops, though potatoes do 
fairly well. Although alfalfa does not yield as well upon this 
type as it does on typical alfalfa soils, it will yield better than 
on any other type in the area, and it will give as much hay 
to the acre as any other grass. The high feeding value of al- 
falfa hay makes it a profitable crop to grow. In preparing a 
seed bed for alfalfa every precaution should be taken to put 
it in perfect condition. Inadequate preparation of the field has 
been the cause of most of the failures to secure stands upon 
this soil. To follow red clover in seeding to alfalfa is a good 
plan. In all probability bluegrass will crowd out the alfalfa 



526 



SOIL SURVEY OF THE SPENCER AREA. 



in the long run as it does every other grass sown upon this 
type. 

Nearly all of the Brooke clay loam is cleared and under 
cultivation or in bluegrass sod. Crop rotation is an important 
factor in maintaining the productiveness of this type, and the 
use of leguminous crops in the rotation makes it doubly ad- 
vantageous. Manure should be applied freely to gardens. 

The average price of land of this type, taken in connec- 
tion with the poorer types of soil, is about $30 an acre. This 
soil segregated would sell for a much higher price. 

The following table gives the results of mechanical analy- 
ses of the soil and subsoil of the Brooke clay loam : 

Mechanical Analyses of Brooke Clay Loam. 



Number 


Descrip- 
tion 


Fine 
gravel 


Coarse 
saad 


Medium 
sand 


Fine 
sand 


Very fine 
sand 


Silt 


Clay 


20562. . . 
20563 . . . 


Soil . . . 
Subsoil . 


Per cent. 
0.6 
.0 


Per cent. 
3.1 
1.7 


Per cent. 
2.1 
2.5 


Per cent. 
6.6 

7.5 


Per cent. 
5.1 
6.7 


Per cent. 
44.1 
34.1 


Per cent. 
38.5 

47.7 








Up 


shut CI 


ay. 









The Upshur clay is found more extensively developed in 
the Spencer area than in any area hitherto surveyed in the 
State. The soil is a reddish-brown clay to clay loam from 2 
to 6 inches deep, underlain by a heavy Indian-red tenacious 
clay subsoil. Small areas of this typical development are 
found in many places, with a heavy dark Indian-red clay grad- 
ing imperceptibly into a heavy tenacious clay of slightly 
lighter color and containing many reddish white argillaceous 
limestone concretions. Iron concretions are also found in many 
places, but over a large proportion of the type the limestone 
and iron concretions are wanting. In the southwestern part 
of Roane County is encountered a phase of this type, where 
the soil is a gray or brownish gray silt loam 4 inches deep 
resting upon the usual Indian-red subsoil. In a few places 
gray mottlings are found in the lower part of the profile. The 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 527 

Upshur clay, in common with all heavy clay soils, bakes and 
cracks badly when exposed to the hot summer sun after heavy 
rains. 

On account of the tenacious character of the soil cultiva- 
tion is very difficult, and the best results are obtained by win- 
ter plowing. The alternate freezing and thawing, referred to 
in the chapter on climate, pulverizes the soil and forms a good 
seed bed. If plowing is done in the fall, the soil compacts 
and by spring is almost as hard as if it had not been plowed. 
On the other hand, if the plowing is delayed until spring, the 
cold and damp condition of the soil at this season is very un- 
favorable to the formatipn of a good seed bed. Plowing should 
only be attempted when the soil is in the proper moisture 
condition. Many cases were seen where the fields had been 
abandoned for many years following plowing in a wet condi- 
tion. This type is easily eroded, and where hillsides are culti- 
vated washing is very active. For this reason if for no other 
the hillsides should be kept in sod. The root system of the blue- 
grass sod holds the soil in place and prevents gullies from 
starting. Every eflfort should be made by the farmer to keep 
the sod in perfect condition. If dead spots in the sod are left 
very long without attention, the surface soil will soon be 
washed away. Upon the hilltops or gently sloping shelf 
land cultivation can be practiced, but the difficulty attending 
the growing of crops prohibits extensive cultivation. 

The Upshur clay is derived from the weathering in place 
of red calcareous shales of the Coal Measures. It is mainly 
developed in the southwestern half of the area. Small spots 
occur in other parts of the survey, usually upon hilltops where 
thin strata of shale are exposed. Upon the hillsides these 
strata are usually covered by landslides of sandstone and 
shaly material from the overlying formations. 

There are three principal developments of this type in 
the area, each of which is derived from a different geological 
formation. As found in the Western part of Wirt County the 
type is derived from the red calcareous shales of the upper 
Dunkard, and here limestone fragments are very often scat- 
tered through the soil. The second and most extensive devel- 
opment extends intermittently over a large part of Roane 



528 SOIL SURVEY OP THE SPENCER AREA. 

County south of an east-and-west line passing through Spen- 
cer. It is typically developed upon the hillsides around the 
headwaters of Reedy and Spring creeks and upon the hilltops 
around Red Knob and Centerville and extending along the 
ridges upon the "Break" south of Henry Fork of Little Kana- 
wha River. It is derived from the thick-bedded red calcareous 
shales of the lower Dunkard and Upper Monongahela. The 
third development is found in the southern part of Calhoun 
County along the hillsides and on Beech and West Fork of 
the Little Kanawha and extends from their bases up to 200 
feet above. The type here is derived from the Conemaugh 
formation. 

The natural forest growth is hardwood, consisting mainly 
of oak, hickory, maple, walnut, and locust. Nearly all of it 
is cleared and under bluegrass sod. 

The Upshur clay produces from 35 to 50 bushels of corn, 
10 to 15 bushels of wheat, and i^ to 2 tons of hay per acre. 
Oats will yield from 20 to 30 bushels per acre, but this crop 
is not generally grown. The soil is not adapted to the grow- 
ing of garden crops, and fruit does not do well. The soil tends 
to pack and bake. Timothy suffers from this cause and does 
not do well after the first year. The clovers do well, especial- 
ly upon the phase containing lime concretions. A large part 
of the Upshur clay, owing to its sloping topography, is best 
adapted to pasturage. Bluegrass sod will remain in good con- 
dition from twenty to thirty years, and even longer where 
properly cared for. The method of reestablishing the pastures 
when a sod gives out is to put the land in locust or let a nat- 
ural locust thicket grow, assisting by cutting out the other 
brush. By the time the locust is large enough for posts the 
soil will be in fine shape to sod again. Much better crops 
could be grown upon this type if cowpeas were used in the 
rotation and turned under. This practice greatly improves the 
mechanical condition of the soil by replacing humus which 
has been exhausted from most of the type. The less rolling 
areas, as the shelf areas and the tops of the many hills and 
ridges, are topographically well suited to the production of the 
general farm crops. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



529 



During the winter the roads upon this type become all 
but impassable. The mud becomes very deep and the stiff 
plastic nature of the clay makes difficult hauling. 

The price of the Upshur clay usually ranges from $20 to 
$25 an acre. Hillside land that should only be used for graz- 
ing purposes is valued at $15 to $20 an acre. 

The following table gives the average results of mechani- 
cal analyses of the soil and subsoil of the Upshur clay : 







Mechanical Analyses of 


Upshur 


Clay. 






Number 


Descrip- 
tion 


Pine 
gravel 


Coarse 
sand 


Medium 
sand 


Fine 
sand 


Very fine 
sand 


Silt 


Clay 


20393.21814 . 

20394.21815 . 


Son . . 
Subsoil 


Per cent. Per cent. 
0.1 0.7 
.0 .7 


Per cent. 
0.7 
.9 


Per cent. Per cent. 
2.4 4.5 
4.1 4.6 


Per cent. 
54.8 
42.7 


Per cent. 
36.6 
46.7 



The following sample contains more than one-balf of 1 per cent of calcium carbonate 
(CaCO.,) : No. 20394 1.88 per cent. 



Dekalb Silt Loam. 



The soil of the Dekalb silt loam, to a depth of 8 to lo 
inches, is a fairly compact grayish-brown silt loam, the par- 
ticles of which have a smooth talcy feel when rubbed between 
the fingers. The subsoil, to a depth of 36 inches or more, is 
a silt loam to clary loam, becoming slightly heavier as the 
depth increases, yellow in the upper part, but changing to a 
reddish-yellow below 24 inches. Occasionally small pieces of 
sandstone and fragments of shale are found on the surface 
and scattered through the soil and subsoil. The quantity of 
such materials is usually greatest in the deefJer subsoil. The 
unweathered rock from which the soil is derived is found 4 
to 6 feet below the surface. Although this rock is almost in- 
variably sandstone, the type is not of a sandy character. The 
gray shale that rests upon the sandstone is responsible to a 
large extent for the character of the soil. The shale is a soft 
formation and breaks down readily and the disintegration 
has been very complete and the weathered product has min- 
gled with the weathered upper portion of the sandstone. 
34 



530 SOIL SURVEY OP THE SPENCER AREA. 

These rocks are found in all the coal measures, but only in a 
few places are they exposed in a position to give rise to this 
type. 

The Dekalb silt loam occurs on the flat hilltops along the 
Little Kanawha River, such as the Annamoriah Flats, and 
around the headwaters of Flat Fork of Pocatalico River and 
Looneyville. In small detached places it occurs as shelf land 
and as low hills adjoining streams in all parts of the county, 
but it is typically developed in the northern part of the area 
along the Little Kanawha and in the southern part along the 
Big Sandy at Osbornes Mills and Amma. The typical areas 
represent remnants of an ancient plateau. 

The mechanical structure of the soil and its gently roll- 
ing topography make cultivation easy and give perfect drain- 
age conditions. Where located near towns and intensively 
cultivated the yields are very high, but under general farm 
conditions they are below the average for the area. The aver- 
age yields per acre are as follows: Corn, 20 to 30 bushels; 
wheat, 10 to 20 bushels; oats, 20 to 25 bushels; potatoes, 100 
to 175 bushels; hay, i ton per acre. Garden crops and fruit 
do weH. Apples do better on this type than on any other type 
in the area. Bluegrass does not flourish, and the land should 
not be grazed after the clover and timothy fail, but put back 
into cultivated crops. Fertilizers are used to advantage for 
wheat. Some form of phosphate, together with bone meal, 
has been found to give good results. Bone meal is best used 
when the wheat is to be followed by timothy or clover, as the 
effects of the slow disintegrating bone is felt for several years ; 
but when applied for the immediate crop more readily soluble 
forms of phosphate are used. Although commercial fertilizers 
give good yields, they can not be compared with the results 
from use of barnyard manure or leguminous crops, such as 
cowpeas or hairy vetch, turned under. The growing of 
leguminous crops furnishes nitrogen cheaper than can be done 
in any other way. Lime is very beneficial, but should only be 
used to correct the acidity of the soil. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



531 



The topography over most of this type is level to gently 
rolling, and erosion is not active, though drainage is excessive. 
The soil mulch should be used to conserve the moisture when- 
ever practicable, as crops are very often injured by drought. 
Owing to the tendency of this type to pack when wet, the 
roads are in good condition during all seasons of the year. 

Although this type is not naturally a strong soil and is 
not especially adapted to any one crop, the ease with which 
it is cultivated, together with its comparatively level surface, 
makes it one of the most desirable soils in the area. The price 
usually ranges from $15 to $30 an acre. It makes good sites 
for buildings, and where it occurs even in small areas it en- 
hances the value of the adjoining land. 

Nearly all of the natural forest growth of white oak and 
chestnut has been removed, and practically all of the type is 
under cultivation. 

The following table gives the average results of mechan- 
ical analyses of the soil and subsoil of the Dekalb silt loam : 

Mechanical Analyses of Dekalb Silt Loam. 



Number 


De- 
scrip- 
tion 


Fine 
gravel 


Coarse 
sand 


Medium 
sand 


Fine 
sand 


Very fine 
sand 


Silt 


Clay 


20391,21802,21804 
20392.21803,21805 


Soil . . . 
Subsoil 


Per cent. 
0.4 
.3 


Per cent. 
1.5 
1.4 


Per cent. 
1.6 
1.3 


Per cent. 
5.6 
5.7 


Per cent. 
5.5 
8.5 


Per cent. 
66.2 
51.2 


Per cent. 
19.1 
31.1 



Dekalb Sandy Loam. 



The Dekalb sandy loam has a dark-brown loose sandy 
loam surface soil, changing at about 8 inches into a yellowish- 
brown or yellow sandy loam subsoil of slightly heavier tex- 
ture. In many places the unweathered rocks from which the 
type is derived are found at 24 to 36 inches below the surface. 
Where this condition exists the subsoil is more open in struc- 
ture and coarser in texture. 

The type is found only on the top of ridges and is the 
result of the weathering in place of massive sandstone strata. 



532 SOIL SURVEY OF THE SPENCER AREA. 

Owing to the rough topography and the rare occurrence on 
the crests of ridges of sandstone strata, thick enough to influ- 
ence the soil, the type is limited to a few small scattered areas. 
It is found typically developed on the ridges north of Grants- 
ville and on a single ridge south of Vicars. It occurs in many 
places in all parts of the survey on narrow ridges, but such 
areas are too small to be shown in a map of the scale used. 

The Dekalb sandy loam is not naturally strong and is 
usually deficient in organic matter. Its open texture admits 
of easy cultivation and it responds readily to the use of fer- 
tilizers, manure, and legumes. Although its topography is 
rolling to steep and its drainage is thorough, it is not subject 
to erosion and can be kept under cultivation for an indefinite 
period. It is not very well adapted to general farming, bt}t it 
is a good garden, truck, and fruit soil. Apples, peaches, pears, 
plums, and small fruits, such as raspberries and blackberries, 
all do well. Irish and sweet potatoes, tomatoes, and cabbage 
are profitable crops. Wheat, corn, and oats make fair yields 
when fertilizers are used. It is not adapted to the growing 
of grass and should never be used for that purpose. Small 
quantities of rock phosphate and complete fertilizers have been 
used upon this soil with wheat and general farm crops and 
have given good results. All fertilizers should be applied at 
a time when the crop can quickly assimilate them, otherwise 
they will be lost, as the soil is leachy. As much organic mat- 
ter as possible should be incorporated in the soil to increase 
its power to hold moisture. 

Nearly all of the natural growth of chestnut and chest- 
nut oak has been removed from the mapped portion of this 
type, but most of the narrow sandy ridges are still in forest. 
The second growth, especially on abandoned fields, is largely 
locust. This type is known locally as "chestnut" land. 

Rough Stony Land. 

Not as much Rough stony land is developed in this area 
as in the areas hitherto surveyed in West Virginia, a fact due 
to the soft shaly character of the prevailing rock outcrops. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY; "533 

The Rough stony land consists of the abrupt cliffs and stony 
outcrops, and steep surfaces so covered vvrith stone that culti- 
vation is impossible. The little soil that occurs among the 
rocks may be Upshur clay, Meigs clay loam, or Dekalb sandy 
loam, but it usually has the characteristics of the Dekalb 
series of soils. 

Most of the type is caused by the outcrop of massive 
sandstone and is usually found on hillsides along streams. It 
occurs most typically developed around the curved banks of 
streams where the sheer rock cliff rises sometimes 200 feet 
above the stream bed. Along the "Break" it is found oc- 
casionally as the cap of a high peak or ridge, but such areas 
are usually small. 

This type is found extensively developed in the north- 
western part of the area, where the Little Kanawha River has 
cut its way through the "Break." The type should remain in 
forest. 

Tyler Sandy Loam. 

The Tyler sand}-^ loam consists of about 10 inches of 
medium-textured brown sandy loam, resting upon a subsoil 
of brownish-yellow fairly heavy sandy loam which extends to 
depths of 36 inches or more. Along Pocatalico River the soil 
is dark brown in color, about 12 inches deep, and contains a 
relatively large percentage of fine sand, but the subsoil is sim- 
ilar to that underlying the rest of the type. 

The material forming the Tyler sandy loam has been de- 
rived largely through wash from contiguous upland areas of 
soil derived from the Conemaugh sandstone formation. The 
areas occupy second bottom land along the Little Kanawha 
River at Newark and along the Pocatalico River for several 
miles above and below Cicerone. It also occurs on Big Sandy 
Creek between the mouth of Pigeon Run and Osbornes Mills. 
Sandstone strata do not underlie this type as in case of the 
other second terrace soil, the Tyler silt loam. The boundaries 
of the type are well defined and the character of the soil is 
distinctly different from any soil type in the area. It occurs 



534 



SOIL SURVEY OF THE SPENCER AREA. 



at a lower elevation with respect to stream level than the silt 
loam type of the series, but is entirely above normal overflows. 
The type occurs in small scattered areas. 

While the Tyler sandy loam is not naturally a productive 
soil it responds readily to applications of fertilizers, stable 
manure, and green manuring crops. The surface is practically 
level and the texture of the soil is also favorable to cultiva- 
tion. Drainage is everywhere excellent. 

The soil through hard usage has been depleted of its orig- 
inal organic constituents over most of its extent and the yields 
of crops are correspondingly low. Corn averages 25 bushels 
per acre. Under good conditions the yields reach 80 bushels 
per acre. Wheat yields 12 bushels, oats 20 bushels, rye 10 
bushels, and buckwheat 15 to 18 bushels per acre. Millet 
gives fair yields. Sweet potatoes yield well and are more 
profitable than any of the other crops grown. From 250 to 
300 bushels per acre of a very fine quality of potatoes are read- 
ily secured. Irish potatoes do not do quite so well, though yields 
are good. Orchard fruits, especially apples, thrive. The soil 
is well suited to market gardening where it is situated within 
easy reach of railroad shipping points. Strawberries and to- 
matoes pay best. Cabbage, asparagus, onions, radishes, and 
lettuce also do well. Large pumpkins and squashes of fine 
quality are grown. Fertilizers and manure are necessary to 
get the best results in growing these intensive crops. All of 
the Tyler sandy loam is cleared and most of it is in mowing 
or orchard. 

The following table gives the results of mechanical analy- 
ses of the soil and subsoil of this type : 



Mechanical Analyses of Tyler Sandy Loam. 



Number 


Descrip- 
tion 


Pine 
gravel 


Coarse 
sand 


Medium 
sand 


Fine 
sand 


Very fine 
sand 


Silt 


Clay 


21812. .. 
21813 . . . 


Soil . . . 
Subsoil . 


Per cent. 
0.8 
.4 


Per cent. 
16.8 
12.5 


Per cent. 
27.1 
10.5 


Per, cent. 
13.5 
31.5 


Per cent. 
7.6 
6.8 


Per cent. 
21.5 
24.8 


Per cent. 
12.2 
12.9 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 535 

Tyler Silt Loam. 

The soil of the Tyler silt loam is a grayish-brown to 
brown mellow silt loam, with an average depth of lo inches. 
The subsoil to 30 inches is a grayish-yellow slightly compact 
silt loam, becoming slightly heavier as depth increases. From 
30 to 36 inches and deeper the subsoil is a yellowish-brown 
clay loam, containing in poorly drained places gray or drab 
mottlings and dark iron stained spots. 

A phase of this type of soil occurs in Roane County. Here 
the soil to 10 inches is a brown mellow silt loam. The stib- 
soil is of the same texture, of a slightly lighter shade of brown 
and becomes lighter in color and heavier in texture as depth 
increases. The mottlings are absent. The brown color is due 
to the predominance of the Upshur clay on the hillsides above, 
from which there has been some wash and to the fact that the 
underlying rock strata are tilted in such a way as to give bet- 
ter drainage. 

The Tyler silt loam occurs as a second bottom or terrace 
land along the Little Kanawha and its larger tributaries, along 
Pocatalico River, and bordering Big Sandy Creek. The topo- 
graphy, which is in general level, in large areas becomes gent- 
ly rolling and in such locations a great many fields are badly 
eroded. 

The most extensive development of this type is found on 
the Little Kanawha from Elizabeth to the Wood-Wirt county 
line. The grounds of the hospital for the insane at Spencer, 
W. Va., offer a typical example of Tyler silt loam as it occurs 
in small areas. Here it rests upon the Waynesburg sandstone 
about 40 feet above the bed of Spring Creek. The type is 
found on second terraces lying above overflow or at about 20 
to 100 feet above the stream level and is always supported by 
a massive sandstone formation which may be encountered 
usually at a depth of about 3 to 10 feet. 

The Tyler silt loam is strictly an alluvial soil. It was 
formed as bottom land during a past geological age when the 
stream was at a much higher level than at present. These 



536 SOIL SURVEY OF THE SPENCER AREA, 

older second terrace soils contrast interestingly with the com- 
monly associated red colored Moshannon soils of the first 
bottoms in the very much lighter color of their soil mass. This 
is apparently due to the fact that the second terrace soils were 
deposited first, and consequently were derived more largely 
from the Dekalb or lighter colored soils derived from the over- 
lying light colored shales of the region. Erosional processes 
have exposed more of the red shales, and as a result the later 
first bottoms have been tinged red by the greater proportion 
of material washed from soils coming from these rocks. The 
type is never overflowed, but receives small amounts of col- 
luvial material from the hillsides above it. In the gently roll- 
ing portions the drainage is usually good, but in the level 
areas the underlying rock interferes more or less with down- 
ward percolation and the drainage conditions are often very 
bad. The type, as it naturally occurs, is not a very good soil 
for general farming. It yields i to i^^ tons of hay per acre, 
and much of the type is used for that purpose. Corn yields 30 
to 60 bushels, and oats 20 to 30 bushels per acre. Although not 
much used for wheat it gives fairly good yields. Millet gives 
fair yields and does not injuriously affect the land, as it does 
in case of the heavier soil types. Fruit does well on account 
of the sheltered position of the terraces. Potatoes and garden 
crops also give satisfactory results. Lime will give immediate 
results by correcting the acidity of the soil, but no permanent 
improvement can be brought about until the type is thorough- 
ly underdrained. The growing of cowpeas, rye, and hairy 
vetch in all rotations and the liberal application of barnyard 
manure is also recommended. 

Practically all of the original forest has been removed, 
but the few trees left indicate that the native growth was 
largely beech. The second growth, which is scattering, is 
composed of oak, walnut, poplar, and hickory. 

The following table gives the results of mechanical analy- 
ses of the soil and subsoil of this type: 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 537 

Mechanical Analyses of Tyler Silt Loam. 



Number 


Descrlp- Fine 
tion gravel 


Coarse 
sand 


Medium 
sand 


Fin© 
sand 


Very fine 
sand 


Silt 


Clay 


20566. .. 
20567 . . . 


Soil . . . 
Subsoil. 


Per cent. 
0.4 
.2 


Per cent. 
3.5 
2.2 


Per cent. 
3.5 
1.6 


Per cent. 
11.6 
8.7 ' 


Per cent. 
8.4 
8.8 


Per cent. 
52.7 
49.8 


Per cent. 
19.9 
28.5 



. Moshannon Silt Loam. 

The Moshannon silt loam has a reddish-brown or dark 
Indian red silt loam surface soil that passes into a subsoil of 
about the same texture at an average depth of lo inches. 

The only feature distinguishing the soil from the subsoil 
is the more compact structure and lighter color — brighter red 
or Indian red — of the latter. Both the soil and subsoil have 
a tendency to become plastic when wet. The subsoil is usual- 
ly heavy in the lower part of the profile, but in many places 
the sand content is noticeably high. Below 30 inches beds 
of gravel, sandstone, and shale fragments are occasionally 
found. The soil contains considerable quantities of organic 
matter and small quantities are found in the subsoil. When 
plowed in a wet condition the soil has a strong tendency to 
clod. This should be guarded against, especially when the 
land is to be plowed in the spring, as at that season it is likely 
to contain relatively large quantities of moisture. 

The type, like the Huntington silt loam, is derived from 
Recent materials, but these come wholly from the Upshur 
clay area, whereas those materials giving the Huntington 
series of soils are more heterogeneous, being washed from 
widely separated regions of diverse geological origin. 

All of the type occurs as first bottom land and is found 
in its largest development in the central parts of Roane Coun- 
ty, where the heavy red shales of the lower Dunkard and 
upper Monongahela formations are exposed. The most typi- 
cal example of this soil is the area along Stover Fork of Reedy 
Creek. The Moshannon silt loam in places grades rather im- 
perceptibly into the Huntington silt loam. Although the 



538 SOIL SURVEY OF THE SPENCER AREA. 

types are similar in many respects they are very different 
where typically developed. 

The yields of most crops are about the same upon the 
two types. Clovers and grasses yield from one-half to i ton 
more per acre and fruits do better upon the Moshannon silt 
loam than upon the other soil. But potatoes and other veget- 
able crops do not do so well as upon the Huntington silt loam. 
Wheat and oats give good yields, though some trouble is 
caused by the tendency of the rank growth of straw to lodge. 

The growing of alfalfa is recommended for this type 
where the proper drainage conditions exist naturally or where 
underdrainage can be readily supplied. The type receives the 
wash from limestone lands and the soil is mellow enough to 
furnish a good seed bed and the subsoil is not so close as to 
retard the downward extension of the roots. The spring over- 
flows are not detrimental as the crop is dormant. Summer 
floods rarely overflow the higher bottoms. 

Fertilizers are needed only on spots next to the hills, 
where overflows are rare. The turning under of leguminous 
crops would improve the physical condition of the soil. 

The original growth, consisting Jargely of hardwood, has 
been removed and at least three-fourths of the type is in 
mowing. 

Huntington Silt Loam. 

The Huntington silt loam occupies much of the bottom 
land of the area and is a very variable type. Where typically 
developed it consists of 12 inches of a slightly compact brown 
silt loam that grades imperceptibly into a heavy silt loam to 
clay loam subsoil of light-brown color. In many places the 
subsoil becomes lighter in texture near the lower limit of the 
profile, and in other places beds of rounded pebbles and frag- 
ments of sandstone and shale are found from i foot to 3 feet 
below the surface. Near the stream or where the current is 
strongest during floods the soil is more sandy, and below the 
massive sandstone outcrops sand beds are frequent. The sand 
beds occur for the most part along Green and Big Sandy 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 539 

creeks. A red cast is found throughout the profile over the 
larger part of this type, the result of some admixture of mater- 
ial derived from Upshur clay, and is proportional in intensity 
to the area of red-shale outcrops included in the drainage sys- 
tem of the different streams. This red cast is especially notice- 
able along Reedy Creek. The variation is not great enough 
to throw the soil into another series. Where the reddish 
tinge is found in the type has a somewhat higher agricultural 
value. 

The Huntington silt loam is most extensively developed 
along Right Reedy and Reedy creeks, where in many places 
the areas reach the width of one-fourth of a mile. The type 
is derived from material of Recent age and is still in the pro- 
cess of forming. It is composed of alluvial material deposited 
by streams upon their flood plains. This type is subject to 
floods in February, March, April and July. The spring floods 
are very beneficial, but the July floods often do much damage 
to the hay crop. Fertilizers are not needed, as the deposits 
of silty material left by the overflows keep up the productive- 
ness. In many low places underdrainage would increase the 
yield of all crops. The mellow condition of the soil makes 
cultivation easy and the large organic matter content distrib- 
uted through the soil and subsoil keeps the type in splendid 
condition. The surface of the areas is level to gently sloping 
and is very often gently rolling next to the hills. 

The type is best adapted to the growing of corn, of which 
it produces from 50 to 100 bushels per acre, with an average 
of 65 bushels. The tendency of wheat and oats to lodge when 
grown on this type and the damage done by spring floods 
make these crops very uncertain. Upon the gently rolling por- 
tions less subject to overflow potatoes make good yields. 
Both sweet and Irish potatoes yield from 100 to 175 bushels 
per acre. Market gardening and trucking are profitable where 
the type lies near good markets or shipping points. Fruit, 
especially apples, is produced to some extent. The crop is 
reasonably certain on account Of the protected position of the 
orchards, but the trees are very susceptible to disease and the 
fruit is of inferior quality. The type grows luxuriant grass 



540 



SOIL SURVEY OF THE SPENCER AREA. 



and yields i^ to 2j5^ tons of hay per acre. Pumpkins and 
squashes are grown in abundance. 

The original hardwood forest has been cleared from most 
of the type. The trees that remain are mostly sycamore, elm, 
beech, tulip, poplar and willow. The sycamores grow to enor- 
mous size. About one-half of the type is in mowing and at 
least three-fourths of the remainder is planted in corn each 
year. 

The following table gives the average results of mechan- 
ical analyses of the soil and subsoil : 



Mechanical Analyses of Huntington Silt Loam. 



Number 



Descrip- 
tion 



Fine 
gravel 



Coarse 
sand 



Medium 
■=and 



Kino 
sand 



Very fine Slit 
sand 



Clay 



21806.21808 . 

21807.21809 . 



Soil . . 
Subsoil 



Per centAPer cent.\Per centAPer centAPer cent. 
0.0 0.4 I 1.9 11.4 11.3 

.0 1 .1 .5 4.9 12.5 



Per cent. 
54.5 
55.0 



Per cent 
20.5 
26. ( 



Summary. 

The Spencer area is situated in the west-central portion 
of the State of West Virginia and is composed of Wirt, Roanei 
and Calhoun counties. It has a total area of 1,054* square 
miles, or 674,560 acres. The topography is characteristic of 
the Appalachian Plateau region, being rough and broken for 
the most part. Spencer, the largest town in the area, has a 
population of about 3,000. Elizabeth, Reedy, Creston, and 
Grantsville are smaller but important towns. 

The climate is well suited to general farming, especially 
to stock raising. The thermometer rarely goes below zero in 
winter or above 100° F. in summer, the average annual tem- 
perature being about 52° F. The annual rainfall of about 42 
inches is well distributed throughout the year, the greatest 
precipitation falling during the growing season. The snow- 
fall is usually light. 

The principal field crops grown in the area are corn, 

♦Accurate determinations by the writer give only 997.3 square 
miles for the three counties (See page 1) — R. V. H. 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 541 

wheat, potatoes, and hay. Apples are produced in great 
abundance and other fruits on a smaller scale, but there are 
no strictly commercial orchards. Large areas are in bluegrass 
pastures and support large numbers of cattle and sheep. Most 
of the cattle are shipped out of the area on the "hoof." Pitts- 
burg is the best cattle market for the area. The raising of 
purebred cattle is quite an industry. The Hereford, Polled 
Angus, and Shorthorn are the three principal breeds. 

The soils of the area are all derived from the Permian 
beds and Coal Measures of the Carboniferous era. Six of the 
ten soil types are residual upland soils, while the four remain- 
ing are alluvial or bottom-land soils, two being terrace, or 
second bottom soils and two first-bottom soils. 

The Meigs clay loam is the most extensive type in the 
area. It occurs mostly upon the hillsides and narrow ridges. 
The topography is very steep and broken and the type is very 
susceptible to erosion. Much of it is still in forest and the 
larger part of that cleared is used for grazing. It supports 
a good bluegrass sod, which is usually short lived. 

The Brooke clay loam is of limestone origin and is one 
of the most productive soils in the area. It occurs over small 
areas on ridge tops and is well adapted to wheat, tobacco, 
clover, grasses, and fruits. 

*The Upshur clay is extensively developed in Roane Coun- 
ty. It is nearly all cleared and in pasture. The more level 
ridge tops and shelf land are the only portions cultivated. 
It produces good crops of wheat, corn, and clover, but garden 
crops and fruits do not thrive. 

The Dekalb silt loam occurs in small spots throughout 
the area, usually on small broadened ridges or plateaus. The 
topography is level to gently rolling and, although the type 
is not naturally productive, it is easily improved and pro- 
duces good crops of corn and oats ; garden crops and fruits 
do exceptionally well. 

The Dekalb sandy loam occurs in very limited areas, 
usually upon ridges where massive sandstone or sandy shale 
has weathered in place. It produces very poor crops and has 
a very low agricultural value. 



542 SOIL SURVEY OF THE SPENCER AREA. 

Rough, Stony land is not as extensively developed in 
the area as in other areas in West Virginia. It has little or 
no agricultural value. 

The Tyler silt loam is found upon the terraces of the 
larger streams. It is suited to vv^heat, oats, corn, and potatoes, 
and produces fair crops of hay. Where it occurs 60 to 100 
feet above the stream bed it makes good sites for orchards. 

The Tyler sandy loam is found in only a few places and 
occupies the same relative position as the Tyler silt loam. It 
is a fine soil for truck crops, but is not strong enough to pro- 
duce the staple crops. 

The Huntington silt loam represents a larger proportion 
of the first bottom soil of the area. It is a very productive soil 
and yields large crops of corn and hay. 

The Moshannon silt loam occupies the same position as 
the Huntington silt loam, but represents the wash from the 
Upshur clay and has a little higher agricultural value. 



APPENDIX. 

LEVELS ABOVE MEAN TIDE IN THE 
WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Ravenswood, Spencer &. Glenville Branch, B. & O. R. R. 



Distances i 
from 
Ravenswood! 



STATIONS. 



0.0 

0.6 

1.0 

3.1 

6.3 

8.6 

12.2 

14.3 

15.1 

17.0 

19.5 

21.7 

22.2 

23.0 

27.0 

30.0 

33.0 



Ravenswood 

R. S. & G. Junction 

Bridgeport 

Silverton 

Crow Summit 

Sandyville 

Meadowdale 

Duncan 

Leroy 

Liverpool 

Sandy Summit .... 

Seamans 

Dukes 

Reedy 

Hardman 

Barrs 

Spencer 



County. 



Jackson. 



Roane. 



Elevations 
Above tide. 



584 
581 
579 
575 
637 
592 
611 
626 
635 
661 
889 
695 
684 
669 
695 
899 
710 



Little Kanawha Railroad. 



Distances 

from 
Parkersburi 


STATIONS. 


County. 


Elevations 
Above tide. 


0.0 
0.0 


U. S. G. S. bench mark at Parkers- 
burg P. 0. (used as datum) 

Bench mark on bolt, south side of 
Water street 


Wood. 


616.11 
608 99 


0.0 
0.0 
1.3 

1.8 


Plug, corner Green and Third streets 

Green street crossing, L. K. R. R 

South Parkersburg, top of ties, L. K. 
R. R 


605.50 
605.50 

601.10 


Old Hickory, top of ties 


603.50 


2 6 


Sheffield 


599.80 


3.7 


Johnson's 


605.20 


4.5 


Geiger's 


602.90 



544 



LEVELS ABOVE TIDE IN WIRT-BOANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



Little Kanawha Railroad. — Continued. 



Distances 

from 
Parkersburg 



5.8 
6.8 

8.6 



9 
10 
12 
13 
14 
16 
17 
18 
20.9 
22.5 
23.2 
24.5 
26.5 
25.6 
(New Line) 
29.7 
30.1 

Via 
New Line 



30.3 
34.1 



35.9 

45.0 
45.1 
48.1 
50.7 
51.4 
53.1 
60.5 



STATIONS. 



Nicolette 

Creels 

Dewey 

Kanawha 

Weekley's 

Cool Springs 

Leachtown Ferry 

Slate 

Fishing Camp 

Hughes River ....•■ 

Newark 

Sandy Bend 

Roberts 

Standing Stone 

Well's Lock 

Elizabeth 

Two Ripple Summit 

Palestine 

Palestine transfer 

Reedy Creek 

Henderson's Run, Dulon P. O 

Burning Springs Run 

Opposite Creston 

Creston "O" on water gauge. . 

Simpson's Run 

Katy's Run 

Yellow Creek 

Brooksville 

Big Root Summit 

Leaf Branch Run 

Grantsville 

Bull River 

Laurel Run 



County. 



Wirt. 



Calhoun. 



Elevations 
Above tide. 

608.60"" 

605.20 

618.23 

608.40 

604.80 

605.40 

617.55 

608.60 

614.70 

617.60 

614.20 

617.50 

628.60 

622.10 

619.30 

640.50 

783.00 

641.50 
631.20 



599.00 
613.00 
618.00 
665.00 
621.37 
645.00 
660.00 
647.00 
707.00 
940.80 
663 . 00 
695.00 
666.00 
779.00 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 545 

LEVELS ABOVE TIDE IN THE WIRT-ROANE- CAL- 
HOUN AREA, DETERMINED BY THE U. S 
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 

The following elevations determined and marked by the 
U. S. Geological Survey mostly within the area of the three 
counties, are arranged and classified by quadrangles. All of 
these levels are published in Bulletin II of the W. Va. Geo- 
logical Survey and are taken from the latter publication. In 
Vol. 1(A) of the State Survey reports, page 558, I. C. White 
has the following to say concerning the value of these levels : 

"The Topographic branch of the U. S. G. Survey, in connection 
with, and aided by the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, is covering 
the entire United States with a net work of precise elevations. As 
a result of this precise leveling, many of the old levels and bench 
marks accepted for many years as accurate by the railroad officials, 
civil engineers, and others, have been proven erroneous, often to the 
extent of several feet. In this readjustment of elevations, the U. S. G. 
Survey finds it necessary to change slightly, as a higher degree of 
accuracy is attained, some of its own former standard elevations, and 
thus those given of the same bench mark for one year may differ 
slightly from that given in a later publication. The railroad, civil, 
and mining engineers are now almost universally adjusting their levels 
to those given by the U. S. G. Survey, especially since the recent plan 
has been adopted of placing bronze tablets marked with the eleva- 
tions, in conspicuous positions every few miles in each quadrangle 
surveyed." 

WIRT, ROANE AND CALHOUN COUNTIES. 

Belleville, Elizabeth, Harrisville, Ripley, Spencer, Arnolds- 
burg, Kenna, Walton, Otter and Gassaway Quadrangles. 

Based on the 1903 adjustment of precise levels. Leveling 
on the Belleville quadrangle in 1903 by J. W. Hodges ; on the 
Elizabeth quadrangle in 1904 by Geo. L. Gordon ; and on the 
Harrisville quadrangle by Gordon and R. E. McFadden in 
1903, and in 1904 by Geo. Seidel; on the Arnoldsburg quad- 
ragle, in 1903 and 1904 by F. T. Willis, and in 1905 by D. D. 
Teets ; on the Ripley quadrangle, in 1905 by Geo. L. Gordon ; 
on the Spencer Quadrangle, in 1904 and 1905 by Gordon, and 
in 1905 by D. D. Teets ; on the Walton and Kenna quadran- 
gles in 1906 by C. H. Burns and E. S. Dawson ; and on the 
35 



546 LEVELS ABOVE TIDE IN WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA, 

Otter quadrangle in 1906 by Davison and D. D. Teets, and in 
1908 by Dawson. 

ELIZABETH QUADRANGLE. 

Petroleum Along Highway South, to Cisko; Thence Southwest, to 

Elizabeth. 

Feet. 

Petroleum, 2.8 miles south of, 100 feet southeast of sum- 
mit, northeast side of road, in rocky ledge, aluminum 
tablet stamped "1084 ADJ 1903" 1084.158 

Cisko, Buffalo M. P. Church, 46 feet southwest of south- 
west corner, iron post stamped "640 ADJ 1903" 640.425 

Cisko, 3.6 miles west of, 90 feet east of northeast corner 
of schoolhouse, in west face of large rock; bronze tab- 
let stamped "702 ADJ 1903" 702.129 

Standing Stone, 3.5 miles east of, 540 feet southwest of 
Parish Fork school house, left side of road in top of 
large rock; bronze tablet stamped "736 ADJ 1903" 735.694 

Standing Stone, 0.8 mile southeast of, 840 feet east of 
forks of road; on right side of road, in top of lar^e 
rock; bronze tablet stamped "619 ADJ 1903" 619.083 

Kanawha South Along Little Kanawha Railroad, to Palestine. 

Feet. 

Leechtown, at road crossing; top of rail 617.4 

Leechtown, west side of railroad, in rock cliff; bronze 

tablet stamped '620 ADJ 1903" 620.204 

Slate, at road crossing; top of rail 608.5 

Fishing Camp, in front of station; top of rail 614.7 

Hughes River station, 2.5 miles east of Slate, 15 feet 
northeast of northeast corner of station; iron post 

stamped "618 ADJ 1903" 617.812 

Newark, in front of station; top of rail 614.1 

Newark, 1.4 miles southeast of, 24 feet west of track; 

iron post stamped "627 ADJ 1903" 627.209 

Standing Stone, at road crossing; top of rail 621.0 

Elizabeth, on southwest curb line of Washington Street, 
point southeast of north comer of Raleigh Hotel, south 
meridian mark in stone post; bronze tablet stamped 

"646 ADJ 1903" 646.037 

Reedyripple post-office (Palestine), 150 feet east of, 18 
feet south of railroad; iron post stamped "645 ADJ 
1903" 644.657 



if Palestine South Along Highway, to Rover. 



Feet. 



Rover, 0.8 miles southwest of, 250 feet southeast of still 
house, left side of road, at southeast end of large 
rock in top of large low rock; aluminum tablet 
stamped "627 ADJ 1903" 626.560 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 547 

Elizabeth Southeast Along Highway, to Burning Springs. 

Feet. 

Elizabeth, 2.75 miles southeast of, 350 feet southwest of 
a small run, east side of road, in large rock 9 feet 
above road; aluminum tablet stamped "700 ADJ 1903" 700. 0S8 

Cherry, 0.3 mile northeast of, high log run, in northeast 
corner of south abutment of iron bridge; bronze tablet 
stamped "633 ADJ 1903" 633 . 424 



Cisko Southeast Along Highway, to Oxbow. 



Feet. 



Cisko, 2.73 miles southeast of, in northeast corner of 
southeast abutment of county bridge over Camp Run; 
aluminum tablet stamped "637 ADJ 1903" 637.245 

HARRISVILLE QUADRANGLE. 

Oxford South Along Highway via Macfarlan, to Munday. 

Feet. 

Oxbow, 0.7 mile northwest of, 200 feet northeast of road 
crossing of Lather's Run and close to a small stream, 
right side of road, in shelf of outcrop of rock; bronze 
tablet stamped "659 ADJ 1903" 659 . 136 

Macfarlan, 150 feet southwest of post-office, and station, 
left side of road, in top of large rock; bronze tablet 
stamped "668 ADJ 1903' 668.015 

Macfarlan, road crossing; top of rail 658. 8 

Macfarlan, 3 miles southeast of, 155 feet north of hol- 
low, in shelf of outcrop of rock; bronze tablet stamped 
"757 ADJ 1903" 757.318 

Hartley, 0.1 mile south of, at forks of road near a 
church and store, in northeast angle, in top of outcrop 
of rock; aluminum tablet stamped "931 ADJ 1903" 931.272 

Hartley, 2.85 miles south of, 0.13 mile north of Munday 
west side of road, in outcrop of ro?k 5 feet above road; 
bronze tablet stamped "742 ADJ 1903" 742 . 144 

Nobe Northwest Along Leather Barl< Run Road, to Smithville; 
Thence East, to Hazelgreen. 

Feet 
Smithville, in southwest corner of stone foundation of 
house owned by Mr. M. A. Ayers; bronze tablet stamp- 
ed "718 GRAFTON" 719 . 251 

RIPLEY QUADRANGLE. 

Leroy Northeast Along Road, to Pewee. 

Feet. 
Leroy, 2.65 miles north of, east of road, near dwelling, in 
shelf of outcrop of rock; bronze tablet stamped "961 ADJ 

1903" 961 . 200 

Pewee post-office, 0.47 mile northeast of, north of road, 
in face of ledge of rock; bronze tablet stamped "692 
ADJ 1903" 692.156 



548 LEVELS ABOVE TIDE IN WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

SPENCER QUADRANGLE. 

Dukes East Along Ravenswood, Spencer and Glenville Railroad, to 
Spencer; Thence Along Highway East, to Tristan. 

(Double rodded line) 

Feet. 
Dukes, at road crossing; top of rail 691.8 

Dukes, 0.2 mile east of, 55 feet north of track, southwest 
corner of large rock; bronze tablet stamped "694 ADJ 
1903" 694.343 

Reedy, in front of station; top of rail 676.2 

Reedy, 1.7 miles southeast of, in west corner of culvert 
over Spring Branch; bronze tablet stamped "684 ADJ 
1903" 684.031 

Kyger, in front of station; top of rail 706.5 

Kyger, 700 feet southeast of, in east end of north abut- 
ment of iron county bridge over Left Fork of Reedy; 
bronze tablet stamped "701 ADJ 1903" 701.389 

Barrs Summit, at road crossing; top of rail 898.7 

Barrs Summit, about 80 feet west of signboard, on north 
side of county road, in face of large rock; bronze tab- 
let stamped "917 ADJ 1903" 916.946 

Spencer, at road crossing at station; top of rail 719.2 

Spencer, 0.16 mile southeast of, near end of railroad, in 
west abutment of bridge seat of county bridge over 
Spring Creek; aluminum tablet stamped "726 ADJ 
1903' 725.750 

Spencer, 3.2 miles east of, 1.1 miles west of Pasco, in top 
of large rock south of road; aluminum tablet stamped 
"1071 ADJ 1903" 1071.304 

Pasco, 1.8 miles east of, on right side of road, in north- 
west corner of large rock; bronze tablet stamped "742 
ADJ 1903" 741.983 



Industry Along Highway West, to Burning Springs; Thence South- 
east, to Creston. 

Feet. 
Industry, 4.2 miles west of, in northeast end of south- 
east abutment on bridge seat of iron bridge over Rock 

Run; bronze tablet stamped "650 ADJ 1903" 669.994 

Industry, 4.6 miles west of, left side of road, in root of 
chestnut tree 20 inches in diameter; nail (Wabash 
Railroad bench mark) 656 . 76 

Burning Springs, 2.8 miles southeast of, 90 feet northwest 
of a deep hollow, southwest side of road, in top of 
large rock; bronze tablet stamped "656 ADJ 1903" 656.130 

Creston, 0.11 mile east of, north side of road, in outcrop 

of rock; bronze tablet stamped "701 ADJ 1903" 701.050 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



549 



Creston South Along Highway Toward Richardson. 

Feet. 
Richardson, 4 miles north of, south side of road, south 
side of West Pork, north angle of very large rock; 
bronze tablet stamped "657 ADJ 1903" 658.612 

Pewee Northwest Along Road via Zackville, to Rover. 

Feet 
Zackville, 1 mile northeast of, northeast of road, in face 
of outcrop of rock; bronze tablet stamped "662 ADJ 
1903" 662.195 



Feet. 

853.832 
752.703 
739.212 



Spencer Southwest Along Turnpike, to Marshall. 

Spencer, 3.1 miles west of, 40 feet northwest of center 
of turnpike, in face of outcrop of rock; bronze tablet 
stamped "854 ADJ 1903" 

Reedy ville, 0.9 mile east of, at center of forks of road; 
iron post stamped "753 ADJ 1903" 

Peniel, triangle at forks of road, in top of large rock; 
bronze tablet stamped "739 ADJ 1903" 

Burning Springs South Along Road, to Spencer. 

Feet 

Evelyn post-office, 1.0 mile north of, 85 feet southwest 
of fork of road to Creston, in rock west of road; bronze 
tablet stamped "660 ADJ 1903" 660.064 

Evelyn post-office, 2.5 miles south of, 0.2 mile south of 
Spring Creek crossing, in projecting cliff 10 feet west 
of road; bronze tablet stamped "745 ADJ 1903" 744.661 

Millard post-office, 1 . 2 miles south of, north of road at 
reversed bend northeast of Spring Creek, in large rock; 
aluminum tablet stamped "G96 ADJ 1903" 696.001 

Wellington post-office, 1 mile south of, east of road at 
private fork, in large rock; bronze tablet stamped "704 
ADJ 1903" 704 . 208 

ARNOLDSBURG QUADRANGLE. 

Creston Southeast Along Highway East via Grantsville, to White 

Pine. 



Annamoriah, 0.2 mile north of, in southwest angle of 
forks of road near spring in east end of outcrop of 
rock; bronze tablet stamped "945 ADJ 1903" 

Big Bend, 0.46 mile west of, right side of road, in north- 
west face of large rock; bronze tablet stamped "673 
ADJ 1903" 

Purdy, on west side of county road about 105 feet north- 
east of post-office, in southeast face of large rock; 
bronze tablet stamped "706 ADJ 1903" 

Grantsville, Courthouse, in northwest corner of west face 
of stone foundation; bronze tablet stamped "725 
GRAFTON" 



Feet 



945.053 



672.920 



705.790 



726.451 



550 LEVELS ABOVE TIDE IN WIRT-EOANE-CALHOUN ABEA. 

Feet. 
White Pine, 4.9 miles northeast of Grantsville, 600 feet 
west of forks of road and 12 feet south of road cross- 
ing of small run, in northwest corner of large rock; 
bronze tablet stamped "787 ADJ 1903" 786.710 

Stumptown Along Highway West via Arnoldsburg, to Pink; Tlience 
North, to Creston. 

Feet. 

Stumptown, 2.1 miles southwest of, north side of road, 
220 feet southeast of a hollow, in south face of large 
rock; aluminum tablet stamped "752 ADJ 1903" 753.296 

Millstone, 0.5 mile northeast of, in center of cornerstone 
of Sand Ridge Church; bronze tablet stamped "1203 
ADJ 1903" 1204.005 

Arnoldsburg, 0.4 mile east of, 125 feet southwest of hol- 
low near junction of road from left, north side of road, 
in face of outcrop of rock; bronze tablet stamped "733 
ADJ 1903" 734.389 

Beech post-office 0.24 mile northeast of, 90 feet southwest 
of mouth of hollow from right, namely, southeast side 
of road, in top of large rock; bronze tablet stamped 
"742 ADJ 1903" 743.356 

Pink, 0.87 mile southeast of, left side of load, in top of 

large rock; bronze tablet stamped "709 ADJ 1903" 710.415 

Tristan, 0.5 mile north of, left side of road, near a poor 
dwelling, in large rock; bronze tablet stamped "709 
ADJ 1903" 710.462 

Rocksdale, 0.08 mile west of, north side of West Fork 
opposite mouth of Henry Fork, left side of road, in 
southeast end of large rock; bronze tablet stamped 
"679 ADJ 1903" 680.554 

Richardson, 5 feet northeast of northwest corner of W. 

E. Bee's store; iron post stamped "674 ADJ 1903" 675.982 

Big Bend North Along Highway via Industry, to Munday. 

Feet. 
Industry, 1.9 miles west of, 125 feet northwest of ford, 
on north side of straight creek, in face of outcrop of 
rock; bronze tablet stamped "663 ADJ 1903" 663.049 



Grantsville Along Highway Northeast, to Nobe. 



Feet. 



Nobe, at northwest corner of Chapel Church in north 
foundation wall; bronze tablet stamped "1090 GRAF- 
TON" 1091 . 379 



Grantsville South Along Highway, to Arnoldsburg. 



Feet. 



Sycamore, 3.34 miles north of, on dividing ridge between 
Phillips Run and Sycamore Run; schoolhouse 150 feet 
east of road, in center of cornerstone of; bronze tablet 
stamped "1009 ADJ 1903" 1009.425 

Sycamore, 0.2 mile south of, on Sycamore Run, on east 
side of road, opposite house to west of road, in stone; 
bronze tablet stamped "814 ADJ 1903" 814.211 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 551 



KENNA QUADRANGLE. 

Harmony West Along Road to Kenna, Thence Southwest, to Mouth 
of Stumpy Run 4.4 Miles West of Liberty. 

Feet. 

Harmony, 1,2 miles west of, 200 feet west of mouth of 
Wolf Camp Run, at road forks, 60 feet north of road, ' 
in side of field on property of T. W. Hughes, in front 
of house on south side of road, in sandstone outcrop; 
aluminum tablet stamped "74G" 746.533 

Higby post-oflice, 1.5 miles southeast of, south of road and 
bank of Higby Creek 750 feet above right fork of Higby 
Creek, in sandstone; aluminum tablet stamped "738".. 737.812 

Belgrove, 1 mile southeast of, on north side of road, on 
bank 70 feet east of private road up deep hollow to 
north of house and blacksmith shop in sandstone out- 
crop; aluminum tablet stamped "704" 703.367 

Belgrove, 2 miles west of, 40 feet south of center of road 
in field, 60 feet north of house, in sandstone outcrop; 
aluminum tablet stamped "817" 816.152 

Kenna, 1.5 miles east of, north of road, 700 feet west of 
schoolhouse, 380 feet east of road fork to north, in 
sandstone outcrop; aluminum tablet stamped "747"... 746.350 

Emma, west of road, in cornerstone of church; aluminum 
tablet stamped "980" 979 . 451 

Liberty, in stone wall of cellar (property of J. M. Car- 
ney) on west side, 100 feet from center of road, opposite 
post-oflBce; aluminum tablet stamped "779" 777.937 

Kettle West Along Road, to Near Sissonville, Thence Northwest, 

to Kenna. 

Feet. 

Ireland post-office, 0.2 mile east of, north of road, 40 feet 
north of Pocatalico River, 30 feet west of Camp School, 
in rock; aluminum tablet stamped "656" 655.797 

Ireland, 3.1 miles southwest of, 50 feet west of Pocatalico 
River, 0.2 mile north of Emma Bell schoolhouse, east 
of road, in sandstone outcrop; aluminum tablet stamped 
"646" 645.376 

Carney post-office, 0.5 mile west of, north of road, 150 feet 
north of Pocatalico River, 0.1 mile west of Victory 
school-house, in rock boulder; aluminum tablet stamped 
"635" 635.055 

Sissonville, 3 miles northwest of post-office, in south end 
of east abutment of iron bridge over left Hand of Poca- 
talico River; aluminum tablet stamped "625" 625.393 

Loop post-office, 265 feet northwest of, 100 feet west of 
mouth of Dudden Creek, 1 mile southeast of Coldtown, 
in east of north abutment of iron bridge; aluminum 
tablet stamped "643" 643 . 148 

Goldtown, 0.5 mile north of, east of road, 40 feet from 
center of road, road forks to east, in sandstone foun- 
dation of Watts Chapel; aluminum tablet stamped 
"671" 670.471 

Kenna, 0.8 mile south of, east of road, 380 feet south 
of house to west, in sandstone outcrop; aluminum tab- 
let stamped "872" 871 . 772 



552 



LEVELS ABOVE TIDE IN WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 



WALTON QUADRANGLE. 



Amma West Along Road to Kettle. 



Feet. 



Amma post-office, 0.25 mile east of,- west of road, 150 
feet nortliwest of Big Sandy, 100 feet west of bridge 
over mouth of Left Hand Creek, in rock; aluminum 
tablet stamped "696" 695 . 672 

Amma, 2.6 miles south of, 0.2 mile north of Roadside 
schoolhouse, 30 feet west of Garnet Branch, 0.2 mile 
south of mountain foot and hollow east and west, op- 
posite blacksmith shop, right of road, in outcrop of 
rock; aluminum tablet stamped "657" 657.094 

Wellford post-offlce, 160 feet west of, on west side of Big 
Left Hand Run and mouth of Lick Branch, southwest 
of foot bridge over Big Left Hand, west of road, in out- 
crop; aluminum tablet stamped "625" 624.527 

Wellford post-office, 3.6 miles northwest of, 2.2 miles west 
of mouth of Gabe Run, south of road, 200 feet north of 
Gabe Run and house in hollow, 0.85 mile east of sum- 
mit, on top of rock boulder; aluminum tablet stamped 
"917" 916.263 

Wellford post-office, 6.6 miles northwest of, 350 feet 
northwest of foot of mountain, 25 feet north of Small 
Run, 0.7 mile east of Little Sandy, north of road, in 
outcrop of stone; aluminum tablet stamped "803" 803.027 

Hunt post-offlce, 3.2 miles northeast of, 150 feet east of 
hollow and house, 90 feet north of Little Sandy, north 
edge of road, in rock boulder; aluminum tablet stamped 
"692" 691 . 616 

Hunt, 125 feet north of post-office, in southwest corner of 
foundation of store, at forks of road and mouth of 
Pocatalico Fork of Little Sandy, north of road; alumi- 
num tablet stamped "658" 657 . 534 

Hunt post-office, 3 miles north of, west of Left Hand of 
Pocatalico Fork, opposite house and west of hollow, 1 
mile east of mountain, north of road, in bluestone; 
aluminum tablet stamped "809" 808 . 569 

Kettle post-office, 300 feet south of, west of road, east 
of Right Hand Branch of Green Creek, 420 feet south 
of Green Creek, in blue sandstone; aluminum tablet 
stamped "672" 671 . 475 

Amma North Along Road to Speed, Thence Southwest, to Harmony. 

Feet. 

Left Hand post-office, 1.3 miles south of, 0.2 mile north- 
east of mouth of Shaffers Fork, 300 feet southeast of 
Left Hand Run, southeast of road, in sandstone; alumi- 
num tablet stamped "760" 759 . 939 

Left Hand post-office, 1.65 miles west of, north of road, 
400 feet east of hollow to north in sandstone outcrop; 
aluminum tablet stamped "868" 866.211 

Left Hand post-office, 4.5 miles northwest of, south of 
road, on north bank of Pocatalico River, 0.9 mile north 
of Lick Branch, in sandstone outcrop; aluminum tab- 
let stamped "771" 769 . 831 



WEST VIRGINIA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 553 

Feet. 

Hammack, 425 feet north of post-office, at mouth of 
Shambling Run, in sandstone outcrop; aluminum tab- 
let stamped "734" 732 . 761 

Hammack, post-office, 3 miles northwest of, 100 feet east 
of Rush Creek, north of road, in sharp bend of road in 
field, 60 feet north of center of road, in bluestone out- 
crop; aluminum tablet stamped "751" 749.338 

Rushville, 1.65 miles north of, in field 220 feet south of 
road, west of large flat hollow and small mill, in sand- 
stone outcrop; aluminum tablet stamped "907" 905.500 

Speed, 420 feet west of road forks at post-office building 
and mouth of Buffalo Lick Branch of Spring Creek, 
south of Spring Creek and road, in sandstone outcrop; 
aluminum tablet stamped "794" 792.342 

Gandeeville, east of post-office, on property of R. C. Blas- 
ser, 50 feet south of road forks, in sandstone outcrop; 
aluminum tablet stamped "803" 801.994 

Gandeeville, 3.15 miles west of, south of road opposite 
road forks, east of house and store, in sandstone out- 
crop; aluminum tablet stamped "764" 762.744 

OTTER QUADRANGLE. 

Beech Southeast Along Road, via Minnora and Big Otter, to Point 4 
iVIiles South of Big Otter, Thence West, via Newton, to Amma. 

Feet. 

Beech post-office, 2.72 miles south of. 30 feet east of 
Beech Run, 0.15 mile north of store and dwelling. In 
large rock; aluminum tablet stamped "766" 765.489 

Minnora post-office, 1.9 miles north of, 1000 feet west of 
head of Fink Fork of Beech Fork, 5 feet south of road, 
along stream bed, 700 feet east of house right of road, 
at mouth of deep hollow, at foot of hill, in large stone; 
aluminum tablet stamped "911" 911.253 

Minnora, 1.2 miles south of, 15 feet east of road, 25 feet 
west of "West Fork River, in top of large stone; alumi- 
num tablet stamped "795" 794 . 243 

Minnora post-office, 4.5 miles south of, west of road, 30 
feet northeast of house, at sharp bend in road, in 
pointed rock; aluminum tablet stamped "835" 834.982 

Stinson post-office, 2.0 miles south of, 200 feet north- 
east of house, south of road at bend to south, on Stin- 
son Fork of West Fork of Little Kanawha River, in 
large boulder; aluminum tablet stamped "921" 920.315 

Nebo post-office, 1.8 miles south of, west of road, 100 feet 
northeast of house, near head of Stinson Lick of Big 
Otter, in rock; aluminum tablet stamped "993" 992.647 

Big Otter post-office, 1.8 miles south of, south of road, 400 
feet southwest of house, 600 feet west of deep hollow, 
in outcrop of cliff; aluminum tablet stamped "866" 867.886 

Steer Run, 400 feet northwest of mouth of, north of road 
up Left Hand Fork of Rush Fork of Big Otter Creek, in 
outcrop of rock; aluminum tablet stamped "950" 949.571 



554 LEVELS ABOVE TIDE IN WIRT-ROANE-CALHOUN AREA. 

Feet. 

Newton, 4.4 miles northeast of, north of road, 0.1 mile 
northwest of mouth of Summers Fork and Cookman 
Fork of Main Sandy, in rock cliff; aluminum tablet 
stamped "773" 772 . 591 

Newton, 2.4 miles northeast of, north of road, 890 feet 
west of Cut Off Run, 150 feet north of Sandy Creek, 3 
feet above level of road, in sandstone ledge; aluminum 
tablet stamped "74G" 745 . 526 

Newton, 2.4 miles northwest of, 115 feet northwest of 
road forks, 150 feet northwest of Main Sandy and 
mouth of Granny Creeks, in rock cliff; aluminum tab- 
let stamped "711" 710 . 325 

Bloomington post-ofRce, 0.2 mile south of, west edge of 
road, east edge of woods, in hollow, 20 feet west of 
Big Sandy, in top of rock outcrop; aluminum tablet 
stamped "692" 691 . 694 



INDEX 



Page. 

Abbreviations, Calhoun rec- 
ords 418 

Abbreviations, Roane records 326 
Abbreviations, Wirt records 294 
Acreage of Principal Crops.. 514 

Adams, G. W., Mine 218 

Adams, P. C, No. 1 330, 373 

Adolescence of Rivers 30 

Agriculture 513-518 

Allegheny Co., Pa., Sect 226 

Allegheny Series, Coals of, 483-489 
Depth to and Thickness of 487 

Members of 44 

Allen, Thos 160 

Ames or Crinoidal Limestone 

241-247 

Distribution of Species, 242-244 
Elevations, Wirt County... 246 

Fossils 242-244 

Fossils of Area 245-246 

Amma P. O. Sect 92 

Analyses: 

Bakerstown (Barton) Coal 

251, 253, 254, 495 

Brush Creek Coal 262, 495 

Brush Creek Limestone... 259 
Lower Uniontown Coal, 205, 495 
Pittsburg Coal, 215, 216, 217, 
219, 220, 222, 223, 480, 481, 495 

Soils 

..526, 529, 531, 534, 537, 540 

Uniontown Coal 

198, 200, 201, 495 

Washington Coal.. 158, 161, 

162, 472, 473, 474, 475^ 476, 495 
Washington Fire Clay Shale 163 

Anderson, Eliza No. 1 334, 410 

Anderson, Sarah No. 1 128 



Page. 
Anticlines, Description of, . . 

265, 519 

Arches Fork 271 

Burning Springs 269 

Chestnut Ridge 273 

Flat Fork 273 

Wick 270 

Appendix, Levels Above Tide 

543-554 

Arbuckle, P. M 464 

Arches Fork anticline 271 

Area by Districts of: 

Calhoun County 24 

Roane County 9 

Wirt County 4 

Areas of Different Soils 522 

Armstead, T. J. No. 1 332, 380 

Arnoldsburg, Acct. of 27, 510 

Arnoldsburg Sandstone.. .202, 505 

Arnoldsburg Sects 117, 187 

Arnoldsburg quadrangle, lev- 
els 549-550 

Ashleycamp Sect 216 

Asylum No. 1 69, 328 

Average Size of Farms in 

Area 518 

Ayers P. O. Sect 106 

B 

Bailey, Lloyd No. 1 330, 360 

Bakerstown Coal: 

Analyses 252, 253, 254 

Description of 251 

Sections 

251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256 

Quantity 482, 483 

Barnes Run Sect 64 

Barnhart, W. H 91 



556 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Barnsdale & Marshall. .. .444, 445 

Barnsdale, T. N 346 

Bartlett, C. E. No. 1 328 

"Bear Fork Mine"... 222, 495, 496 

Beckner, J. P. No. 3 296, 305 

Bee, G. W. No. 1 422, 451 

Bee, Mary No. 1 422, 452 

Bee, Mary No. 2 422, 453 

Beech P. O. Sect 229 

Beede, J. W 245 

Bell, Jas. No. 1 296, 314 

Bell, J. W 303, 304, 313 

Bennett, Ernest No. 1 424 

Bennett, H. M. No. 1 328, 337 

Bennett Heirs No. 2 422, 439 

Bennett, Lewis No. 1 424, 461 

Bennett, Lewis No. 2 420, 437 

Bennett, Louis, mine 222 

Bennett, Louis No. 1 424, 457 

Bennett, N. M. No. 1 424, 459 

Bennett, Robert 459 

Benwood Sect 214 

Berea Grit Sand 291 

Betts, Luverina E. No. 1 420 

Bickle Bros 319 

Big Bend P. O., Acct. of 27 

Big Bend P. O. Sect 97 

Big Injun Sand. 291 

Big Medicine No. 1 288 

Big Rowles Run Sect 199 

Big Sandy Creek 40 

Big Springs P. O. Sect 107 

Bird, L. M. No. 1 332, 381 

Bird, W. H. No. 2 332 

Birmingham Shale 239 

Fossils 242-244 

Blair, A. H 2 

Blosser, Isaac No. 1 328 

Boggs, M. M. No. 1 332, 405 

Borland (Wood Co.) Sect 259 

Bothman, Saml. No. 1 422, 443 

Bownocker, J. A 250 

Bowyer, O. N. No. 1 330 

Boyd P. O. Sect 75 

Boyle, Lydia No. 1 298, 324 

Bright P. O. Sects 90, 216 



Page. 

Brooke Clay Loam 524, 526 

Analysis of 526 

Area of 522 

Brooksville, Acct. of . . . '* 27 

Brooksville Sect 97 

Brown-Goshorn No. 1 330, 388 

Brush Creek Coal : 

Analysis 262 , 

Description of 261 

Sections 262 

Quantity 483 

Brush Creek Limestone : 

Analysis 259 

Description of 258 

Fossils 142-244 

Sections 260-261 

Buck, Geo. Mine 162, 495, 496 

Buck, Ellsworth 301 

Buck, Ellsworth No. 1 296, 301 

Buffalo Sandstone 256 

Building Stone 502-506 

Bumgardner, C. H. Nos. 1 & 2 298 

Bumgardner, David No. 1 298, 323 
Bumgardner, J. H. Nos. 1 & 5 

298, 324 

Burning Springs, Acct. of . . . . 7 

Burning Springs anticline, 269, 303 

Burning Springs, Dist., area. . 4 
Burning Springs Dist., Wells 

306-318 

Burning Springs, Fossils.... 245 

Burning Springs Sand 286 

Burning Springs Sect 60 

Burns, C. H 545 

Burton Sandstone 145 

Burton (Wetzel Co.) Sect 127 

Butcher, M. L 197 

C 

Cabot, G. L. No. 1 420, 435 

Cabot, Godfrey L 9, 27, 434 

Cain, David No. 1 296 

Caldwell, A. B. No. 1 330, 375 

Caldwell Oil Co. No. 1 298, 321 

Caldwell Oil Co. No. 2. . . .298, 320 



INDEX. 



557 



Page. 

Caldwell, Win. No. 1 334 

Cale, Wm 368 

Calhoun County: 

Area by districts 24 

Average size of farms, &c. 518 

Description of 24 

Crops, acreage & yield.... 514 

Elevations 24, 543-554 

Magnetic declination 24 

Population 24, 509 

Rainfall 24 

Sections, Dunkard Series. . 

140-141 

Sections, General 97-123 

Sections, Monon. Series, 184-190 

Temperature 24 

Valuation 26 

Well Records 417-466 

Well Records Summarized 

420-425 

California Sect.. 228 

Callow, W. V. No. 1 328, 337 

Calloy, A. C. Mine.. 158, 495, 496 

Calorific value of coals 468 

Calroane Oil & Gas Co 464 

Camden-Summers No. 1 424 

Camden, W. L. No. 1 

113, 424, 458 

Camden, W. L. No. 2 420 

Camden, W. L. Nos. 1 420 

Campbell, Allen No. 1 422 

Campbell, J. P 8 

Carbon Black Factories 9, 27 

Carboniferous Series 123 

Casey, S. L. No. 1 332, 406 

Cassville Plant Shale 170, 171 

Casto, Clayton No. 1..55, 298, 325 

Centennial No. 6 (Ohio) 282 

Center Dist, Area 24 

Center Dist, Wells 

418-19, 426-438 

Chambers, Geo. No. 1 330 

Chambers, L. D. No. 1 80, 330 

Chambers, L. D. No. 2, coal 

from 218, 219, 495, 496 

Chapman, Bascom No. 1 . . 330, 386 



Page. 

Charlton, J. D 164 

Chenoweth, D. O. No. 1 

119, 424, 466 

Cherry P. O. Sect 137 

Chestnut Ridge anticline .... 273 
Cheuvront, Monroe mine, 159, 472 

Chidester, E. C. No. 2 422 

"Chimney" Rocks 16T 

Chloe P. O. Sect 247 

Cicerone Sects 76, 204 

Cisko P. O. Sect 260 

Clarkson, Mary B. No. 1. .328, 358 

Clauston, Jos. No. 1 296 

C4ay Dist., area 4 

Clay Dist, wells 302-306 

Clays and Clay Industry. .498-499 

Climate 511-513 

Clover Run Oil Pool 369 

Clover Run Sect 78 

Clover, acreage and yield .... 514 

Coal, Fuel Ratio of 469 

Coal, Resources of Area.... 

' 468-497, 510 

Coal, Percentage Recovered . . 494 
Coals of: 

Allegheny Series 483-489 

Conemaugh Series 482-483 

Dunkard Series 471-477 

Monongahela Series 477-482 

Pottsville Series 489-493 

Coals, calorific value of.... 468 
Coals, Relative Position of. . 470 

Conemaugh Series 224-264 

Allegheny Co., Pa 226 

Coals of 482-'i83 

Formations of 231-264 

Sands outcropping 502 

Thickness of, table 227 

Conley, I. F. No. 2 334, 411 

Conley, S. No. 1 351 

Connally, Delia No. 1 422, 451 

Connellsville Sandstone. .234, 235 

Conrad, Jas. No. 2 .?98, 323 

Cooper, Samuel No. 1 422, 444 

Cooper, Samuel No. 2 422, 445 

Cooper, Samuel No. 4 422 



558 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Copeland, J. N. No, 5 296 

Corder, Edward.. 3, 4, 10, 11, 23 
Core test wells: 

Evans, J. W 50, 298 

Fairmont Coal Co 173, 175 

Gilbert, Francis 52, 298 

Parish, W. S 175 

Corn, acreage and yield 514 

Cornell, John No. 1 420, 430 

Cotton, Sect 89 

Cottontree Run Sect 87 

County Farm No. 1 298 

Courtney & McDermott 430 

Cow Run (O.) Sect 2»2 

Cox, J. M. No. 1 330, 370 

Crawford, J. A 310, 312 

Creston, Acct. of 8 

Creston, Frosts at 513 

Creston, Precipitation 512 

Creston Red Shale 154 

Creston Sections, 61, 178, 179, 196 

Creston, Temperature 512 

Criner, Prica A. No. 1 332, 376 

Crinoidal (Ames) Limestone 

241-247 

Crinoidal (Harlem) coal. .247-249 

Criswell, C. W. 456 

Cromwell, John No. 1 332, 405 

Crop Rotation ;jlG 

Crops, acreage and yield.... 514 

Crotty, J. J 64 

Cultivated Grasses 514 

Cummings, D. T. No. 4.. 332, 401 
Cunningham, P. G. No. 1, 332, 398 

Cunningham, P. G. No. 1 334 

Cunningham, R. A. No. 2, 296, 304 

Cunningham, R. A. No. 6 296 

"Curious" Rock (Up. Mariet- 
ta) 153 

Curry, Rebecca No. 2 422, 449 

Curry, Rebecca No. 5 422, 448 

Curry, Rebecca No. 8 422, 449 

Curry, Rebecca No. 16. . .422, 450 

Curry, S. N. No. 1 334, 413 

Curtis Dist., area 9 

Curtis Dist., wells 359-365 



Page. 



Dalton, Jos. No. 1 82, 330 

Darst, J. S 6, 11, 26 

Davidson, J. F 314 

Davis, C. E. No. 1 298, 322 

Dawson, E. S 545 

Dawson, W. M. No. 1 298 

Deaver Fork, Fossils 245 

Deaver Fork Sect 57 

Deems, Isaac G. Hrs. No. 1 . . 

296, 306 

Dekalb Sandy Loam 531-532 

Area of 522 

Dekalb Silt Loam 529-531 

Analysis of 531 

Area of *. 522 

Denham & Westfall No. 1, 330, 370 

Depue, F. M. No. 1 420, 432 

Depue, Mark Nos. 2 and 3 . . . 328 

Depue No. 1 328, 355 

Desert Knob, elevation 508 

Detailed Geologic Structure. . 

268-274 

"Devil's Tea Table" Rock 165 

Devo, A. C. No. 1 296, 302 

Devo, A. C. wells 296 

Devonian, description of.... 45 

Devore, Wm. No. 1 298, 321 

Dix, Pearson No. 1 328 

Dodrill P. O. Sect 189 

Dog Run Mine 216 

Donoho, Matilda No. 2 296 

Donohue, Geo. No. 1 332, 401 

Dougherty, J. A. No. 2 . . 332, 394 

Douglas, A. W. Mine 221 

Douglas P. O. Sect 221 

Drainage Basins 33-41, 508-509 

Drake, Davidson No. 1 91, 330 

Drake, Lindsay No. 1 330 

Drake, W. P. No. 1 330 

Dunkard Coal 147 

Dunkard Creek (Pa.) Sect 126 

Dunkard Formations 142-170 

Dunkard Sandstone 263 

Dunkard Sands 285 



INDEX. 



559 



Page. 

Dunkard Series: 124-170 

Calhoun County 140-141 

Coals of 471-477 

Roane County 138-140 

Sandstones outcropping 502 

Wirt County 132-138 

Dye, Ben, Mine 161, 495, 496 

E 

Early Settlers 509 

Effect of geologic structure in 

oil and gas distribution.... 466 
Elevations: 

Ames Limestone 246 

Calhoun County 24, 543-554 

Roane County 10, 543-554 

Wirt County 4, 543-554 

Elizabeth, Acct. of 6, 510 

Elizabeth Dist., area 4 

Elizabeth Dist, wells 323-324 

Elizabeth Quadrangle, levels 

546-547 

Elizabeth Sect 134 

Elk Lick Coal 238 

Elk Lick Limestone 238 

Elkins & McDermott 371 

Elliott, Garrett, mine 

475, 495, 496 

Ellis, Wesley K. mine 

254, 495, 497 

Ellmore, Robt. C. No. 3.. 332, 399 
Ellmore-Snodgrass No. 1. .330, 374 

Elm Grove Limestone 170 

Epling, L N. No. 1 328, 347 

Euclid P. O. Sect 190 

Evans, J. W., core test 50, 298 

Evelyn P. O. Sect 137 



Fairmont Coal Co. core tests 

173, 175 

Fall of Streams in Area 32 

Farmington Sect 156 

Farm Lands, value of 518 



Page. 

Farms, average size of 518 

Farrell, Thos. K. No. 8.. 422, 439 

Ferrell, B. H. No. 1 422 

Ferrell, B. P. No. 3 99, 422 

Ferrell, S. L. No. 1 420, 442 

Ferrell, S. R. No. 1 330, 371 

First Cow Run Sand 281 

First Oil Well in W. Va 278 

Fish Creek Coal 146 

Fish Creek Sandstone 146 

Fitzhugh Hrs. No. 1 328, 336 

Flat Fork anticline 273 

Fleshman, Austin No. 1..332, 395 

Fleshman, H. H. No. 2 332, 393 

Flint Run, Fossils 245 

Flint Run Sects 228, 260 

Fluharty, L. G. No. 1 420, 429 

Fluharty, L, G. Nos. 2 & 4 . . 

420, 428 

Foltz, S. F. Nos. 1 & 8 328, 350 

Fore, E. A. No. 2 422, 448 

Fore, Frank No. 2 422 

Fossils, Ames Limestone. .245-246 

Foster, Thos. No. 1 296, 300 

Fought, O. S.